Energy unit

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to energy and can be used to generate electricity in thermal power plants and as power units on vehicles. Contains the combustion chamber, is separated into liquid and gas-vapor cavity, where different types of fuels - solid layer, powdered, liquid or gas is burned under pressure from the air compressor above the mirror liquid filling the chamber up to the level of gas-vapor cavity. The combustion products are cleaned from dust and lower its temperature to the desired turbine blades values in the combustion chamber and fed to the turbine, which rotates the compressor and generator. After the turbine the gases fed into the regenerator to the combustion chamber than the return in the cycle warmth after the turbine, the gases then washed the make-up liquid and throw out the chimney. Ash is removed from the liquid to the combustion chamber. The invention allows to create a simple power unit with one thermodynamic cycle for thermal power plants and to increase efficiency. 10 C.p. f-crystals, 8 ill.

The invention relates to the field of energy and can be used to generate electroe the local elementary energy gas turbine /gas turbine/, containing a compressor, a combustor, a turbine and generator. /Isserlin A. C. "Rational use of gas in power plants", Leningrad: Nedra, 1990, page 251/.

The main disadvantage of the simplest GTU is its low efficiency due to more than 70% of heat loss cycle with the leaving gases.

Known to date, the most common combined-cycle power plant with heat recovery boiler /PHOKU/ where exhaust gases of the gas turbine unit /GTA/ disposed in the HRSG than raise the efficiency of the installation. Contains GTA, HRSG, steam turbine, generator. /Bezlepkin C. P. "combined cycle and steam turbine power plants", SPb.: Publishing house of St. Petersburg state technical University, 1997, pp. 32-33/.

The disadvantage of this setup is its low efficiency due to the availability of equipment for two cycles. The combustion chamber GTA does not allow the burning of various fuels, such as pulverized.

Closest to the present invention is combined-cycle power plant with high-pressure steam generator /PGOU/ containing the turbine, generator, high pressure steam fluidized bed located in the gas path, the GTA and combining the functions of the combustion chamber GTA and paiser. /Bezlepkin C. P. "combined cycle and steam turbine power plants". SPb.: Publishing house of St. Petersburg state technical University, 1997, pp. 107-108/.

The disadvantage of the nearest analogue is its low economic characteristics due to the presence of large equipment needed to implement the two combined thermodynamic cycles.

The technical problem solved by the invention is to create a simple power unit with one thermodynamic cycle for power plants.

The problem is solved in that the high-pressure combustor energy unit containing the compressor, turbine, generator, feeder and fuel economizer, made of sheet metal, for example steel, welded or made of construction or any other known materials, such as reinforced steel concrete, while its radiation part is protected by a refractory material such as fireclay, separated into liquid and gas-vapor cavity, where different kinds of fuel, such as solid fluidized bed, powdered, liquid or gaseous, is burned under pressure of air compressor, when this air is supplied colourways exhaust gases for the turbine, above the mirror liquid or with a torch directed in parallel and/or tangentially to the mirror liquid. Liquid, such as a simple raw natural water, but with chemical additives, for example, to reduce scale formation in the combustion chamber is filled to the level of gas-vapor cavity or to the level of the lower edges of the lower guide walls of the feed gas through the economizer, which is installed on the outlet of exhaust gases from the regenerator.

In the liquid cavity combustion chamber is supplied with gas regenerator made of tubular metal, such as steel, which returns in cycle heat exhaust after the turbine gases, and ash handling system, made in the bottom part thereof, and removing the ash it from the liquid.

