Methods and installation for the production of annular elements made of composite materials and preforms for these items

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the production of annular elements made of composite materials and preforms for these items, in particular, obtained by winding a fibrous tape on the mandrel. Method for the production of preforms includes a winding ribbon of fibrous material on an elliptical mandrel layers for the manufacture of preforms in the form of an elliptical clutch, designed to receive the annular elements, and slicing it on planes that are not perpendicular to the axis of the coupling. Another method relates to the manufacture of annular element made of composite material and includes the production of preforms in the form of an elliptical clutch in accordance with the method presented above, and cut it into rings on planes that are not perpendicular to the axis of the coupling. Another method relates to the manufacture of the brake disc, which includes the manufacture of an annular element in accordance with the method of manufacturing the annular element and the subsequent processing of the inner and/or outer periphery of the annular element. Installation for the production of preforms for the manufacture of annular elements includes a mandrel elliptical cross-section and equipment for winding tape ISA tensile delamination while reducing the loss of material during manufacture of the preform products. 4 C. and 26 C.p. f-crystals, 11 ill.

The invention relates to the production of annular elements made of composite materials and preforms for these elements, and the elements themselves and preforms. In particular, we are talking about the ways and installation for the production of the preform by winding a fibrous tape on the mandrel and the subsequent cutting of the wound layers on the rings before and after compaction of the matrix.

The methods commonly used for the production of preforms for elements made of composite material, consist in the imposition of flat layers of fibrous material, the cutting and processing of the range in order to obtain the desired preform configuration and compaction of the preform. When manufactured item - brake disc or other annular element, about half of the material by weight is lost in the manufacture of annular preforms from a number superimposed on each layer.

It was suggested many options aimed at reducing waste. One of them consists in the Assembly of annular preforms before the seal of naplastovany each other layers of fibrous material, each of which in turn is made up of individual attached one to the other sites. This method reduces losses, but not the 2, which is given below with reference to Fig. 1A - 1D. Presented in the application, the method comprises the manufacture of the annular or cylindrical elements by winding fiber tape on a cylindrical mandrel /Fig. 1 A/ to obtain a cylindrical clutch /Fig. 1B/. During winding imposed on each other layers are interconnected by firmware. The cylindrical sleeve may be cut to receive an annular sealing preform /Fig. 1C/ perpendicular to the axis of the coupling.

The installation presented in this proposal contains a mandrel and equipment for winding strips of fibrous material on the mandrel.

A similar method is also described in the application France N 2 584 107.

There is a method allows to avoid loss of material, but the items made from the preform obtained in this way have deficiencies which become apparent during their use. If we are talking about the brake discs, the latter in their use are subjected to shear force in the tangential direction. These efforts, in particular, appear at the level of the slots available on the external or internal crown /Fig. 1D/ to connect the disk with a moving or stationary part. These shear effort E can praefecto of the invention is a method and installation help to produce a preform for a ring element made of composite material with great resistance to delamination, and also to reduce the loss of material associated with the use of preforms.

The above technical result is achieved by the method and the installation according to the invention allow the winding tape of fibrous material on an elliptical mandrel with the aim of obtaining an elliptical clutch. This elliptic coupler can be cut by an inclined plane for receiving the sealing ring of the preform or the coupling may serve as the sealing preform, and the cut will be made after one or more stages of compression. The cutting plane is inclined relative to the direct elliptical cross-section of the coupling, i.e., the cutting plane is not perpendicular to the axis of the coupling. The lower and upper cut rings are processed to obtain all elements.

The above method and installation use the fact that the projection of the ellipse in the plane passing through its greater axis and forming an angle relative to the plane of the ellipse is a circle with diameter equal to the minor axis of the ellipse.

In Fig. 2A presents the winding tape of fibrous material on an elliptical mandrel, and Fig. 2B is a plane cutting elliptical coupling across a range naplastovany each other layers. In this example, ring, cut off from the clutch has a very round shape in the width of the ring, but elliptical inner and outer periphery. Can be also selected cutting plane, which will allow you to get the round ring on the outer or inner periphery or at a different distance from the periphery of the ring. Theoretically, you can select the cutting plane, which will allow you to get cut ring fully elliptic across the entire width, but it will increase the loss of material during processing to obtain the circular shape of the element.

After cutting the periphery of the ring is handled with internal and external parties to obtain a generally circular element, see Fig. 2C/.

When using products made of such element, the cutting force E in the tangential direction is not valid anymore in the direction favorable for the separation of the layers that make up the preform element, see Fig. 2D/.

According to this aspect of the invention preforms for the production of collet to get the ring elements with reduced tendency to delamination during use.

The greater the angle of the cutting plane relative to the direct section of the coupling is approximately 45othe greater the resistance to delamination are the elements, cut from the clutch, in connection with the cutting effect in the tangential direction relative to the latter. At the same time increase the waste material with increasing angle /called in the future "cutting angle"/. Thus, the cutting angle should be optimal for obtaining the items with good mechanical characteristics, while providing acceptable loss of material. Preferably the cutting angle lies in the limit 10-45o. When the angle cut at 45othere are very substantial waste of material, approximately 35%. Thus, it is preferable to use a cutting angle in the range 10-30o.

