The way to increase the efficiency combined heating and refrigeration installations

 

(57) Abstract:

The method of increasing thermal efficiency of the combined binary installations, consisting of two gas turbines or gas turbines and steam turbines, interconnected heat exchanger, is that the compression and expansion of the working fluid in gas turbines perform step with the corresponding cooling during compression and additionally heated during expansion. In the plant consisting of two gas turbine units, the expansion in the turbine of the second installation is carried out until the pressure below atmospheric, and the heat exchange between the units is carried out at atmospheric or lower pressure. In the installation, consisting of gas turbines and steam turbines, cooling the working fluid in the gas turbine installation is carried out in three stages. First step: cooling occurs to the isobars with additional compression to a pressure below atmospheric to lower superheat temperature of the steam turbine installation with an appropriate heat transfer to superheated steam steam turbine. Second stage: the cooling process step according to the isobars to the temperature of condensation of steam. The third e is podogrevom water in the steam turbine installation. The way to increase the efficiency of combined units in refrigeration is that the methods of increasing thermal efficiency of the combined units is carried out in the reverse direction. The implementation of the invention allows to increase the efficiency of the systems. 4 C. and 7 C.p. f-crystals, 13 ill.

The invention relates to the field of energy.

Known methods of increasing the efficiency of single-circuit gas turbine units (GTU) open cycle (prototype # 1) by introducing heat recovery of exhaust gases through the introduction of speed compression and expansion of gases at intermediate their cooling and heating, and by using exhaust heat from one gas turbine for heating air another GTU [1, 26].

Known semi-closed gas turbine plants with cooling of the working fluid to the compressor closed GTP associated with the gas turbine open cycle as charging unit without effective power [3]. Known gas turbine closed cycle (prototype # 2) with graduated compression and expansion of the gas and regeneration, as well as combined gas turbine and vocational schools of various schemes, in which the PTU (prototype # 3) always operate in the closed loop [1, 4, 5].

A disadvantage of the known schemes vysekalnoe the level of pressure at the end of compression, reaching hundreds and thousands of atmospheres.

The invention aims to remedy these disadvantages while increasing efficiency.

The problem is solved due to the fact that in the proposed way to increase the efficiency combined heating and refrigeration units to increase their efficiency and feasibility of thermodynamic cycle of the installation is proposed to be divided into two (or three) of the cycle with the greatest approximation to the ideal Carnot cycle, and instead of a single installation to consider two (or three) installation combined installation of separated heat exchanger (or heat exchanger) apparatus (apparatuses).

The separation of thermodynamic cycle is either one Isobaric or two isobare and located between isotherm, remanufactured manual compression or expansion to increase the specific work cycle at the same temperature.

Considered:

1. The way to increase the efficiency of the combined power plant consisting of two gas turbines open cycle (prototype # 1), interconnected heat exchanger with a possible unit 12 within it, including the ennice from the first setting to the second, characterized in that the compression and expansion of the working fluid in both the plants is carried out stepwise with the corresponding cooling during compression and additionally heated during expansion, and the expansion in the turbine of the second installation is carried out at a pressure below atmospheric, and the heat exchange between the units is at atmospheric and lower pressures, with manual compression in the second installation is carried out until the pressure close to the pressure at the beginning of compression in the first installation, the cooling of the working fluid in the second installation is carried out in the cooler with the discharge of heat into the atmosphere.

2. The way to increase the efficiency of the combined power plant consisting of a gas turbine open cycle (prototype # 1) and steam turbine (prototype # 3), interconnected heat exchanger with additional units inside it, including compression, cooling, expansion and heating of the working fluid in the gas turbine, water heating, steam generation and steam superheat in PTU, characterized in that the compression and expansion of the working fluid in the gas turbine I perform step with the corresponding cooling during compression and additional heat during expansion, the cooling of the working fluid in the gas turbine I realize the Oia below atmospheric in additional low-pressure compressor (not shown) to lower the temperature of the superheat steam turbine corresponding heat transfer to superheated steam PTU, second stage: the cooling of the working fluid STU I also stepped in the form of cooling according to the isobars to the temperature of condensation of steam with additional compression in the low-pressure compressor (not shown), the third stage: the cooling of the working fluid STU I with graduated compression in additional low-pressure compressor (not shown) to a temperature and pressure cycle start with the appropriate heating water in vocational schools, the cooling of the working fluid in vocational schools is carried out in the capacitor with discharge heat into the atmosphere.

3. The way to increase the efficiency of the combined power plant, consisting of GTU 1 open cycle (prototype # 1) and GTU II closed loop (prototype # 2) connected to a heat exchanger, including compression, heating and expansion of the working fluid in each of the gas turbines and heat transfer of the exhaust gases from the STU I to GTU II in the heat exchanger, characterized in that the GTU II performed in a closed cycle, the compression and expansion of the gas in both installations carried out stepwise with the corresponding cooling during compression and additionally heated during expansion, moreover, the transfer of heat from the exhaust gases of the gas turbine plant I to GTU II occurs at atmospheric pressure and below on the hot side, and so is AI (PtoPATM).