In combined-cycle oral boats combustion is supplied by the cleaning device from realized during many years of the particles and lowering the temperature generated by the working fluid to acceptable for turbine blades values, which is performed in the form of a series of chambers in series along the gas and in the required quantity, for example at least three cameras, educated installed across the entire width of the combustion chamber above the upper and below the lower guide plate, in which a group of speed, pressure and contact with the cleaning liquid and lowering the temperature required number of times. However, in cases, for example when burning coal dust or, on the contrary, natural gas, combustion chamber can be installed at the exit gases by cyclone or installed before exiting gases lattice capreolata. In various particular cases of the execution of the combustion chamber guides partitions can be installed in various ways, for example the upper guide walls with an angle to the fluid under 60oor they can be run on the hinges and regulating the inclination of the device, and/or gas cavity is performed with only the upper or only the lower guide walls and/or partitions are executed across the entire width of the combustion chamber and form a bypass channel, in cross section having the form of pipe, and/or vapor cavity combustion chamber is performed without the guiding walls, thus lowering the temperature of combustion products, such as natural gas, comes from mixing with the vapors of the liquid. Utilization of the heat of exhaust gases is made in the form of a washer gases, where against the flow of spray under the Lee of heat of flue gases is carried out in a water heater for production and economic needs.

The essence of the invention shown in the drawing, where:

in Fig. 1 shows the scheme of the energy unit,

in Fig. 2 - 8 given scheme private combined-cycle execution cavity of the combustion chamber.

An example of implementation of the proposed solution.

The power unit contains the ash handling system 1 for removal of ash from the liquid bottom part of the combustion chamber 2, in its liquid cavity 3 is made regenerator 4. In the vapor cavity 5 of the fuel injection device 6 delivers various types of fuel, such as pulverized and heated gases leaving after the turbine /not shown/ air 7.

The combustion products are cleansed, and the lower their temperature and mixed with vapors of the liquid in the chambers 8 formed by the upper 9 and lower 10 the guide walls, the implementation of which may vary. There is a compressor 11, a turbine 12, the generator 13. Make-up liquid is heated in the economizer 14, by utilizing the heat of exhaust gases. There are make-up pump 15, the heat exchanger 16 in which is disposed a heat flue gas washing liquid 17, the exhaust pipe 18, a regulating device on make-up and wash liquid - fresh 19 and back 20, the upper guides peakline, vapor cavity only from the upper guide walls 23, vapor cavity only from the upper guide walls 24, the guide walls 25, in cross section has the form of a pipe, steam cavity 26, is made without the guiding walls, keplerlaan 27, cyclone 28.

The power unit operates as follows,

Fuel serves on the steam cavity 5 /Fig. 1 - 8/ combustion chamber 2 of the fuel injection device 6 and burn under the pressure of the air 7 compressor 11 above the mirror fluid, such as a hard layer and with a torch, directed parallel to the liquid, and/or with a torch, directed tangentially to the mirror liquid, powdered, liquid or gaseous fuel. The combustion products in the gas-vapor cavity 5 is cleaned from dust particles and cooled to a temperature acceptable to the turbine blades 12, due to mixing with the vapors of the liquid and due to repeated contact with liquid when changing direction, speed, pressure chambers formed in various ways, set top 9, bottom 10 of the guide walls, and in the cyclone 28 and capreolata 27. Then the gas-vapor mixture is fed to the turbine 12, which rotates the generator 13 and compressi compressor 11 /not shown/ and then enters the regenerator 4, the combustion chamber 2, where returns in the cycle remaining after the turbine 12 warmth. From regenerator 4, the gas-vapor mixture is fed to the economizer 14 and warm nourishing fluid supplied by a pump 15 into the combustion chamber 2. Then the exhaust gases are in heat exchanger 13 and washed the make-up fluid - circulating 20, fresh 19. Then flushed from the heat, environmentally friendly gases are dropped through a pipe 18. For heating water for industrial and domestic needs of the heat exchanger 16 is supplied with gas heat exchanger /not shown/. Ash from the combustion chamber 2 is removed from the bottom liquid of its parts through the ash handling system 1, which eliminates the entrainment of heat burned fuel with a removable ash.

The proposed unit is simple, inexpensive in manufacture and in operation. Has an efficiency thermal efficiency: energy mode up to 70% in heating mode up to 98%.

