Marine underwater surface structure
(57) Abstract:The invention is intended for use in the drilling and operation of wells in the offshore and gas fields in harsh climatic conditions. The structure consists of underwater bottom section and surface of the platform section, provided with a float. The sections are manufactured in the factory, transported separately to install in place. At the time they are connected, and at the time ice is disconnected, and the surface of the platform section is given in a safe place. Bottom section in the form of a support unit made up of a cylinder with an internal cavity which is at atmospheric pressure, the dome and the bottom has an outer casing. The volume between the shell and the cylinder filled with high-pressure water. The structure has a cross-connection elements of the shell with a Central supporting element in the form of radial stretch marks. The pressure is created by the pressure booster made of the piston plunger, hermetically installed in a common cylinder acting automatically from the hydrostatic pressure of sea water and passing the water pressure through hydroplast, sealed membrane and reverse clap the consumables. The invention allows the mobile Assembly and disassembly of component parts of a construction, manufactured in the factory. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill. The invention relates to offshore structures and can be used for drilling and operation of wells in oil and gas fields in the shelf of the Northern seas.Known fixed offshore structure, comprising a platform and a protective block of a closed loop made of hollow tubes, rigid diaphragms with the formation of two-layer cylindrical shell height from bottom waters to the platform, having a waterproof bottom ballast (A. C. 1341336, E 02 B 17/00). To withstand ice is bulky structure must have a huge mass of about 100 tons when necessary ensuring the rigidity of the elements working in compression.A device that provides an increase in maximum diving depth of the deep device by unloading his skin from hydrostatic sea pressure. Device - intensifier consists of a power and a separate pressure piston, transmitting the pressure hydroblaster (A. C. 1309469, B 63 B 3/13, 1978). This pressure is transmitted tolerate weight reduction facilities, mobile Assembly and disassembly of component parts manufactured in the factory.This structure is composed of detachable parts: underwater in the form of a support block with a waterproof bottom and platform float. The bearing block plate, the dome has an inner cylinder and an outer casing volume between which is filled with high pressure water. The pressure is created by the pressure booster, the current automatically from the hydrostatic pressure of the sea water. The platform has a float and the lock chamber. The reference block and the platform until the dangerous ice conditions disconnected.As a reference block, and set in it's production equipment is manufactured in the factory and delivered to the installation site separately with the platform. The platform is manufactured and transported separately. To perform the work they are connected, and at the time of ice separated.In Fig. 1 shows the structure at the installation site in longitudinal section. In Fig. 2 is a cross-section of the support block. In Fig. 3 is a diagram of the balancing pressure forces on the elements of the bearing unit while ensuring the atmospheric pressure inside the building. In Fig. 4 - patform.The structure consists of two main parts: the support block mounted on the bottom of the sea, and a platform mounted to the support block.A support block under high hydrostatic pressure of sea water, has bottom, dome, cylinder 1 and the outer shell 2, volume 3 between which is filled with water. The cylinder and the shell are connected by a stretch 4, made for example in the form of a vertical, arc welded steel bands. In the internal volume of 5 cylinder are disk partitions 6, which provides rigidity. The internal volume of 5 facilities reported with platform shaft 7 with an opening 8, closed by a plug 9. The bottom has a technological hole 10 is closed by a plug 11, and has a conical bearing 12, which is filled with concrete in waterproofing the belt 13.In volume 5 performed walls 14 for mounting the top drive 15 rig, candles 16 drill pipes and other equipment. To the outer casing 17, the disk 18 with the seal 19 is attached to the float 20 with the Central shaft 21, a platform 22, which includes mud pumps and other equipment, the capacity of the mud and otherFrom the pumps moves the pipe 23 and is attached to Naujene are the multipliers 25, increase the water pressure in all mutually communicated megablocks volume 3.In the cylinder 26 of the multiplier is set piston 27 with the plunger 28 and hydroplast 29, displaced in the Cup 30.Water that is displaced into the space between the outer shell 2 and the cylinder 1, is separated from hydroplast membrane 31 and the check valve 32, is installed in the supply 33 welded to the casing 2.Transportation sections of buildings having positive buoyancy, performed separately for towing. Above the installation location on the bottom of the water area of the bottom section (Fig. 6) tightly attached to the float platform sections (Fig. 5), and metabolically volume 3 is filled with water.The slow lowering of the buildings on the prepared concrete surface area of the bottom waters are partially filled with water volume of the float 20.Upon lowering the multipliers 25 automatically increases the water pressure P2according to relation (MPa):
(P2-10-2H)(R2-R1) = (P2-P1R1,
where H is the depth in m;
R2is the radius of the outer shell;
R1is the radius of the inner shell;
P1- atmosphere = 3 MPa. The reduction of the stretching forces of the shells 1 and 2 is achieved when running shells in the form of arcs with bending radii r of order m, welded to the braces 4. Final installation of structures on the bottom of the waters is made by filling the float 20 with water and pouring of support concrete waterproofing belt. After the specified amount of drilling work performed controlled manipulators, dangerous ice platform is detached and transported in a safe place.Underwater surface structure with elements working in tension, the useful volume of 2000 m3may have a mass of about 1000-2000 tons. 1. Marine underwater surface structure comprising a platform, a support block of a closed loop made in the form of a cylindrical shell with a waterproof bottom, containing the Central supporting element, the transverse elements of the shell link with the Central unit, the ballast, and the shell is made of double-layer, characterized in that the platform is equipped with a float, and the support block is made with the possibility of the connector and the base block has a dome plate, an outer casing, a Central supporting element is made in the form of a cylinder with a selected stretch marks, moreover, the internal cavity of the shell of the dome and the bottom form a single tank of water supplied by the intensifier.2. Marine underwater surface structure on p. 1, wherein the intensifier is made of the piston plunger, hermetically installed in a common cylinder, transmitting the pressure of the water through hydroplast, sealed diaphragm and check valve.3. Marine underwater surface structure on p. 1, characterized in that the bottom section of the facilities installed production equipment, and the sections of the platform of the secondary nodes and consumables.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly building bases and foundations, namely bridge piers, in water.