A method of manufacturing a preform is also characterized by the fact that in it the ends of the mandrel are flat surfaces parallel to each other and inclined relative to the straight section of the coupling, and at the stage of spinning and flashing there is relative displacement between the mandrel and the tape is wound material, which acts as a reciprocating motion in the longitudinal direction oodnogo material, including the method of preparation described above preforms, as well as the stage of sealing the preform cutting and processing. It may be necessary additional processing element in connection with a special use item, such as a brake disk.

Preforms for brake disks are made preferably by flashing two-dimensional textures, consisting of pre-oxidised polyacrylonitrile cord, carbon fibers coated /see application France N 2 669 940/. In prior art two-dimensional textures, such as cord or fibrous fabric or canvas, stitched layers between themselves, forming a plate from which were cut annular preforms for brake disks.

For materials subject to significant thermo-mechanical loads, such as brake discs, it is important to maintain constant properties throughout the mass, in order to avoid differences in mechanical and tribological properties. Thus, it is important to maintain uniform density firmware clutch, which will be used as a preform or from which will be manufactured preforms for brake disks. Therefore, if such coupling is made by winding around an elliptical Ode fibrous tape on a cylindrical mandrel, each wound layer stitched needle Board immediately after applying to the mandrel. The mandrel is rotationally driven around its axis, and the axis position remains unchanged, and the needle Board, located parallel to the generatrix of the mandrel is driven in reciprocating motion in the direction perpendicular to the axis of the mandrel. The amplitude of movement of the needle Board is kept unchanged. To provide the same depth of flashing naplastovany layers during the whole process, the average distance between the needle Board and the axis of the mandrel increases with the thickness of the layers.

This method cannot be directly used with elliptical frame.

The invention also envisages the development of methods and equipment for the production of preforms for the manufacture of annular elements, which provide the winding tape of fibrous material on an elliptical mandrel and even flashing naplastovany layers.

In the method and the installation according to the invention provide a winding ribbon of fibrous material around an elliptical mandrel and flashing naplastovany layers using a needle Board, there is a simultaneous movement between the mandrel and the average position of igol the coy and the mandrel is thus to the needle Board was in contact with the stitched layers in the invariable plane /plane flashing/ relative to the average position of the needle Board.

Control of the needle Board is simplified, if the frequency of the flashing remains unchanged, which makes necessary to maintain the relative speed between the needle Board and put the surface in order to achieve a constant surface density flashing. Thus, it is necessary that the contact surface of the flashing needle Board was in a tangential plane relative to the opposite layers of the surface, which will allow to achieve a constant surface density flashing. The implementation of the moving elements with the aim of ensuring that these conditions are achieved while maintaining a constant speed to move the needle Board and the change of rotation speed of the mandrel and/or the speed of moving the axis.

Moving the needle Board and/or the axis of the mandrel presented in the description below. It is clear that any movement of the needle Board can be replaced by the corresponding movement of the mandrel or by a combination of movements of the needle Board and the mandrel, and nabor ravnomernoe flashing naplastovany layers.

It is also known that in the manufacture of stitched preforms try not to let the needle Board struck exactly in the same direction at each turn of the mandrel, as this method is shown to be vulnerable zones in the finished coupling. This will avoid small shift in the result, for example, displacements of the needle Board (or mandrel) in the longitudinal direction of the mandrel (i.e. in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation of the mandrel).

According to this aspect of the invention in the first embodiment, an elliptical mandrel is rotationally driven around its axis for winding on its surface tape of fibrous material and at the same time the axis of the mandrel is approaching and removed cyclically relative to the plane of the flashing along the line perpendicular to the plane of the flashing. The curved surface of the outer layer wound on the mandrel is aligned with the plane of the flashing, and the contact zone forms a line. Moving the axis of the mandrel is adjusted so that the curved surface is always maintained position when the plane is flashing tangential to it at the level of the line of contact. This suggests that part of the curve surface, straighten the plane of the other surface of the mandrel, approaching and removed relative to the plane of the flashing, following thus the movement of the line of contact of the surface of the wound layers with plane flashing. At the time of the contact surface of the flashing needle Board is oriented in a tangential direction relative to the lying opposite the drilled surface.

This first version of the implementation may also take place while maintaining the same position of the axis of rotation of the mandrel. The necessary relative movement between the needle Board and the mandrel will be carried out only by moving the needle Board.

In the second embodiment, an elliptical mandrel still is rotationally driven around its axis and at the same time the axis of the mandrel is approaching and removed cyclically relative to the plane of the flashing along the line perpendicular to the plane of the flashing. In the second embodiment, the area in which the curved surface of the outer wound layer is aligned with the plane of the flashing, is not shifted in this plane; however, the orientation of the curved surface relative to the plane of the flashing changes cyclically as rotation of the mandrel. Thus, the needle DOS is arnosti flashing needle boards so she is in the tangential plane relative to the outer surface of the wound layers at the time of contact between the needle Board and stitched layers.