1. Energy unit containing the compressor, high-pressure combustion chamber, the fuel injection device, system, ash handling, turbine, generator and economizer, characterized in that it contains of heat of the exhaust gases, and high-pressure combustion chamber is made is divided into gas-vapor and liquid rum over the mirror liquid or with a torch, directed in parallel and/or tangentially to the mirror liquid filling the chamber up to the level of gas-vapor cavity, steam cavity is equipped with a cleaning device and lowering the temperature generated by the working fluid to the acceptable values for turbine, which is made in the form of a series of cameras educated installed across the entire width of the high-pressure combustion chamber above the upper and below the lower guide plate, in which the gas-vapor mixture changes its direction, speed, pressure and contact with the liquid necessary for cleaning and temperature decrease the number of times the liquid cavity is equipped with a regenerator, ash handling system is located in the bottom part of the liquid cavity, and of heat of exhaust gases is made in the form of product gas mixture a nutrient fluid that enters the fluid cavity through the economizer.

2. Assembly under item 1, characterized in that the upper guide walls fixed with an inclination at 60oto mirror the fluid (Fig.2).

3. Unit PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the upper guide walls mounted on hinges and is made with regulating the inclination of the device (Fig.3).

5. Unit PP.1 to 4, characterized in that the vapor cavity is made only with the upper guide walls (Fig.5).

6. Unit PP.1 to 5, characterized in that the guides partitions are made so that the entire width of the combustion chamber to form a bypass channel, in cross section having the form of pipe (Fig.6).

7. Unit PP. 1 - 6, characterized in that the vapor cavity is not equipped with cameras, educated guides septa (Fig.7).

8. Unit PP.1 to 7, characterized in that the output vapor-gas mixture from the combustion chamber is installed cyclone cleaning (Fig.8).

9. Unit PP.1 to 8, characterized in that before the output vapor-gas mixture from the combustion chamber is installed capreolata (Fig.7).

10. Assembly under item 1, characterized in that it is equipped with a heater, installed after the turbine.

11. Assembly under item 1, characterized in that the waste heat of flue gas is made in the form of gas-heat exchanger.

 

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FIELD: power engineering; steam turbines.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at mounting of heavy-weight condensers of steam turbines connected with several exhaust ports of steam turbine low-pressure cylinders. Invention can be used also at servicing and subsequent adjusting of steam turbines especially, high-power ones. Invention improves reliability and increases economy of turbine in operation owing to decreasing excess loads on exhaust parts of low-pressure cylinders and support foundation plates of exhaust parts from side of condenser, decreasing friction forces along support surfaces of low-pressure cylinders, deformation of supports, formation of cracks and increasing vibration stability of turboset at different loads and modes of operation. According to proposed method of mounting of steam turbine condenser connected with several exhaust ports of low-pressure cylinders including assembling, preliminary truing, welding of connecting branch pipes and fixing in space by means of calibrated setting strips under springs. After operation of turboset under load, position of condenser in space is corrected to reduce load on support belt of low-pressure cylinders by disconnecting exhaust branch pipes of turbine and condenser, filling condenser with water of designed mass, placing inserts between upper and lower branch pipes of designed mass, placing inserts between upper and lower branch pipes and subsequent connection of branch pipes of turbine and condenser. Disconnected condenser is filled with water whose mass corresponds to designed load ΔG taken from low-pressure cylinder which is determined by value of compression Δh of spring unit under each support of condenser, basing on its rigidity characteristic K. ΔG removed from low-pressure cylinder is =ΣΔh x K. Estimation of loads on support belt of low-pressure cylinders in process of complex tests is carried out by displacement pickups checking compression of spring under all supports of condenser, and grade pickups on built-in supports of low-pressure cylinders operating at continuous monitoring by means of processor-based devices.

EFFECT: improved reliability end economy of turbine.

2 cl, 2 dwg

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