SUBSTANCE: method involves monitoring water obstacle in support building place, including investigating water parameters, recording water level in the course of year, determining floor shape, investigating floor ground, influence of outer disturbing forces and calculating weight and dimensions of support foundation case on the base of above parameters; producing hollow case with several cavities; moving case to installation place; submerging case in water; pacing thereof on floor; fixing case by piles and smoothing floor. Case submerging and placing operations are performed simultaneously with stabilizing vertical case position by performing control and filling of corresponding cavities. Bottom smoothing process is carried out by forcing artificial material, such as concrete layers with crushed stone interlayers, under case bottom. During case placing case is secured by blades built in case bottom and by piles inserted in cavities. Correspondence between case weight, number of blades, head resistance and side friction thereof for particular ground is determined to provide case stability on ground. Upper edge of submerged case is located above maximum possible water wave height. Rock fill is formed around underwater case part.
EFFECT: reduced time of support erection, increased reliability and stability, safety and service life, reduced labor inputs, possibility to erect supports in Arctic basin.
3 cl 1 ex
FIELD: stationary sea oil platforms.
SUBSTANCE: block has underwater support, made in form of two-level bench, formed by vertical beam cases and horizontal links, and also has support columns, connected to support. Horizontal links of bench are made in form of floating tanks, while links, placed along perimeter of lower level of bench, are separated by water-impenetrable walls on sections, provided with ballasting means. Method for mounting support block at the bottom of continental shelf includes transporting, ballasting of floating tanks and fixing support block at the bottom of water body. Support block is transported into wells drilling zone in planned position, sections of floating tanks are ballasted until lower level of support lowers into bottom of water body for 0.3-0.7 of its height, different and slants are evened and holding beams are inserted into cases of support with their following forcing into hard bottom portion and fixing in cases. Ballasting of sections of floating tanks and forcing of holding beams can be performed in pairs in diagonal planes relatively to center of lower level of support.
EFFECT: simplified assemblage, higher reliability.
2 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly for forming temporary structures for enclosing closed in plane water area bottom part and space above the bottom part through the full water thickness.
SUBSTANCE: method of shallow tunnel construction involves forming structure enclosing closed in plane bottom part; removing water from the structure; performing works in dry structure and demounting above structure. Method of enclosing structure forming involves producing bottomless hydraulic enclosure with controlled floatability; transporting and moving thereof to tunnel path; immersing the enclosure in water up to reaching water area bottom by reducing floatability thereof and fixing enclosure with fastening means and anchor system; leveling upper enclosure part with horizon line and arranging cranage and platforms for building material storage on upper enclosure part; erecting cutoff walls inside space defined by enclosure; removing water from the enclosure; developing bottom ground by trench digging; constructing pile tunnel base; building foundation grill on pile tunnel base; locating composite or precast reinforced concrete tunnel sections on foundation grill; recovering initial floatability of the enclosure. Enclosure structure has movable fastening means formed as blades along vertical walls thereof.
EFFECT: increased tunnel reliability, reduced time of erection thereof.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: production of ice.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises producing a hollow near the ship's side, delivering air under the ice cover, the air volume does not exceeding the volume of the space defined by ice covering from the top, water from the bottom, and ice walls from the sides over the contour of the future hollow. The walls are frozen from top to bottom by means of direct nonseparable heat exchangers mounted in advance into the covering immediately behind the contour up to the bottom of the future hollow. The delivery stops and the bottom of the future hollow is frozen with the use of L-shaped nonseparable heat exchangers set into the covering simultaneously with the direct heat exchangers. As a result, a closed space is defined, which is stripped, and ice blocks are removed.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly underwater structures adapted for oil and gas well operation, preferably on shallow continental shelf having bottom covered with thick silt layer and in ice-covered period.
