The method of acceleration of electrons and electron accelerator
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to accelerator technology. The method of acceleration of the charged particle beam is to manage them on the sides of the polygon. At each side of the polygon is set to dipole with a longitudinal magnetic field and the sealing device with the accelerating electrode system of accelerating voltage. The technical result - the accelerator based on the proposed method provides the energy of the electrons over 10000 TeV = 1016eV. 2 S. p. f-crystals, 1 Il. The invention relates to accelerator technology, in particular to powerful electron accelerators.For electron accelerators there is a vast literature, in particular, is presented in [1 - 7].There are two main ways of accelerating electrons, ensuring the achievement of high energy in the process of acceleration. These methods are materialized in the schemes of linear and circular accelerators, the advantages and disadvantages are shown in . "... the advantages of linear accelerators turned out to be decisive in relation to electron accelerators ... the only one with no loss of radiation allows a linear accelerator to compete successfully with synchrotron is change the main trends in the development of accelerators" . The largest cumulative ring (LEP, 10 GeV) with a circumference of 27 km, the total length 3400 magnets keep the beams of particles in orbit with a relatively weak magnetic field of 0.1 T and more than 1,300 quadrupole, sextupole magnets focusing . Already seen the limits of modern technology accelerators. The authors of  suggest that "... as for LEP step can only be linear accelerator", ". .. it is not clear, is it possible to create - Collider at a very high energy . To solve the problems associated with synchrotron radiation drives the energy of the LEP and more, the authors of  suggest the use of linear accelerators, shooting each other single bunches of electrons and positrons with a frequency of ~10 Hz.From [1 - 7] shows that ways of accelerating electrons have a fundamental and fatal flaws:
1. The process of electron acceleration in linear accelerators is limited by the length of the rectilinear orbit with a limited rate of acceleration.2. The process of acceleration of electrons along a circular orbit in an increasing magnetic field of a circular accelerator is limited by synchrotron radiation.In the future electron accelerators in  the exhibition is the luminosity.In the present invention solves the problem of removing the limitations on the value of the energy Emaxreached in the process of accelerating electrons, i.e. the task of creating an ideal electron accelerator.The essence of the invention is that the control methods of the process of electron acceleration in a straight line or on a circle in the increasing magnetic field is replaced by the process of electron acceleration along the sides of the polygon, each side of which establish the deflecting dipole with a longitudinal magnetic field and the longitudinal magnetic field of the sealing device with the electrodes of the system of accelerating voltage.Consider as a prototype of authorship N 1499729 containing bending magnets (dipoles) ring structure, separated by a rectilinear spaces to accommodate the accelerating system, corrective magnetic lenses, and other accessories. By design, the specified AC is a synchrotron with a hard focus.The disadvantages of the prototype:
1. The problem of increasing energy in the main accelerator technology is practically solved by increasing the geometric dimensions of the accelerator.2. With ROSTO the energy consumption from the industrial network,
- the difficulty to control the output coordinates of main technical systems of the accelerator.3. The straight sections reduce the effective radius of the orbit.4. Hard focus increases the list of shortcomings of the accelerator, it is the result of insufficient knowledge of management processes in the accelerator.5. Synchrotron radiation limits limits accelerator largest attainable energy.6. Popular multi-stage scheme of the accelerator process.7. Large operating costs.The structure of the prototype is built on the principle of dissipation of energy in space, which makes all its flaws.The problem to be solved in the claimed invention, is the creation of a compact amount of the accelerator of charged particles with energy:
E > ... 1016... 1020... eV.This result is achieved in that the transport and acceleration of electrons produced on the sides of the polygon, each of which set the dipole and the accelerating device containing the sealing device with the accelerating electrodes, while the dipoles and sealing devices perform with prodovikova voltage.In the proposed scheme the electron accelerator closed contour is a polygon, each side of which has a dipole and an accelerating device that includes a sealing device with a symmetrical set accelerating electrodes, is connected to the AC high voltage and the winding of the sealing device connected to the current source, while the dipoles and the sealing device is made with a longitudinal magnetic field.Deflecting dipole changes the direction of the orbit to the angle between the velocity vector of a charged particle and the direction of the magnetic induction B, where a charged particle moving in deflecting the dipole at a helix with radius r and pitch of the screw h.< / BR>< / BR>B - the magnetic field deflecting dipole in Tesla;
