A device for finding geopathically zones
(57) Abstract:The invention is intended for search and location on the earth's surface zones caused by anomalies in the distribution of aquifers and layers with different chemical composition, which has a negative effect on health, well-being and behavior of humans and animals, which can lead to pathological conditions and diseases, and can be used in various branches of national economy, in particular in medicine and agriculture. The technical result is greater accuracy and ease of finding the location geopathically zones. The device comprises a square frame with pinned at its corners the first to fourth electrodes, and the first subtraction unit, the input of which is connected to the first and third electrodes, the second subtraction unit, the input of which is connected to the second and fourth electrodes, the third subtraction unit, the inputs of which are connected to the outputs of the first and second blocks subtraction, the fourth subtraction unit, the inputs of which are connected to the outputs of the first and second memory elements, and the fifth subtraction unit, the inputs of which are connected to the outputs of the third and fourth memory elements. The outputs of the fourth and toe is which is connected to the outputs of the first and second blocks subtraction, and exit through the first analog-to-digital Converter to one of the inputs of the first display unit. The output of the third subtraction unit 8 via a second analog-to-digital Converter connected to another input of the first display unit, and the control inputs of both analog-to-digital converters connected to one of the outputs of the control unit, the other output is connected to a sweep generator, and a third of its output to the control inputs of all of the memory elements and the switch, the other input of switch 18 is connected with one output of the sweep generator, a third input from the output of the measuring current, and the first to fourth outputs of the switch with the respective electrodes, another output of the sweep generator is connected to the input of the measuring current, the other output of the measuring current through the third analog-to-digital Converter to the inputs of all of the memory elements. 2 Il. The invention is intended for search and location on the earth's surface zones caused by anomalies in the distribution of aquifers and layers with different chemical composition, and negatively affect the health, well-being and behavior of humans and animals, which can lead to pathological conditions and diseases, and can be used the STN different methods for the determination of soil properties, described, for example, copyright certificates of the USSR N 298915, MKI G 01 V 3/04 "geoelectroprospecting", from 16.03.1971 and N SU 1233078, MKI G 01 V 3/18 "Device for measuring magnetic susceptibility and conductivity", from 23.05.1986.According to these technical solutions used meter grounding MS-08, with which to determine the specific resistance of the resistive rocks between two points on the earth's surface. Or in the environment induce a magnetic field. The result of the interaction of magnetic fields with matter soil is judged on the magnetic susceptibility of the soil at the site.A common shortcoming of this analogy is the local dimension of the conductive properties of the portion of the earth that is not possible to know the direction geopathically area and to organize the search and localization.Closest to the claimed technical solution is the device according to the author's certificate USSR N 1004938 from 15.03.1983, MKI G 01 V 3/02 "a Method for measuring the potential difference of the electric field". The essence of this technical solution is that the two points between which you want to measure the potential difference of the electric current, vozbujdaet is trade. For this configuration, the location of the supply and receiving electrodes determine the position of the equipotential lines passing through the receiving electrodes. Determining the position of the two equipotential lines, install them system of the at least three receiving electrodes connected through a summing operational amplifier, or through repeaters voltages, and measure the total difference of potentials between the lines.The known solution has a number of disadvantages, which are as follows.Because the supply electrodes placed in the soil separately from the receiving electrodes, for each option, the mutual configuration requires its rule defining an equipotential lines. Therefore, the structure of blocks that implement each new computation algorithm should be defined and implemented again for each selected configuration of electrodes.Since receiving electrodes are only two, not in all cases it is possible to determine the position of the equipotential lines.To determine the position of the two equipotential lines must double-conduct preliminary measurements by moving the position of the electrode is between two equipotential lines are not always indicates the direction of the gradient changes of soil properties.The main disadvantage of