SUBSTANCE: platform comprises base, vertical pile holders connected with the base and positioning unit for drilling string and well-control equipment fixation. Base is formed as a structure with cavities filled with ballast. The structure is composed of hollow members and functionally divided into two areas. Positioning unit is arranged in the first area, another area including catching opening. Platform is additionally provided with removable mounting frame with production equipment installed on the frame. Arranged in lower frame part are inclined guiding means to provide access into catching opening during mounting frame connection with support platform base in underwater position.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs for production equipment mounting and maintenance, increased reliability.
FIELD: offshore oil-field hydraulic structures, namely for building fixed platforms.
SUBSTANCE: support substructure comprises three-dimensional latticed structure having prismatic shape and composed of tubular members. The structure has vertical panels with posts, cross-pieces, struts and horizontal diaphragms connected one to another. Horizontal diaphragms have guiding nets for marine risers. The structure is secured to ground by main piles arranged in vertical posts and by foundation having additional piles, which is rigidly connected to tubular members of side edges of above structure. The structure is provided with ice-protection means formed as two truncated prisms of sheet steel and having beveled side ribs rigidly connected one to another by major bases. Marine risers are arranged inside prisms. Each prism of ice-protection means is rigidly connected with tubular members of corresponding diaphragms of three-dimensional latticed structure.
EFFECT: increased resistance to wave, seismic and ice loads, improved manufacturability and, as a result, reduced cost of permanent offshore structure building.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: offshore oil-field hydraulic structures, namely for building fixed platforms.
SUBSTANCE: method for forming support substructure by welding large blocks involves producing and serially connecting precast members to create flat units, namely panels and diaphragms; connecting flat units by tubular inserts and tubular links to create three-dimensional latticed structure. All operations are divided into four stages in accordance with technological order. The first stage includes forming tubular links and tubular inserts, pile sections and marine riser sections. The second stage includes assemblage of flat panels and diaphragms in horizontal position on corresponding mats. The third and the forth stages include simultaneous installation of flat panels and diaphragms and rigid connection thereof.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs, time and cost for assembly work performing due to elimination of complicated tubular joints used as assembly units.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: ground hydraulic structure erection, particularly to decontaminate silt or bottom sediments in water bodies.
SUBSTANCE: method involves building protective dam along perimeter of silt and/or bottom sediment area to be protected; laying waterproofing layer along inner dam perimeter, wherein waterproofing layer height is 2 times as much as silt and/or bottom sediment layer; forming artificial ground massif of watertight ecologically friendly natural ground in water area inside the dam, wherein artificial ground massif thickness is equal to at least three thicknesses of silt and/or bottom sediment layer; forming above-water relief area having 2.5 m height over water surface; forming surface flow discharge system and planting greenery in artificial ground massif.
EFFECT: increased reliability, reduced contamination concentration, prevention of hazardous substances ingress in ambient space and improved ecological safety.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: marine hydraulic structures, particularly fixed marine oil and gas production platforms.
SUBSTANCE: method for pile installation with the use of handling machine involves driving each pile in conical hole made in guiding means fixedly secured to marine platform base; installing pile and guiding means in coaxial position by guiding device having body installed on guiding members of the base so that the body may be displaced and fixed in predetermined position; lowering pile to working position; installing guiding device above water level on guiding members of platform base in predetermined position, wherein the guiding device is made as cylindrical body part and cylindrical part of guiding member secured one to another and having crossing axes so that cylindrical part of guiding means and cylindrical part of guiding member of guiding device are brought into coaxial state by corresponding linear and angular guiding member displacement; securing guiding device body with guiding members of platform base.
EFFECT: extended technological capabilities and simplified method of pile installation in working position.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: marine oil production hydraulic structure building, particularly marine platform assemblage.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming assembly units, namely support unit, load-bearing deck and block units of upper structure, at subassembly site; docking floating vehicle to subassembly site; serially installing assembling units on stockpile carts; moving assembly units from subassembly site to floating vehicle with the use of above stockpile carts; transporting thereof to assemblage site and performing successive mounting thereof with the use of crane-and-mounting ships. The successive mounting operation involves installing support unit on previously prepared ground; installing piles in corresponding bell-shaped guiders of the support unit; driving the piles and cementing thereof to create pile foundation; arranging load-bearing deck on struts and installation guiding bars having different heights and previously formed on support unit, wherein the load-bearing deck has seats for struts and bars receiving and connection thereof is carried out by successive alignment of above bars and seats.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of building equipment and floating vehicle usage; reduced building time, decreased number of operations to be performed at sea, reduced labor inputs and decreased costs of marine fixed platform building.
7 cl, 17 dwg