A method of creating ice crossing
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to letterlike and can be used when creating the ice terminal for cargo transportation. Metal pipes are placed at an angle to the horizon on the bottom of the reservoir in the places of entry and exit so that after freezing the ice cover their lower part was below the ice, and the upper part above the ice. The lower end of the pipe previously brewed. Cold air entering the inside of the pipes, causing them icing and freezing of the ice cover with the bottom of the reservoir. The invention is directed to increasing the strength of exit and entry of the ice crossing. 1 Il. The invention relates to letterlike and can be used when creating the ice terminal for cargo transportation.Known technical solution (1. K. E. Ivanov, I. S. Peschansky. The capacity of the ice cover and the device roads on ice. HP:GLAVSEVMORPUT Proceedings of YEARS so 23, 1949. - 182 C.), in which Congress and the entrance of the ice crossing is proposed to be done by numerazione the shores of the ice rubble in the form of a pier ( , page 150) to ensure adequate strength of these weakest and most critical elements of the terminal, where big is of an ice pier and its low strength, because ice crushed under the ice cover is washed with water whose temperature is above 0oC, which inevitably causes its little and gradual destruction.The task of the invention is to increase the strength of the exit and entrance of the ice crossing.Technical result achieved when the task is to reduce deflection of the ice cover in places of transitions from the shore on the ice (entry) and with ice on the shore (exit).The essential features characterizing the invention.Restrictive signs: strengthening the exit and entrance of the ice crossing is carried out by numerazione under ice cover additional layer of ice.Distinguishing characteristics: the strengthening of exit and entry terminal carry out metal pipes that are up to ice stack at an angle to the horizon on the bottom of the reservoir in the places of entry and exit so that after freezing the ice cover their lower part was below the ice, and the upper part above the ice, with the lower end of the pipe previously brewed.It is known (2. Bogdanov, C. B., Tronin C. A., Sandakov Y. A. operating Experience icebreaker-lithocolletinae Prista is the temperature on metal structures, in contact with water, is namerzanie ice, i.e. ice. Using this phenomenon, it is possible to more firmly attach the ice cover on the exit and the entrance of the ice crossing to the bottom of the reservoir through numerazione under ice cover in these places an additional layer of ice.The method is as follows.In places of entry and exit offer ice crossings up to ice on the bottom of the reservoir is placed at an angle to the horizon of the metal pipe so that after freezing the ice cover their lower part was below the ice, and the upper part above the ice. Thus the bottom part of the pipe previously brewed. Wall thickness and pipe diameter is chosen such that they do not surfaced under the action of arhimedova of buoyancy forces. Cold t<0C atmospheric air will form ice cover and at the same time, penetrating into the pipe through the upper part, namorazhivat on the outer surface of the pipe a layer of ice and proportinate the soil under the pipe. Due to the angle of the pipe contact area of the pipe with ice cover and soil increases compared to their vertical position, which increases the bonding strength of the ice cover from the shore is marijuania under ice cover additional layer of ice thickness and after installation on the ice platform entry and exit ice crossing is ready for operation. In the spring, after the termination of the operation of the terminal tube is removed.The invention is illustrated graphically in the drawing, which shows a diagram of its implementation.In places of entry and exit offer ice crossings up to ice on the bottom of the reservoir 1 is placed at an angle alpha of the pipe 2 with pre-welded bottom ends so that after freezing the ice cover 3 their lower part was below the ice, and the upper part above the ice. Cold air will form ice cover 3 and at the same time, penetrating into the pipe 2 through the upper part, namorazhivat on the outer surface of the pipe 2, the ice layer 4 and proportinate primer 5 under the pipes, i.e., to cause freezing of the ice cover 3 with the bottom of the reservoir 1. After a time sufficient to freeze the ice cover of required thickness h, numerazione under ice cover additional ice layer 4 and after installation on the ice platform entrance 6 and exit 7 ice crossing is ready for operation. A method of creating ice crossing by hardening of exit and entry terminal by numerazione under ice cover additional layer of ice, characterized in that the additional text is the horizon on the bottom of the reservoir in the places of entry and exit so after freezing the ice cover their lower part was below the ice, and the upper part above the ice, with the lower end of the pipe previously brewed.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in designing ramp and propulsion and steering gear and their hydraulic systems. Novelty in proposed water craft is that it is furnished with streamlined carrying frame for fastening devices of propulsion and steering complex installed in hull aft part and formed by two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams hinge secured by inner ends of aft sheet of hull in zone located under loading side coupled by flexible cross beams in each pair and support bar between pairs. Hydraulic heads of propulsors are hinge-mounted on outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams, being secured on said beams to form additional cross tie between beams. Carrying frame is furnished with power hydraulic cylinders connected with hydraulic system and installed to control position of heads and loading side by turning carrying frame in aft sheet hinge joints. Body of each is provided with upper roller support, being rolling support for each hinged loading side at its opening, and lower platform being rigid base interacting with ground at resting of hinged loading side on head body in loading position of loading side. Novelty in hydraulic system of watercraft is that it is furnished, in additional to propulsor control hydraulic cylinders, with hydraulic cylinders for setting ramps, changing thrust vector, fixing loading side and locking carrying frame. Each hydraulic cylinder, including propulsor position control hydraulic cylinders, are supplied through parallel hydraulic lines connected with main line, with electric control in each line. Invention contains description of design peculiarities of each line providing required modes of operation of watercraft.
EFFECT: improved performance of watercraft and creating of hydraulic system providing required mode of operation of watercraft.
9 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to construct temporary roads across lakes and other water obstacles.
SUBSTANCE: ice bridge includes cooling plant, pipelines connected to cooling plant. Pipelines are submersed in water and suspended by wire ropes. Cooling plant has reducers for pressure reduction, 10 MPa gaseous nitrogen cylinders and liquid nitrogen cylinders adapted to fill pipelines with liquid and gaseous nitrogen mixture. The pipelines include several coiled sections or formed as straight and finned pipes. The pipelines are arranged in several rows and extend in vertical or horizontal directions. The pipelines are submersed for 0.1-5 m depth and are connected by wire ropes to balloons floating at water surface or to finned pipes driven in ground of river bottom and connected one to another by diaphragms. The cooling plant provides water freezing within 3-5 km range and obtains ice having thickness of 3 m or more.
EFFECT: increased water freezing rate.