In the third embodiment, an elliptical mandrel is rotationally driven around its axis and the axis of the mandrel moves, describing the path of the two problemsof. Thus, this movement allows some parts of the curved surface of the outer wound layer is in the same place on the plane of the flashing, which forms a tangent to this part of the curve surface. The needle Board hits in it's permanent place in the plane flashing when the direction of the surface of the flashing may remain unchanged.

Preferred the first of the three embodiments in connection with its relative ease of use.

According to this variant of the invention preforms for the manufacture of annular elements can be obtained by winding tape of fibrous material on an elliptical mandrel with simultaneous and uniform flashing wound layers for the manufacture of an elliptical clutch, which is then cut under nationalpositions.com material, including the above-described method of manufacturing preforms of the stages of the sealing preform, cutting and processing.

Stage seal provided by this method of manufacture of annular elements of the invention can be produced by any known methods. The seal may be initiated before and after removing the clutch from the mandrel. Thus, the coupler can be cut on the ring elements to seal or after one or more stages of compression. It is preferable to carry out at least the first stage seal to the cutting of the coupling, as the strength of the material is higher then the first stage seal.

One of the known methods of sealing - classical method of chemical infiltration of isometric Isobaric gas phase. The sealing element is placed in the installation, in which the gas is fed. And under specified conditions of temperature and pressure have the matrix material as a result of decomposition or reaction components. In the classical method, the installation usually includes a graphite core that defines infiltration space, which is connected with fencing installation inductor. When for the manufacture of annular elements and couplings applies the specified method, the mansion of mu clan, the th elements. For this purpose it is necessary to repeatedly interrupt the seal to clean the surface of the elements, to fully open the pores and allow access to gas.

In the manufacture of elliptic couplers may at least partially seal the coupling means of chemical infiltration from the gas phase with a temperature gradient to the cutting of the coupling. According to this method, the heating of the coupling can be carried out by inductive coupling of the inductor and the armature, which represents the Central core, around which is located the clutch. Thus, a temperature gradient is established between the heated inner surface of the clutch in contact with the anchor and the outer surface. This creates the conditions conducive to seal most of elongated sections of the outer surface of the coupling, and also reduces the risk of premature clogging of pores on the surface of the alien deposition, eliminating the need to clean the surfaces. It should be noted that the heating of the coupling may also be due to direct inductive coupling between the inductor and the clutch, when it allows the nature of the latter (for example, if the coupling of carbon). How condensed is.

In order to further reduce the loss of raw materials in the manufacture of annular elements according to the first and second variants of the invention it is possible to achieve coupling of the elliptical cross-section, having two ends inclined flat surface relative to the coupling section at a right angle, that is, the surface that is parallel to the plane of the under cutting of the coupling.

Installation for the production of preforms for the manufacture of annular elements made of composite material according to the invention includes a mandrel and equipment for winding strips of fibrous material on the mandrel layers one upon the other for the manufacture of preforms, and the mandrel is made in the form of elliptical cross-section for the manufacture of preforms in the form of an elliptical clutch.

In addition, the installation also includes a needle Board for punching wound layers simultaneously with the winding on the elliptical mandrel and the connection between the flashing.

It also contains equipment to move the needle Board and/or the mandrel so that the surface of the suturing needle Board was in a tangential plane relative to the opposite site wound neramexane needle Board and/or the mandrel is made thus some wound outer layer of the preform is constantly tangential plane flashing /T/ at the contact line of /M/.

In other embodiments, installation of the equipment to move the needle Board and/or the mandrel is made:

so that the position of the contact line of the /M/ in the plane of the flashing /T/ is shifted reciprocating movement, and the needle Board moves with it,

thus, to cyclically shift the axle /S/ mandrel along the line of /Q/, consisting of two problemsof, while the position of the contact line of the /M/ in the plane of the flashing /T/ remains the same,

thus, when the offset mandrel some wound outer layer is always in a certain position of the flashing /M/, and the surface of the suturing needle Board changes direction to remain tangential relative to opposite areas of wound outer layer stitched preforms,

- so that the axis of the mandrel did reciprocating motion, approaching and moving away from the plane or the position of the flashing.

In addition, the installation of the needle Board is designed to hit with p the waiting mandrel and the needle Board as increasing the thickness of the package is wound layers.

Installation is also characterized by the fact that the ends of the mandrel have a flat surface, parallel to each other and not perpendicular to the axis of the coupling, and the fact that facilities are provided to control the relative displacement between the mandrel and wound ribbon of material; which is reciprocating in the longitudinal direction of the mandrel.