this method is that it measures only the characteristics of the soil, stimulated external impulse action. At the same time, the heterogeneity of the chemical composition of the soil may create its own internal soil currents, which are not measured using the above method, but which serve as a direction indicator on geopathically area.In addition, in the known solution is not separate measurement of soil properties under the influence of external electric current at different frequencies. At the same time, the soil of different chemical composition react differently to currents of different frequencies, having its frequency response, and possible measurement modes for them may vary.Given the shortcomings indicate that using prototype difficult to conduct reliable search areas with anomalous soil properties and to determine the position of geopathically zones.The problem solved by the invention is to improve the accuracy and convenience of searching and positioning geopathically zones.This task is solved in that the device containing the first, second, third and fourth electrodes, the rst is the first subtraction unit, the inputs of which are connected to the first and third electrodes, the second subtraction unit, the input of which is connected to the second and fourth electrodes, the third subtraction unit, the inputs of which are connected to the outputs of the first and second blocks subtraction, the fourth subtraction unit, the inputs of which are connected to the outputs of the first and second memory elements, and the fifth subtraction unit, the inputs of which are connected to the outputs of the third and fourth memory elements and outputs of the fourth and fifth blocks subtraction - with inputs of the second display unit, the adder, the inputs of which are connected to the outputs of the first and second blocks subtraction, and exit through the first analog-to-digital Converter to one of the inputs of the first display unit, the output of the third subtraction unit via a second analog-to-digital Converter connected to another input of the first display unit, and the control inputs of both analog-to-digital converters connected to one of the outputs of the control unit, the other output is connected to a sweep generator, and a third of its output to the control inputs of all of the memory elements and the switch, the other input of the switch is connected with one output of the sweep generator, a third input from the output of the measuring current, and first, second, the third course of the measuring current, and another way of measuring current through the third analog-to-digital Converter to the inputs of all of the memory elements.This embodiment of the device for search geopathically zones allows you to quickly determine the direction of geopathically zone using the framework and process measurement information in complex electronic units for convenient presentation on the screen.Options image generated on the screen, allows a convenient way to present the results of measurements in different modes.Localization geopathically zones using the proposed device allows to allocate space, adversely affecting the health and behavior of people and animals. This allows you to adjust the placement of residential buildings and other structures in order to reduce the influence of negative factors.The drawings show: Fig.1 is a structural diagram of a device for searching geopathically zones.In Fig.2 is a diagram explaining the principle of operation of the device.The device consists of a first 1, second 2, third 3 and fourth 4 electrodes, square frame 5, the first 6, 7 second, third 8, 9 fourth and fifth 10 blocks subtraction, the first 11, wtov memory the switch 18, the sweep generator 19, the current meter 20, the first 21 and second 22 display unit, a control unit 23 and an adder 24.The electrodes 1-4 reinforced in the corners of the square frame 5, frame horizontally placed in a selected area, the electrodes 1-4 brought into contact with the soil. In blocks subtraction 6-10 output voltage proportional to the difference between the voltages at the inputs. In the adder 24 is proportional to the sum of input voltages. Analog-to-digital converters 11-13 translate the continuous value of the input signal (in analog form) in the digital output code. The memory elements 14-17 remember the digital code received at their inputs, and keep it up until their control inputs will not come control signal. At the time of his coming, remember the new value of the input digital signal and stored until another control signal.The switch 18 connects two of its input signal to two of its four outputs. Connection option is determined by the control signal supplied to the control input of the switch. The sweep generator 19 is a generator of sinusoidal signals with varying within a certain interval) frequency. Start frequency ASU is running and at the other output signal is produced, is proportional to the current flow. The first display unit 21 has a visual indication in the form of a screen, on which is formed the label. Deviation marks on two perpendicular axes control input signals