4. The way to increase the efficiency of the combined power plant, consisting of STU I closed cycle (prototype # 2) and PTU (prototype # 3), interconnected heat exchanger, including compression, heating and expansion of the working fluid STU I, water heating, steam generation and steam superheat in PTU, characterized in that the STU I performed in a closed cycle, the compression and expansion of the working fluid in the gas turbine I perform step with the corresponding cooling when compressed and heated during expansion and cooling of the gas in the gas turbine I is carried out in three stages:

first stage: the cooling process step according to the isobars with additional compression to a pressure below the initial pressure at the inlet of the compressor 1 in additional low-pressure compressor (not shown) to lower the temperature of the superheat steam turbine corresponding heat transfer to superheated steam PTU;

second stage: the cooling of the working fluid STU I also stepped in the form of cooling according to the isobars to the temperature of condensation of steam with additional compression in the low-pressure compressor (not shown);

the third stage: the cooling of the working fluid STU I with graduated compression DOPOLNITEL heated water in vocational schools, cooling the working fluid in the PTU is carried out in the capacitor with discharge heat into the atmosphere.

5. The way to increase the efficiency of combined units in refrigeration, characterized in that the combined units at PP 1, 2, 3 and 4 processes and cycles are carried out in the opposite direction.

In Fig. 1 to 4 show the schematic of the proposed combined units (Fig. 1 - STU I and STU II open cycles, Fig. 2 - STU I open cycle and PTU II, Fig. 3 - STU I open cycle, gas turbine II closed loop, Fig. 4 - STU I closed cycle and PTU II). In Fig. 5-11 shows the chart (T-s) the above schemes.

I. Installation of Fig. 1 consists of two two-shaft gas turbine plants open cycles I and II. STU I includes a compressor 1, it is possible, but not mandatory, the intermediate cooler 2, a compressor 3, a heater (or combustion chamber) 4, the gas turbine 5, the heater 6, the gas turbine 7, a heater 8, the gas turbine 9, the heater 10, the gas turbine 11, the heat exchanger 12 for transferring exhaust heat from the gas turbine I in GT II, and in the middle part of the heat exchanger 12 can be mounted unit 12', consisting of chillers, heaters, low-pressure compressors and discovere the Phnom gases from the gas turbine I go into the atmosphere at point 4Iafter 12. GTU II includes a throttle 26, the compressor 19, 21, 23 and 25 with promonlogicalis 18, 20, 22 and 24, two gas turbines 15 and 17 with the heaters 14 and 16 (which may or may not be) and heat exchanger 12 with a possible unit 12' for receiving heat from the STU I, the heater 14 controls the temperature of the gases GTU II to the specified level T3II. The gas pressure in the gas turbine II below atmospheric, the pressure Ptoappointed by the density value of the gas after the gas turbine 17, but preferably not lower than 5 to 10 kPa (see the experience of condensing steam turbines). Exhaust gases from the gas turbine II opening into the atmosphere at point 4 II after the compressor 25.

When working GTU I air received from the atmosphere is compressed by the compressor 1 to a pressure P2I,moreover, the compressor 1 is driven turbines 9 and 11, the capacity of which exceeds the drive power of the compressor 1 by the amount of useful power 28, the number of revolutions of the shaft of this unit (1, 9, 11) is fixed (usually nn= 3000 min-1). After the compressor 1 can be installed in the cooler 2 to reduce the work of compression in compressor 3. The compressor 3 is driven by the turbines 5 and 7, the capacity of which is equal to the capacity of the compressor 3 due to selection pressure is 10. After the turbine 11 air (combustion products) enters the heat exchanger 12 with a possible unit 12', which is given to the second heat GTU II in the process from point 4'Ito point 4I. Cut Isobar 4I, 1Icorresponds to exhaust into the atmosphere.

When working GTU II atmospheric air after the throttle 26 enters the compressor 27, in heat exchanger 12 with a possible unit 12', a heater 14, a turbine 15, the heater (if there is one) 16, a turbine 17, a cooler 18 and the group of compressors 19, 21, 23 and 25 with the coolers 20, 22 and 24 from the compressor 25 air (combustion products) emitted into the atmosphere with a temperature T4II. The compressor 19, 21, 23 and 25 are driven turbine 17 when the balance of power, speed their shaft nStbe selected without regard to the load 29, associated with the turbine 15 for a fixed number of revolutions nn(typically, nn= 3000 min-1).

2. Installation of Fig. 2 consists of a two-shaft gas turbine plants I open cycle and schools operating on the Rankine cycle. STU I described above in paragraph 1. PTU II includes a heat exchanger 12 unit 12', the actual steam turbine 30, a capacitor 31, a pump 32. Thermodynamic tie PTU II water after the compressor 31 nutrient pump 32 is fed into the heat exchanger 12, where is vaporized and the vapor with parameters Po, Tois supplied to the steam turbine 30, in which the steam is expanded to a pressure Pto(10 kPa), after 30 steam is supplied to the condenser 31 where it is cooled to obtain a water inlet 32. Cycles of plants according to Fig. 2 shown in Fig. 7 and 8.