It should be noted here also other features and advantages of the present invention, which are illustrated by the following non-limiting examples with reference to the drawings, in which:

in Fig. 1 (figures 1A-1D) presents a method of manufacture of annular preforms for the annular elements made of composite material using a cylindrical mandrel;

in Fig. 2 (figures 2A-2D) presents the method according to the present invention, the manufacture of preforms for receiving the annular elements made of composite material using an elliptical mandrel;

in Fig. 3 presents a block diagram of the main stages of production of the ring element according to the method of the invention;

in Fig. 4 (figures 4A-4C) presents stage cutting elliptical coupling according to the invention to obtain klya receiving the annular element with the specified size;

in Fig. 6 - the location of the elliptical mandrel and the needle Board when the winding of the tape on the elliptical mandrel on the first version of the implementation according to the invention;

in Fig. 7 is a diagram of the elliptical movement of the mandrel during the winding in the first embodiment;

in Fig. 8 is a diagram illustrating phase winding of the tape on the elliptical mandrel according to the second variant of implementation;

in Fig. 9 - location of the elliptical mandrel and the needle Board when the winding of the tape on the elliptical mandrel by the third variant of implementation according to the invention;

in Fig. 10 presents a diagram illustrating the elliptical movement of the mandrel during the winding on the third option.

In Fig. 11 presents a side view of an installation for the implementation stage of spinning and flashing in the first embodiment of the implement according to the invention.

The manufacture of preforms for receiving an annular element made of composite material according to the methods of the present invention and manufacture of the element itself includes a number of stages shown in Fig. 3.

The first stage E1 is winding fibrous materials around the elliptical mandrel. Tape of fibrous material can be any and the rials. Fibers have the necessary form (canvas, ribbon, fabric, etc. from the code, continuous filament, filament coated and so on). Raw materials, made of fiber depends on the intended use of the latter. For brake disks is preferably carbon fiber, but may suit other materials, such as ceramic raw materials.

Wound layers are stitched immediately after application of the mandrel (stage E1'). From the further description it is seen that various methods are used to ensure uniform density flashing. As soon as the number of wound layers on the mandrel reaches the desired thickness, winding stops.

Preferably thus obtained elliptic coupler immediately compacted to fill the internal pores (stage E2), for example by the method of chemical infiltration in the gas phase, and is cut at an angle to receive rings (stage E3). Thus, the elliptic coupler is a now subject to compaction of the preform.

The coupling can also be cut before the seal; in this case, cut off the fibrous rings are subject to compaction of the preform. However, this is only possible if Ellas is the R layer allows to obtain the necessary coupling strength. You can also receive the coupling of the layers of fibrous material impregnated with resin.

If elliptical coupling is too weak, so at the end of the winding to remove the mandrel, the stage of compaction can begin and continue up until the coupling is not strong enough (stage E2'). Then the mandrel can be removed and the clutch is cut into rings (stage E3'). Thus obtained predopredennye elements can, after processing again be fed to a sealing device for completion of consolidation (stage E2").

When using described earlier classical methods of chemical infiltration in isothermal gas phase will increase the homogeneity of the matrix in aggregated elements, if the mandrel was removed and the preform is cut before or at least during the compaction process. On the contrary, when using the above method with a temperature gradient coupling can be safely left uncut until the end of the seal; in this case, the seal preform will be uniform and will reduce the loss of material due to lack of necessary clean the surface.

Ring, cut off from the elliptical clutch, do not have a perfect roundness. So what to make, additionally, one or more operations, to get from the above annular ring element product as, for example, the brake disc. For example, the element undergoes final processing to make it relevant to the purpose for which it will be used (stage E5). If we are talking about the products that should be brake discs, this ultimate treatment aimed at receiving grooves on the inner or outer periphery of products.

One or more of these operations can be performed using one or more robots. The use of robotics is provided, in particular, at the stage of manufacture elliptical coupling with the simultaneous winding and flashing. In addition, it should be noted that the mandrel can have a protective coating, such as felt, in which the needle may include, without receiving any damage after flashing the first layer, as described in the already mentioned application France N 2 584 107.

Before describing the installation, which may implement the proposed methods is given below for a more detailed exposition of the stages of cutting an elliptical coupling and simultaneous winding and flashing.

Stage cutting couplings explains the 3 (corresponding elliptical mandrel, used when winding. In Fig. 4A provides end view, and Fig. 4B is a side view. In this example, the cutting plane forms an angle in the 30orelative to the cross-section at a right angle couplers. Lines AD and BC are shown two section planes that define the ring 4.

Cutting an elliptical clutch 2 uses the fact that the projection of the ellipse in the plane passing through its greater axis and forming an angle relative to the plane of the ellipse is a circle, the diameter of which is equal to the major axis of the ellipse. The relationship between the angle and size of the ellipse is given by the formula:

cos = d/a,

where 2a is the major axis of the ellipse, and

2b - minor axis of the ellipse.

When the winding of the material on the elliptical mandrel ratio b/a of the ellipse defined by the outer layer differs from that of the ellipse defined by the mandrel (see Fig. 4A). So,in the inclined plane of the cut relative to the normal plane to the axis of the mandrel can, of course, to get a round shape at the level of the inner periphery of the coupling, but at the level of the outer periphery of the clutch will be an elliptical shape. This means that the eccentricity is cut in an elliptical coupling ring will not be constant across the width of the ring. Preferably choose the angle RA is imago ring (at the level of the mandrel), or at the level of the outer periphery of the cut ring (at the level of the outer surface of the clutch), or between the inner and outer peripheries, and then processed the outer and/or inner periphery of the ring to get a round shape.