of the first 11 and second 12 analog-to-digital converters. The second display unit 22 also has a screen with a label, a deviation which two perpendicular axes control input signals 9 fourth and fifth 10 blocks subtraction. The measurement process is divided into two stages.In the first stage measure the direction and magnitude of soil currents in the selected area of the surface.In the second stage measure the magnitude and direction of the gradient of the conductivity in a selected area at different frequencies.Work on the first and second stages is controlled by the control unit 23. In the first stage, the switch 18 is closed and the sweep generator 19 is disconnected from the electrodes.Differences in the chemical composition of the soil leads to the appearance of a potential difference at different points of the surface currents and soil. These potential differences are to the electrodes 1-4. In the first subtraction unit 6 is determined and amplifies the potential difference between the first 1 and 4 fourth electrodes is childbirth. In the third subtraction unit 8 is determined by the difference, and in the adder 24 is the sum of the output voltages of the first 6 and second 7 blocks subtraction. After conversion to digital form these two digital code caught on the first display unit 21. It has a screen rigidly oriented relative to the frame 5. If the digital codes correspond to the zero voltage at the inputs of the blocks 11 and 12, the label remains in the center of the screen. If the ground currents are present, the label on unit screen 21 is offset from the center in the direction of the flow of these currents and by a distance proportional to their size, which is the purpose of the measure at this stage.In the second stage, the control unit 23 turns off the analog-to-digital converters 11 and 12 and includes a switch 18. It also includes a sweep generator 19 and the memory elements 14-17. Frequency sweep generator 19 is changed continuously or discretely in the range of low frequencies, for example, from tens of Hertz, with similar properties to a constant voltage to a high frequency, for example, up to hundreds of kilohertz. The rate of change of frequency is set (e.g., kilohertz per second) to be able to measure the direction and magnitude of the gradient resistance.Two poles sweep-gene is management 23 the switch 18 connects the voltage generator 19 connected in series to the electrodes 1-2, to 2-4, 1-3, 2-4. In each of the four States of the meter 20 measures the current. Its value is converted from analog form to digital form using a third analog-to-digital Converter 13. Digital codes corresponding to the result of current measurement in each of the States stored in the memory elements 14-17. Recall mode in each of the memory elements 14-17 included as a control signal of the control unit 23. The result of the measurement in each of the four States of the switch 18 is fixed in one of the four memory elements 14-17. In the fourth subtraction unit 9 is the difference of numbers encoded digital codes of the blocks 14 and 15, and a fifth unit subtracting the 10 - codes of the blocks 16 and 17. Codes of blocks 9 and 10 are served on the second display unit 22, and controls the position of the label on the screen. The signals of the blocks 9 and 10 are used to offset the label in two perpendicular directions by an amount proportional to the conductivity of the soil and in the direction of its gradient.Searching geopathically zones using the proposed device consists in the following. From the starting point of the search is carried out step-by-step procedure. At each step, with the help of the device by measuring the direction of soil t is t at different frequencies. In the direction where the gradient is most pronounced, the operator moves the specified distance for the next step of the procedure. The whole operation is repeated determines the direction for the next move and so onThus, the operator is shifted toward geopathically area, representing an anomaly in the form of spots or "fault line".The measurement process in each step is based on the following. The first stage determines the direction of the currents on soil aggregate potentials on the electrodes (Fig.2). The current I, flowing through the soil with a finite resistance, creates a potential difference at different points on the surface. Let the direction of current I is oriented relative to the frame 5, as shown in Fig.2 (X and Y axes are directed along the sides of the frame). The potentials on the electrodes 1-4 - U1-U4. Then the ratio of the differences of potentials U31=U3-U1and U34=U3-U4equal to the ratio of the projections of current Iyand Ixon two perpendicular axes along the sides of the square frame 5.To improve the accuracy of the potential difference is measured twice: U31and close to her largest U42=U4-U2and ladywood. Thus, the ratio of Ix: Iydefining the orientation direction of the current I relative to the frame, is determined by measuring the ratio of the voltage (U1-U2+U3-U4): (U3-U1+U4-U2), or that the same [(U3-U2)+(U1-U4)]:[(U3-U2)-(U1-U4)] . Value (U1-U4and U3-U2) are