Sorption-active composition


(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of inorganic chemistry. Sorption-active composition comprises a zeolite and components, lowering the freezing point of water, and it contains natural zeolite two factions - 0.2-0.5 and 0.5 to 1.2 mm and sodium chloride and/or potassium and/or calcium and/or magnesium in the mass ratio of chloride : zeolite (1-5): 1. Sorption-active composition works effectively on the road surface, and at low temperatures. 1 C.p. f-crystals.

The invention relates to the field of inorganic chemistry, and more specifically to compositions containing zeolites, which are natural sorbents. Deposits of zeolites are widely spread in Russia.

Snow and/or ice on the roads, Bicycle and pedestrian paths, bridges, playgrounds, airports and the like (in the future all this will be called road surfaces), leads to difficulties in traffic, as well as emergency situations. To avoid this, use different formulations to avoid icing on roads.

The requirements of such compositions, is quite wide. Such funds n the th material pavement, for example, asphalt or concrete. The composition must be clean, i.e. do not harm neither the soil nor animals. Because the components in the melting can get into the water, then when you hit it, these components must be biologically neutral, and when the entry of such water into the water intake should be no problems with cleaning. It must be ensured that the proposed remedy would be not only flammable, but not flammable. From an economic point of view, you want the application to road surfaces require only a small amount of such funds, and that it is inexpensive to manufacture.

Known composition to prevent ice on road surfaces containing river sand and/or gravel and chlorides of alkali and/or alkaline earth metals (see U.S. Pat. GB N 1308780, 1973).

When using the specified composition in the melting of snow and ice there is a pollution of the surrounding countryside ions of sodium and chlorine, that is, the composition is environmentally safe. Its use is only possible to a temperature of -15oC, at lower temperatures, it is inefficient, in addition, this composition is corrosive, and it is bad for the bottom, motorcycles/or carnallite salt and an organic low-molecular acid-alkali and/or alkaline earth metal (see RF patent N 2141500, publ. 20.11.97).

The disadvantage of this structure is the use of an expensive magnesium chloride, and the organic reagent, which also leads to cost some funds.

It is preferable to use compositions containing sorption-active substances, allowing to bind dirt, dust, oil, harmful gas emissions. Such compositions include the following.

From application EP N 0301337, 1989 known composition containing expanded clay with a particle size of 0.1 to 0.6 mm, alcohols, and acetates of alkaline earth metals.

From application EP N 0221269, 1987 known composition, containing pebbles of granite, pumice, limestone, dolomite limestone and active organic substances from the class of glycols.

From the patent RU N 2090689, 1997 known composition containing sodium chloride with 13% of particles with a diameter of more than 90 μm, volcanic lava with 82% of particles with a diameter of less than 90 microns and particles of silicon dioxide with a diameter of 16 nm.

However, all the above compositions sorption capacity gas emissions from cars is low.

Closest to the technical essence and the achieved result is sorbcionnaya the freezing temperature of water from the class of glycols (EP, N 0210972, 1987).

A disadvantage of the known tool is using organic methods, which on the one hand increases the cost of the composition, and on the other reduces the capacity for dirt, partially blocking the work of the pores of the zeolite.

The objective of the invention is to develop a cheap means having a high capacity to contamination present on the road surface, which is environmentally safe and operating at low temperatures.

The problem is solved by the proposed sorption-active composition containing natural zeolite of the two fractions of 0.2-0.5 mm and 0.5-1.2 mm and components, lowering the freezing point of water, selected from the group of sodium chloride and/or potassium and/or calcium and/or magnesium in the mass ratio of chloride: zeolite (1-5) : 1.

Preferably the volume of the smaller faction of the zeolite is 45-50% of the total volume of the entire zeolite.

In order to make the proposed composition used two fractions of zeolite Satirische field, after grinding rocks take two fractions, the first of 0.2-0.5 mm and the second 0.5 to 1.2 mm, Then they are mixed so that the volume of the first fraction accounted for 45-50% of the total price, the/or potassium and/or calcium and/or magnesium in the mass ratio of chloride:zeolite (1-5):(1 - 5) and mixed under normal conditions.

Example 1.

Take 45% of the total volume of the zeolite fraction of 0.2-0.5 mm, the second fraction of the zeolite will be in this case 55%. Then take the solid potassium chloride in the amount of 1 kg and mix it with 1 kg of a mixture of two fractions of zeolite. The obtained composition was applied on asphalt covered with ice at a temperature of -15oC, the ice cover melted over 5.5 hours.

Example 2.

Zeolite crumb of Skirnick field scattered in the cottage in the vicinity of Mitino. The total area of cultivated areas (driveways, walkways) 1,74 sq. km. Spread 15.8 tons of zeolite. Wastage was carried out in two steps with intervals of three days. The temperature was -6oC. the thickness of the ice coating on the asphalt surface was varied from 2 to 23 mm Before treatment with zeolite surface asphalt was treated with sodium chloride. Total weight of 38 tons of salt. After processing of asphalt surfaces zeolites salt mixture, rantapuska ice, lost for two days up to 40% water. In addition, harmful compounds contained in the asphalt, and oil is up to wastage of zeolites, weight malicious connections decreased by 27-33%. Also improved bonding ability of paths and roads. Coming later frosts to -15oC did not lead to a new ice surfaces. Thus, the impact of the proposed composition on the surface leads to the following results.

Reduced volume and weight of moisture up to 40%.

Adsorbed impurities paraffin and other petroleum products from 15% to 33%.

Increase bonding properties of roads.

The use of zeolite, which is a natural sorbent, dramatically reduces the cost of the proposed structure against ice on road surfaces. It is an environmentally friendly component, and its use in the claimed tool allows for high fusibility improve the ecological situation on the roads. Thanks to the use of zeolite improves air quality on roads, because the zeolite absorbs well the exhaust gases. Important is the fact that the composition exhibits neutral towards metals and melted snow, containing the proposed composition, does not contaminate the soil.

1. Sorption-active composition containing zeolites and components, reducing the temperature was freezing and/or potassium, and/or calcium and/or magnesium in the mass ratio of chloride : zeolite (1 - 5) : 1.

2. Sorption-active composition under item 1, characterized in that the volume of the smaller faction of the zeolite is 45 - 50% of the total volume fractions of zeolite.


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FIELD: sorbents.

SUBSTANCE: invention provides an improved adsorbent to remove impurities form various hydrocarbon streams. Adsorbent contains zeolite, alumina, and an additional metal oxide, at least 10 mol % of metal in the metal oxide being based on stoichiometric amount of metal required to compensate negative charge of zeolite lattice. Resulting adsorbent containing zeolite X, aluminum oxide, and sodium is successfully used to treat ethylene stream to liberate the latter from CO2, H2S, methanol, and other sulfur- and oxygen-containing compounds.

EFFECT: expanded hydrocarbon purification possibilities.

6 cl, 4 tbl, 11 ex