In addition, although the surface of each of the rings corresponding to the cutting planes, parallel, however, between them there is some deviation of x. It turns out that the curved surface peripheries of the rings (inner and outer) is not perpendicular to the sides, the respective cutting planes (see Fig. 4C). This is another argument in favor of the need to handle cut off the ring to give it a truly circular form.

Fig. 4C represents the ring 4, is cut using the cutting plane, which approximates to a circular shape in the plane midway between the inner and outer peripheries of the ring, i.e. polshiriny ring. The areas shaded in the drawing correspond to the parts of the ring that must be removed to obtain an element having a truly circular shape.

As explained earlier, for the annular preform, from which will be made annular elements, for example, the relationship between the waste material and the required resistance to delamination of the ring elements. From this point of view of a preferred cutting angle in the range of 10o45ohowever , the angle in the range of 10-30oit is considered preferable to reduce wastage of raw materials. After selecting the cutting angle you can select the eccentricity of the mandrel, allowing to obtain a circular shape in the plane of the cut to the desired width.

When choosing the size of an elliptical mandrel and the thickness of the coupling is obtained by winding, for producing preforms certain internal and external dimensions, consider the result of processing in relation to the internal and external dimensions cut rings. In Fig. 5 illustrates an example of cutting.

In Fig. 5A presents the form of a cut ring 4 when any plane cutting AD or BC Fig. 4 (the shape is the same throughout the thickness of the ring). The plot in the limit polshiriny cut ring has a round shape (see the circle cr of Fig. 5). The outer and inner periphery of the ring elliptical, and therefore the processing required peripheries of the ring to get a round shape (following along the outer circumference ce and inner circle ci of the drawing).

In Fig. 5B and 5C presents the schema, which describes the deviation between the inner and outer circumferences is it and back surfaces of the ring 4. The ratio between the size of an elliptical clutch and cutting angle, on the one hand, and the size of the ring element, obtained after processing of the rings 12 (removal plots, shaded in Fig. 5A), on the other hand, it immediately becomes obvious in Fig. 5. If 2a1and 2b1- the length of the major and minor axes of the ellipse defined by the inner periphery 2a2and 2b2- the length of the major and minor axes of the ellipse defined by the outer periphery of the clutch in the normal section through its axis, the cutting angle relative to the normal section to the axis of the coupling, and D is the diameter, inner and outer, annular preforms which will be generated and e is the thickness of the latter, in this case, it turns out that

> 2a1+x and D < 2a2-x

> 2a1= etan < 2a2-etan

If the desired size of the ring preforms: = 250 mm, D = 450 mm e = 25 mm, and the cutting angle is equal to 30othen elliptical mandrel must have a large axis 2a1maximum 225, and the ellipse defined by the outer surface of the coupling must have a greater axis 2a2equal to 475 mm, at least. Thus, given that the relation cos = b/a with respect to the half-width of the coupling and using the values of 2a1= 225 mm and 2a2= 475 mm, are:

UB>2= of 247.5

Since 2b2- 2b1= 2a2- 2a1= 2x, the thickness of the wound layer (2xf), the minor axis 2b1mandrel equal 122,5 mm and minor axis 2b2ellipse defined by the outer surface of the coupling, equal 372,5 mm

The result of the above-described cutting is that the ends of the elliptical couplings are not used. If we take the example of figs. 5, the coupling length of 1.5 m can be obtained about 30 items, and waste at the ends of the coupling will be approximately 350 mm Obviously, the percentage of waste will be significantly less, if your clutch is longer.

It is also possible implementation of the present invention to reduce the waste of raw materials, will be used if the clutch elliptical cross-section having two sides flat sloping surface relative to the coupling section at a right angle, that is, the end faces parallel to the plane of the under cutting of the coupling. In this case, you can cut coupling elements along the length and at the ends will not remain unused material. The coupling of this form can be made by moving the mandrel in the direction of its axis of reciprocating movement during winding. This coupling can also be made by offset in the longitudinal Amnesty material. When using a small cutting angle coupling this method does not cause any particular problems in relation to the deformation of the canvas or the angle of the fibers relative to the rubbing surfaces are cut away from the coupling elements.

Now describe the phase winding. It should be done so that in case of simultaneous flashing to ensure a uniform density. This task requires cyclical relative displacement between the position capable of piercing the Board and the mandrel to compensate for the effect of eccentricity of the last section.

Fig. 6 illustrates the implementation phase winding in the first embodiment with simultaneous flashing wound layers. This implementation provides that an elliptical mandrel 10 is rotationally driven around its axis S for winding on its surface tape of fibrous material 1. At the same time the axis of the mandrel's approaching and is removed relative to the plane flashing T cycles on a line segment , perpendicular to the plane T. the Curved surface of the outer layer wound on the mandrel, is rectified by plane flashing T, and the contact zone is shown by a line M. the Needle Board opposite the outer surface on the I, to hit and sew the outer layers wound on the mandrel.