determined in blocks 6 and 7, respectively. The proportion of Ixformed at the output of the adder 24 and analog-to-digital Converter 11. The value of conducting Iyformed at the output of the third subtraction unit 8 and the second analog-to-digital Converter 12. These values control the offset of the label on the screen of the first display unit 21 along the corresponding axes. Because the screen is rigidly connected with the frame, the operator will know the direction of current I in the soil relative to the frame.Measurement of the conductivity gradient is produced in the second stage. Current meter 20 sequentially measures the current between the electrodes 1 - 2, 3 - 4, 1 - 3,2 - 4, created after the connection of the voltage sweep generator 19 to these electrodes. The output voltage of the sweep generator 19 is kept constant, so the measured current proporz the second form in block 13 and sequentially recorded in the blocks 14-17. They represent a magnitude proportional to the conductance G12, G34, G13, G24where the indices indicate the number of electrodes.Next is the gradient by comparison of the respective conductivities. If from electrode 3 to the electrode 1 to send the Y-axis, and from electrode 3 to the electrode 4 to the X-axis, then the projection of the gradient of the conductivity on the X-axis will be proportional to Gx=G13-G24and the projection on the Y-axis of the Gy=G12-G34. Thus, the digital code at the output of block 9 contains information about Gyand the code output unit 10 - Gx. These signals are fed to the second display unit 22 and are used to offset marks on his screen along the corresponding axes. The screen block 22 is also rigidly connected with the frame 5 and the position of the label it is possible to determine the direction and magnitude of the gradient of the conductivity of the soil that is uniquely associated with resistance) at a given frequency. If the conductivity value is different at different frequencies, the operator observes the graph in polar coordinates and can shift the frame in the next step in the direction of greatest radius-vector.Screens both display units 21 and 22 can be constructively 2 combined, and the labels corresponding to mark the corresponding measurements at different frequencies sweep generator 19. A device for finding geopathically zones containing the first to fourth electrodes, characterized in that it introduced a square frame with pinned at its corners the first to fourth electrodes, and the first subtraction unit, the input of which is connected to the first and third electrodes, the second subtraction unit, the input of which is connected to the second and fourth electrodes, the third subtraction unit, the inputs of which are connected to the outputs of the first and second blocks subtraction, the fourth subtraction unit, the inputs of which are connected to the outputs of the first and second memory elements, and the fifth block subtraction, the inputs of which are connected to the outputs of the third and fourth memory elements and outputs of the fourth and fifth blocks subtraction - with inputs of the second display unit, the adder, the inputs of which are connected to the outputs of the first and second blocks subtraction, and exit through the first analog-to-digital Converter to one of the inputs of the first display unit, the output of the third subtraction unit via a second analog-to-digital Converter connected to another input of the first display unit, and the control inputs of both analog-to-digital converters connected to one of the outputs of the control unit, the other output is connected to Mutator is connected with one output of the sweep generator, the third
the input of the switch - output measuring current, and the first to fourth outputs of the switch with the corresponding electrodes, the other output of the sweep generator is connected to the input of the measuring current and the other output of the measuring current through the third analog-to-digital Converter to the inputs of all of the memory elements.
FIELD: geophysical prospecting by electric means by the method of induced polarization.
SUBSTANCE: the device has an exciting field forming unit and a signal measurement unit. The exciting field forming unit has a ship generator, switch forming bipolar DC square pulses, generating plant and a ballast device. The signal measurement unit has a receiving multi-electrode line, resistivimeter, multi-channel measuring device, ship echo sounder, Global Position System receiving indicator and a signal processor. According to the claimed method, the research of the geological medium along the observation outline is carried out by excitation of periodic alternating current pulses and determination of geoelectric medium parameters, geoelectric sections are constructed, a conclusion is made on the presence of a deposit of hydrocarbons according to the exposed anomalies of conduction and the parameters of induced polarization.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of the research results.
8 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: physics; geophysics.