E, E0- total energy and rest energy of a charged particle.From the formula (1) shows that the radius of revolution of the rotating particles in the acceleration process varies from zero to values, asymptotically approaching at E____ to the target value. The limited size of the radius of the coil body expresses and ensures the sustainability of the process an unlimited increase energy team dawn is corites from all known schemes accelerators.When the movement of charged particles along the Central orbit their energy is increased by the voltage of the accelerating device at each side of the polygon is directly proportional to the time development of the accelerator process:
< / BR>U1the accelerating voltage in the side of the polygon;
Tythe time development of the process of acceleration, s;
R is the radius of the described circle of the polygon, mThe drawing shows a diagram of the electron accelerator as an example of application of the proposed method of accelerating charged particles, where
1 - deflecting dipole with a longitudinal magnetic field,
2 - accelerating electrode system accelerating voltage,
3 - block high voltage
4 - sealing device with a longitudinal magnetic field,
5, 6 - current sources.The drawing shows the maximum number of current sources and voltage; their number can be reduced by switching devices of the magnetic system and the parallel power of the accelerating electrode system accelerating voltage.In the drawing, the arrows indicate the Central orbit of the accelerator in the form of a Pentagon. From the presented formulas are well visible the optimal number of sides of the polygon and the size of the radius R of the described circle. The proposed accelerator is a very small object, there is no problem focusing in the traditional sense and therefore, the device 4 is called sealing; POS. 4 provides:
- the required value of space charge density in the movement of electrons along the sides of the polygon,
- the size of the beam due to the change of the magnetic field in POS. 4.The density of space charge is equal to:
= 4,85 1012IN2electron/cm3.The parameters of the ground acceleration are provided by a controllable current sources 5, 6.In a known process accelerators of charged particle acceleration is based on the high-way acceleration features which should be considered as fundamental deficiencies in the high-frequency acceleration system of charged particles.Evenly placed accelerating electrodes 2 are structurally designed based on the principle of geometrical symmetry.The geometric shape on the principle of geometrical symmetry are:
two symmetrically arranged plates,
two symmetrically located hemisphere,
two symmetrical rings overstim electrostatics to suppress the braking of the electric field upon passage of charged particles through the accelerating electrodes. When choosing a particular design of the accelerating electrodes should be based on its effectiveness, i.e. the maximum of the increase in energy per unit length of the accelerating electrodes. Accelerating electrodes 2, are installed in the sealing device 4 with a longitudinal magnetic field, connected to a fully managed unit high voltage 3.From the formula (3) shows that the magnitude of attainable energy in the proposed scheme accelerator, unlike traditional circular accelerators, directly depends on the magnitude of the magnetic induction of a dipole is the process of acceleration of charged particles is specified at constant magnetic field.From the formula (3) shows that the energy value achieved in the proposed scheme, is inversely proportional to the radius of the described circle R of the polygon. The value of R should be minimal and should be determined by the dimensions of the devices on each side of the polygon, i.e. the proposed method of charged particle acceleration ensures small size of the accelerator.Therefore, the proposed method of controlling the charged particle beam structurally theoretically provides an unlimited amount of attainable energy E of the beam of charged particles at miniot industrial network.From the presented formulas can be seen that the proposed accelerator
- working with a minimum level of injection,