The offset mandrel on one half-turn around its axis in the embodiment shown in Fig. 7. The ellipse G in the drawing denotes the outer layers wound on the mandrel 10. The limits of the axis S of the mandrel on the line marked points a and B, and the axis S is at point A, when the major axis of the ellipse G perpendicular to the plane of flashing T /Fig. 1 and 5 in Fig. 7/ and the axis of S is at point B, when the smaller axis of the ellipse G perpendicular to the plane of flashing T (Fig. 3 in Fig. 7). Due to the displacement axis of the mandrel contact line M between the curved surface of the outer layer wound on the mandrel, and a plane flashing T is moved in the plane of the reciprocating movement between two extreme points of the Me (Fig.2 and 4 in Fig. 7).

The needle Board 5 also carries out a reciprocating movement, followed by movement in the plane of the flashing T contact line M

To ensure a constant surface density flashing, if the frequency of the strokes of the needle Board is constant, it is necessary that the relative tangential velocity between the needle Board and outer layer wound on the mandrel, was t Tannoy by synchronizing the speed of displacement of the axis of the mandrel between points a and B and the speed of rotation of the mandrel about its axis of rotation.

For the ellipse G with major axis 2a2and minor axis 2b2the distance between two extreme points of Meequal to 2 /a2-b2/. If the ellipse is a section at right angles to the cylinder axis CC '/C is the center of the ellipse G/, it is preferable that the axis CC ' shifted according to the translational motion described above. In this case, if the rotation speed of the mandrel-W(t) and velocity vT- constant on the mandrel to wind the multiaxial canvas or fabric with a constant tangential velocity.

The invention offers another variant implementation phase winding with simultaneous flashing wound layers, which remains unchanged position of the axis of rotation of the mandrel. The necessary relative movement between the needle Board and the mandrel is carried out by moving the needle Board. In this case, the flashing will be done not in one but in several parallel between the planes. To maintain a constant relative velocity at the moment of contact, it is preferable that the moving speed of the needle Board was constant, and the rotational speed of the mandrel variable.

In addition, each full rotation of the mandrel, it must be removed from and kept constant, remains constant and the same working height of the firmware, for example on the thickness of the several layers. Obviously, this removal can be carried out by moving the mandrel and/or the needle Board. After winding the last layer, you can make a few final calls flashing to keep the density constant flashing in the layers adjacent to the outer periphery, as described in the application France N 2584 107, which was already discussed.

Fig. 8 illustrates a second variant implementation, in which an elliptical mandrel 10, as before, is rotationally driven around its axis S and the axis of the mandrel is approaching and removed relative to the plane flashing T cyclically between two endpoints A and B by a straight line segment . In this case, the moving axis of the mandrel is such that the curve surface of the outer layers wound on the mandrel, is tangent to the plane of the flashing or section, describing the fixed line M of the Needle Board 5 comes into contact with the stitched layers in the area, including this line M. Thus, the needle Board 5 does not need to move in the plane of the flashing. But the needle Board has managed the AI relative to the curved surface layers layers at the level of line M. The direction of the surface of the suturing needle boards relative to the plane T oscillates between two extreme positionscwhere:

c= arctan[(a2-b2)/v(a2b2)]

2a2- major axis of the ellipse defined by the outer wound layer;

2b2- minor axis of the ellipse defined by wound outer layer.

This implementation provides constant surface density flashing through appropriate control of the speed of rotation of the mandrel, the speed of displacement of the axis of the mandrel in the direction and speed of changing the direction of the needle Board.

Fig. 9 and 10 illustrate a third alternative implementation, in which an elliptical mandrel still is driven into rotation around its axis and the axis of the mandrel is shifted, describing the path Q, consisting of two problemsof /see Fig. 9/. Due to the movement of the mandrel curve of the outer surface of the wound layers remains tangent to the plane flashing across the constant line M. This allows the needle Board to hit in a fixed area in the plane of the flashing and to comply with certain orientation relative to this plane. This decision harder , wound outer layer at a time as the mandrel makes a half-revolution around its axis). However, exercise may help tools, robotics, used to control the movement of the mandrel.

In Fig. 11 shows the installation for the implementation stage of spinning and flashing in the first embodiment of implementation described above, according to the variant in which the axis of the mandrel is not shifted, and shifted the needle Board, which describes the elliptical movement. In this case, the contact between the needle Board and the outer wound layers takes place in multiple parallel planes, and the needle Board tangential surface, which is stitched at the moment of contact.

Installation of Fig. 11 includes a frame 100, the unit is flashing 500 and block unwinding 600, located on the processed plate 200, and this in turn on the deck 300.