SUBSTANCE: current pulse is excited in the medium under investigation, and parameters of its induced polarisation are defined. Geoelectric section is generated to make a conclusion about the presence of hydrocarbon fields on the basis of abnormal manifestations of induced polarisation parameters. At that, electromagnetic and seismic waves are excited simultaneously or with a time shift. To excite the said waves unipolar rectangular impulses of direct current are generated, their absolute and relative duration depending on parameters of medium under investigation. In the beginning of timing pulse electric field is measured simultaneously at measuring probe groups of two detector lines towed at different depth. Besides, detector line depth and hydroacoustic pressure of seismic source are measured. Also a device is offered, which includes pulse generator, capacitor charging unit, power generator, bank of capacitors, switchboard, seismic emitter, transmitter/receiver line, receiver line, multi-channel gauge, echo-sounder, GPS satellite navigation receiver, signal processor.
EFFECT: higher reliability of research results.
18 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: geoelectrical prospecting.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to geoelectrical prospecting by the electrical resistance method. The method uses two fixed supplying grounding circuits, the first of them being located in practical infinity, the other one along with two fixed reception grounding circuits being arranged nearby the observation profile, two additional movable grounding circuits located at equal distance from the second supplying grounding circuit. In measurements, in every position of the movable grounding circuits, the latter are connected in turns to a power source or an instrument. On connecting them to the power source, a voltage drop between the fixed reception grounding circuits is measured. On connecting them to instrument and measuring the voltage drop between them, the fixed supplying grounding circuits are connected to electric power source. The aforesaid operations are effected for all preset positions of the movable grounding circuits. Proceeding the measurement results, sections of apparent electrical resistance and voltage drop are plotted to estimate the availability of geoelectrical irregularities in the section.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of revealing geoelectrical irregularities and lower ambiguity in experimental data interpretation.
SUBSTANCE: current is cutoff to soil through two point sources. The first source is placed close by vertical interface, and the second is taken to infinity. Position of one equipotential line of electric field is detected. Measuring electrodes is mounted by tangent to equipotential line symmetrically to tangency point of ray lined from auxiliary point presenting mirror reflection of point source relative to interface with specified equipotential. Besides, measuring electrodes can be placed by line, perpendicular to interface symmetrically to power supply provided close by interface. Near to interface there is compensatory point source with current value fixed by parity where I0, Ik are currents from the first and compensatory sources, ΔΨ1MN is differential of the space function that determinates position of measuring electrodes relative to the first source, ΔΨ2MN is differential of space function that determinates position of measuring electrodes relative to compensatory source. Measuring electrodes voltage indicates time variations of resistivity.
EFFECT: simplified positioning of electrical survey unit and improved measurement accuracy.
SUBSTANCE: at the profile points the current is supplied through a pair of feeding electrodes to the earth. Current value and potential difference between pair of receiving electrodes is measured. Feeding electrodes are moved with pitch equal to 1 m symmetrically relative to the centre to limit distance between feeding electrodes, which is determined by the specified investigation depth. As per measurement results the apparent specific resistance is calculated. As per data of apparent specific resistance the graph of its behaviour is built depending on half-spacings of feeding electrodes. Specific resistances of frozen beds are calculated as per apparent specific resistance graph. Percentage of clay in unit volume of rock is calculated as per data of specific resistances of frozen beds by the following formula: where ρclay - specific clay resistance, which in permafrost zone section is characterised as constant value which on average is equal to 100 ohm m, ρfb -specific resistance of frozen bed. Lithologic composition of sand-clay complex of frozen rocks is determined as per clay content.
EFFECT: reducing the cost of operations and improving informativity owing to determining lithologic composition of frozen rocks without any drilling data and using common data on geologic structure of investigation region.