3. Installation of Fig. 3 consists of a two-shaft gas turbine plants I open cycle, which is described in paragraph 1, and two-shaft gas turbine plants II closed-cycle circuit which in Fig. 3 differs from the schema of the GTU of the second open loop disconnect loop with the atmosphere through the orifice 26 and the absence of a compressor 25, a flow of compressed air downstream of the compressor 23 and the cooler 24 directly into the compressor 27 and then 12. The air pressure in the circuit GTU II is chosen by the designer, on the lower isobare pressure can be chosen to be equal to atmospheric and above, which greatly reduces with the same air consumption in GTU II the height of the turbine blades 15 and 17, as well as compressors 19, 21, 23 and 27 at the same power turbines II, as the mass flows of air in the STU I and STU II accepted the same, see item 1. Cycles of plants is given in Fig. 9 and 10.

4. Installation of Fig. 4 consists of a two-shaft gas turbine plants I closed cycle and vocational schools II. STU I differs from the STU I, described in paragraph 1 the early designer and equal to the pressure after the turbine 11 (taking into account losses in 12). The vocational schools II described in paragraph 2. It should be emphasized that the transfer of heat between cycles (between Isobaric and isotherm or between isobare with different heat capacities) for the approximation to the ideal Carnot cycle, you should use the principle of "speed" replacement isotherms and isobars with a different heat capacity of the adiabats and isobare that is widely used in technical thermodynamics, which describes when working with 12 unit 12'. The cycle of the gas turbine shown in Fig. 11.

5. When organizing refrigeration cycles using the same processes and cycles, but pass them in the opposite direction, as illustrated in technical thermodynamics.

Bibliography

1. The v.i.manushin E. A., Mihalev C. E., Chernobrovkin A. P., "Theory and design of gas turbine and combined units", M., "engineering", 1977, 447 S.

2. F. W-Schwartz, VS 2814181 A, F 02 C 6/18, 1957.

3. Degtyarev C. L. "the Way of working of gas turbine installation with a semi-closed loop solid fuel, and.with. N 108553 from 02.01.1956.

4. Segleau A. C. "Steam turbine", kN. 2, 6th edition, M.: Energoatomizdat. 1993. - S.

5. Heywood R. "Analysis of cycles in technical thermodynamics", Per. s angl.: - M.: Energy, 1979. - 280 S.

6. Andryushchenko A. I. "Osnovy efficiency of the combined binary installation consisting of two gas turbine units, interconnected heat exchanger, including the contraction and expansion of the working fluid in each setting and heat transfer of the exhaust gases in the heat exchange unit from the first unit to the second, characterized in that the compression and expansion of the working fluid in both facilities carry out step with the corresponding cooling during compression and additionally heated during expansion, and the expansion in the turbine of the second installation can be carried out until the pressure below atmospheric, and the heat exchange between the units is at atmospheric or lower pressure, with manual compression in the second installation is carried out until the pressure close to the pressure at the beginning of compression in the first installation.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that both units operate on an open cycle.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that one of the units operates in a closed loop.

4. The method according to PP.1 to 3, characterized in that the cooling of the working fluid in the second installation is carried out in the cooler with the discharge of heat into the atmosphere.

5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the two plants are operated in a closed loop.

6. The way pesennyh between a heat exchanger, including compression, cooling, expansion of the working fluid in the gas turbine installation, water heating, evaporation and superheat steam and cooling the steam turbine installation, characterized in that the compression and expansion of the working fluid in the gas turbine installation, perform step with the corresponding cooling during compression and additional heating, expansion, cooling the working fluid in the gas turbine installation is carried out in three stages, the first stage cooling occurs to the isobars with additional compression to a pressure below atmospheric to lower superheat temperature of the steam turbine installation with an appropriate heat transfer to superheated steam of a steam turbine unit, the second stage: the cooling of the working fluid of the gas turbine installation is also graded with additional compression in the form of cooling according to the isobars to the temperature of condensation of steam, the third stage: the cooling of the working fluid of the gas turbine installation with graduated compression to the temperature and pressure of the beginning of the cycle with the corresponding heating water in the steam turbine installation.

7. The method according to p. 6, characterized in that the cooling of the working fluid in a steam turbine installation is carried out in the condenser with brocolitia cycle.

9. The method according to p. 6, characterized in that the gas turbine operates in a closed loop.

10. The way to increase the efficiency of combined units in refrigeration, characterized in that the way to increase the efficiency of the combined units under item 1 is carried out in the opposite direction.

11. The way to increase the efficiency of combined units in refrigeration, characterized in that the means for increasing the efficiency of the combined units under item 6 is carried out in the opposite direction.

Priority points:

10.04.2000 on PP.1, 6, 10, and 11.

 

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