Block unwinding 600 includes a coil 6 tape of fibrous material 1 is wound on a Central core. The motor-reducer 7 results in rotational movement of the Central rod of the coil 6, so that unwinding the tape 1 and submit to the unit frame 100. At the beginning of the unwinding tape 1 is driven around a mandrel manually until made one complete revolution and the free end of flax is sustained fashion block of the mandrel during the subsequent winding. Element 9 for measuring the diameter of the coil 6 is mounted on the coil, to measure the thickness of the diameter of the coil during winding. Item measurement of diameter 9 continuously or periodically determines the diameter of the coil 6, using, for example, optical means. The signal supplied by the measuring element diameter 9, allows you to manage the increasing distance between the unit frame 100 and the unit flashing 500 as increasing the thickness of the layers wound on the mandrel.

The power mandrel 100 includes an elliptical mandrel 10 with a small eccentricity, mounted on a Central shaft, and this in turn on the frame 12.

The bed 12 is mounted on the plate 200 and is sent to the Central rail 13, which is located along the plate 200, so that it may move away from block flashing 500 on a signal received from the measuring element diameter 9 block unwinding 600. The motor-reducer 14 results in rotational movement of the Central shaft and the mandrel 10. In this way the implementation of the geared motor 14 changes the speed of rotation of the mandrel 10 so as to maintain constant the relative tangential velocity between the stitched surface and the needle Board.

Central is the pressure, that is, in the direction of the axis of the mandrel 10, and this alternating movement is used to move slightly impact the position of the needle Board and avoid flashing constantly in the same radial planes. Pinch roller 16 presses the wound outer layer mandrel 10 and supports wound layers. In Fig. 11 by the arrow And shows the way done pressure roller 16 during winding.

Block flashing 500 includes a needle Board 5 located across the width of the tape of fibrous material 1 and directed to the first end of the retractable arm 20. Retractable arm is attached the other end to the crankcase 22. Arm 20 forms a presser paw its first end, which is pressed to the stitched surface of the coupling by means of the Jack 23, which relies on the crankcase 22. The needle Board is served in the shock position in the transverse direction, i.e. in the horizontal direction in Fig. 11. Reciprocating motion of the shock of the needle Board is a drive device with a Cam 29, which is located in the crankcase 22. In this form of implementation, the frequency of the strokes of the needle Board 5 is kept constant. In addition, the block flashing 500 includes a suction lye.

The crankcase 22 is placed on the support plate 25, as determined and directed along the rod 13, which allows him to move away and close relative to the unit frame 100 on team gear motor 26. Another motor-reducer 28 controls the vertical movement of the crankcase 22. Using motors-gears 26 and 28 is periodic elliptical displacement of the needle Board on the implementation of the first variant of the method of winding and flashing, as described above. In addition, by means of gear motor 26 constant depth flashing as thickening of the clutch.

Described previously, the methods and devices allow the manufacture of preforms for ring elements for various purposes. In particular, the mean brake discs. The above-described methods of making preforms, as well as a selection of fibrous materials can be selected in relation to the appointment of products. In relation to the brake disc preform positioned fibers during winding relative to the rubbing surfaces may contribute to the optimization of preform.

If, for example, in the above-described methods of spinning and flashing minaprine (0oand the 90o) texture (fabric or idle) so that one and glom 45oyou can get brake discs, in which the fiber has a bend at 45oregarding the rubbing surfaces. When using the brake discs made from a preform obtained by the above methods, shear efforts will no longer act in the interlayer direction.

Equally, when the winding multiaxial fabrics or canvas of the carbon fibers (2 or 3 directions) with two distinct directions of threads, you can choose the angle of the threads relative to the friction surfaces of the alleged brake disc. In addition, the threads of one of the directions can be composed of continuous carbon fibers, and the connection of the flashing is secured by threads coated, similar to that described in the application France N 669 940, which are arranged in the other direction (when orienting igol).

1. Method for the production of preforms for the manufacture of annular elements made of composite material including a winding ribbon of fibrous material on the mandrel layers one upon the other for the manufacture of preforms in the form of clutches intended for subsequent cutting of the ring elements, wherein the tape is wound on ellipticalarc cutting it on planes not perpendicular to the axis of the coupling.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the wound each other layers connected to each other by flashing.

3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that each new layer stitch simultaneously with winding through the needle boards located across the width of the tape.

4. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that at the stage of spinning and flashing the needle Board and the mandrel to move relative to each other so that in the moment of contact between the surface of the suturing needle Board is in the tangential plane relative to the opposite layers of the layer.

5. The method according to p. 4, characterized in that at the stage of spinning and flashing the frame and the needle Board move relative to each other in such a way that some part of the wound outer layer constantly tangential plane flashing T at the contact line.

6. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that at the stage of spinning and flashing the frame and the needle Board move relative to each other so that the position of the contact line M in the plane of the flashing T is shifted according to the reciprocating motion.

7. The method according to p. 3, Otley is Aut unchanged, while the axis S of the mandrel cyclically shifted, describing the path Q, consisting of two problemsof.

8. The method according to p. 4, characterized in that at the stage of spinning and flashing the mandrel is moved in such a way that some part of the wound outer layer is always in a certain position of the flashing M, and the surface of the suturing needle Board changes direction in order to remain tangential relative to the opposite site of drilled layer.