1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: potentially dangerous area is selected on territory to be analysed. At least three measuring modules are arranged on said area. Every said module consists of radiating electrode, main electrode pair with its one electrode making zero electrode, and at least one additional electrode pair. Said electrode pairs of measuring electrode are arranged at 180°/n to each other where n stands for number of electrode pair. All electrodes are located on one equipotentional line of radiating electrode. Electrodes of one pair are arranged on one line with radiating electrode. Directional diagrams of electrode pairs are plotted. Potential difference is measured between zero electrode and main electrode pair, and other electrodes of appropriate measuring module. Abnormal potential difference and direction diagram are used to determine direction for each measuring module to zone of rocks irregularities. Zone location is defined at intersection of said directions.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and validity.
SUBSTANCE: at an observation line, two three-electrode electrical soundings are performed using an apparatus comprising four earthing contacts lying on one line symmetrically about the observation point. The fifth earthing contact relates to virtual "infinity" and is connected to one terminal of an electric current source. Central earthing contacts are connected to a voltage measuring device. When taking measurements, outermost power earthing contacts are successively connected to the other terminal of the electric current source. Potential drop Δ UAMN and ΔUA'MN between receiving earthing contacts is measured. The operations are repeated for all given positions of power earthing contacts. Potential drop for vertical electrical sounding and potential drop for unipolar sounding is calculated from the measured potential drop at each observation point for given differences. The distribution of apparent electrical resistance in sections for two three-electrode and vertical sounding and distribution in section of potential drop for unipolar sounding is determined from the measured and calculated potential drops. The results determine the presence and location in the section of geological irregularities.
EFFECT: high efficiency of detecting geological irregularities in the geological environment.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: complex instrument includes loaded drilling pipe that consists of the first and the second part separated by isolated gap, and distant-measuring cartridge containing distant measuring scheme that includes power source generating voltage drop at isolated gap, and axle current at drilling column that is returned through geologic bed, it also includes isolated measuring electrode connected to the first part and scheme for specific resistance measuring connected in the course of operation to measuring electrode and distant-measuring scheme.
EFFECT: integration of possibilities to measure specific resistance into electro-magnetic distant-measuring instrument and obtaining the data of specific resistance as well as distant measuring.
58 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a system for monitoring local surface earthquake precursors on a secure territory, having two supply earth terminals connected to a probe current pulse generator, and a system of receiving earth terminals connected to a receiver which is connected to a signal processing unit. The system of receiving earth terminals is formed by N buried electrodes, N-1 of which are arranged uniformly on a circle of diameter D=0.5-0.6 km, and one central electrode placed at the centre of said circle. Radial conductors are connected each of the N-1 electrodes of the system of receiving earth terminals. Electrodes of the supply earth terminals are spaced apart by a distance L=(15-20)D. The system of receiving earth terminals is directed in the plan randomly relative electrodes of the supply earth terminals and lies from the latter at a distance X=(1.5-1.6)L. The probe current pulse generator generates current pulse bursts with frequency of 0.02-0.2 Hz, burst duration of 10-30 s and current in the pulse of 1-10 KA at least twice a day at the same time of the day.
EFFECT: high reliability of information on the hypocentre of an imminent surface earthquake and its parameters, particularly the event time and amplitude estimate.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a dielectric body of streamlined shape with installed metering electrodes, a metering unit comprising amplifiers, to inputs of which electrodes are connected, a summator, inputs of which are connected with outputs of amplifiers, and also an additional electrode, at the same time metering electrodes are made in the form of wires with insulated side surface, assembled into a cord or bundle with a polished end, the minimum distance between which and the additional electrode exceeds the size of the turbulence zone, the number of amplifiers is equal to the number of metering electrodes, every of which is connected to the input of the appropriate amplifier, and the additional electrode is connected with the common bus of the metering unit. The additional electrode is made in the form of a hollow metal cylinder installed on the dielectric body, the surface area of which is ten times and more exceeds the total area of the end surface of metering electrodes, at the same time the cord of wires, in the form of which metering electrodes are arranged, is installed inside the second electrode so that its end protrudes beyond the edge of the additional electrode.
EFFECT: increased resolving capacity and increased accuracy of measurement of small-scale fluctuations of flow speed.
2 cl, 2 dwg