9. The method according to p. 6 or 8, characterized in that at the stage of spinning and flashing the mandrel rotates around its axis and the axis S of the mandrel performs reciprocating motion, approaching and leaving the plane or position flashing.

10. The method according to any of paragraphs.2-9, characterized in that at the stage of spinning and flashing needle Board hits with the same frequency.

11. The method according to any of paragraphs.2-10, characterized in that at the stage of spinning and flashing the average distance between the mandrel and the needle Board increases with the thickness of the package is wound layers.

12. The method according to any of paragraphs.2-10, characterized in that the ends of the mandrel are flat p is asiania there is relative displacement between the mandrel and the tape of the material being wound, which acts as a reciprocating motion in the longitudinal direction of the mandrel.

13. A method of manufacturing an annular element made of composite material, including the production of the preforms in the form of the coupling and cut it into rings, characterized in that the produce preforms in the form of an elliptical clutch according to any one of the preceding paragraphs and cut it into rings on planes that are not perpendicular to the axis of the coupling.

14. The method according to p. 13, characterized in that the cutting angle of the coupling is chosen so that the cut rings have a round cross-section on the inner or outer periphery or to the cutting was carried out in a certain place between the inner and outer peripheries.

15. The method according to p. 14, characterized in that the cutting angle is chosen so as to cut off the ring were all within polshiriny ring.

16. The method according to any of paragraphs.13, 14 or 15, characterized in that the cutting of the coupling is carried out after at least one stage seal clutch.

17. The method according to p. 16 characterized in that the sealing couplings perform a method of chemical infiltration from the gas phase with a temperature gradient.

the processing, characterized in that the manufacture of the ring element carried out according to any one of paragraphs.13-17, and handle internal and/or external periphery of the annular element.

19. The method according to p. 18, characterized in that at the stage of winding the tape minaprine texture of fibrous material wound on the mandrel, and one of the areas corresponds to the feed direction on the mandrel.

20. Installation for the production of preforms for the manufacture of annular elements made of composite material containing the mandrel and equipment for winding strips of fibrous material on the mandrel layers one upon the other for the manufacture of preforms, characterized in that the mandrel is made of elliptical cross-section for the manufacture of preforms in the form of an elliptical clutch.

21. Installation according to p. 20, characterized in that it contains also the needle Board for punching wound layers simultaneously with the winding on the elliptical mandrel and the connection between the flashing.

22. Installation according to p. 21, characterized in that it also contains equipment to move the needle Board and/or the mandrel so that the surface of the suturing needle Board was in the tangential plane otesgo contact.

23. Installation according to p. 22, characterized in that the equipment to move the needle Board and/or the mandrel is made in such a way that some portion wound around the outer layer of the preform is constantly tangential plane flashing T at the contact line M

24. Installation on p. 23, characterized in that the equipment to move the needle Board and/or the mandrel is designed so that the position of the contact line M, in the plane of the flashing T is shifted reciprocating movement, and the needle Board moves with it.

25. Installation on p. 23, characterized in that the equipment for shifting the needle Board and/or the mandrel is designed to cyclically shift the axis S of the mandrel along the line Q, consisting of two problemsof, while the position of the contact line M in the plane of the flashing T remains unchanged.

26. Installation according to p. 22, characterized in that the equipment for shifting the needle Board and/or the mandrel is designed so that when the offset mandrel some wound outer layer is always in a certain position of the flashing M, and the surface of the suturing needle Board changes direction to remain tangential O. the situation on p. 23, characterized in that the equipment for shifting the needle Board and/or the mandrel is designed in such a way that the axis of the mandrel did reciprocating motion, approaching and moving away from the plane or the position of the flashing.

28. Installation according to any one of paragraphs.20-27, wherein the needle Board is designed to hit with a constant frequency.

29. Installation according to any one of paragraphs.20-28, characterized in that it also contains equipment to increase the average distance between the mandrel and the needle Board as increasing the thickness of the package is wound layers.

30. Installation according to any one of paragraphs.20-29, characterized in that the ends of the mandrel have a flat surface, parallel to each other and not perpendicular to the axis of the coupling, which provides equipment to control the relative displacement between the mandrel and wrap the tape material, which is reciprocating in the longitudinal direction of the mandrel.

 

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FIELD: production of insulating mats from fibrous materials, in particular, from mineral filaments.

SUBSTANCE: method involves forming and packaging felted insulating mats from fibrous materials, such as mineral filaments, composed of set of parallel strips moved by means of transportation device, said strips being moved through at least one branch of device, with following bringing of said strips to at least one feeding device for arranging strips one onto another to create at least one longitudinal stack of strips manufactured from mineral material; compressing said stack and cutting compressed stack of strips in transverse direction for forming felted insulating mats.

EFFECT: provision for producing and packaging of felted insulating mats without employment of large-sized transportation, cutting, compressing and packaging equipment, and reduced labor intensity.

13 cl, 6 dwg

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