- can provide beams of charged particles from the lowest level up to very high energies, i.e., more than 10000 TeV = 1016eV.The structure of the schema accelerator allows both continuous mode and pulsed mode by a corresponding control of the power devices of the accelerator. When energy accelerator more than 100 TeV for economic reasons it may be appropriate to switch to pulse mode of operation of the accelerator.In the traditional scheme of cyclic electron accelerator is already at 10 GeV (30 yd range) radiation losses onerous: equal 29,25 MeV per one revolution of the electron . In  it is recommended inefficient sentence: "...to reduce losses by radiation without changing the final energy of the accelerator it is necessary to reduce the maximum induction of a magnetic field, which leads to an increase of the whole accelerator complex".In the proposed scheme accelerator full power radiation of electrons is negligible:
< / BR>B - induction of a dipole, TL,
n is the number of electrons in the beam,
P - Perim the Izdat, 1965.2. Kapczinski I. M., Theory of linear resonance accelerators. - M.: Energoatomizdat, 1982.3. Kane, Modern elementary particle physics: TRANS. from English. - M.: Mir, 1990.4. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Century , Staudt A. non-accelerator particle physics: TRANS. with it. - M.: Nauka, Fizmatlit, 1997.5. Komar E., fundamentals of accelerator technology. - M.: Atomizdat, 1975.6. Lebedev A. N., Sallnow A. C. fundamentals of physics and technology of accelerators. - M.: Energoatomizdat, 1991.7. Proceedings of the sixth all-Union conference on charged particle accelerators, so 1, S. 27. 1. The method of acceleration of electrons involved in the transport of electrons in the acceleration process in a closed loop containing a number of sections, each of which set the dipole and the accelerating device, characterized in that the transport and acceleration of electrons produced on the sides of the polygon, each of which set the dipole and the accelerating device containing the sealing device with the accelerating electrodes, while the dipoles and sealing devices perform with longitudinal magnetic field and connected to the current sources and the electrodes of the accelerating device is connected to b is, each of which has a dipole and an accelerating device, wherein the closed path is a polygon, each side of which has a dipole and an accelerating device that includes a sealing device with a symmetrical set accelerating electrodes, is connected to the AC high voltage and the winding of the sealing device connected to the current source, while the dipoles and the sealing device is made with a longitudinal magnetic field.
FIELD: accelerating equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device has magnetizing winding, acceleration chamber, injector, accelerating resonator and pulse power sources. One-coil magnetizing winding is composed of four similar sections, positioned on curvilinear portions of trajectory of accelerated particles, each of which is made in form of two concentrically positioned ring sectors, made of conductive, for example, copper bands, connected on one end electrically, and on other end connected to different poles of pulse or alternating power source, while bands are curved in width so, that convexity is directed outside from rings axis. Edges of bands are interconnected by dielectric vacuum compactors. Curvilinear sections of winding are connected to each other by rectilinear vacuum electron or ion ducts for forming closed acceleration chamber.
EFFECT: simplified construction and technology for manufacturing and assembling device, decreased mass and dimensions.
1 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medical equipment and can be used in carrying out radiotherapy of malignant tumours. Method includes carrying out pre-radial preparation, which includes patient fixation, determination of topometric parametres of malignant tumours, elaboration of procedure of conformal irradiation, taking into account topometric parametres of malignant tumours, closely located tissues and organs, critical to irradiation, carrying out a session of conformal irradiation with control of dose received by malignant tumour, permissible values of irradiation source parametres, radiation background, temperature of various sites of irradiation source and magneto-optical chains of beam delivery to malignant tumour. During pre-radial preparation and during session of conformal irradiation patient is fixed in identical adjusted position, topometrical parametres of malignant tumours are determined and beam of hadrons is delivered to patient's malignant tumour in form of pulse of resolution/permission of beam supply onto malignant lung tumour at the moment of pause between patient's inhale and exhale in case of absence of peak of pulse wave of heart beats with constant dimensions of chest. Medical proton-ionic complex contains generator of charged particles, connected via multi-channel device of magnetic transportation of irradiation with multi-channel radiotherapy device provided with radiating heads, cryogenic station, unit of refrigerating gas machines, equipment of control and alarm signalling, as well as subsystem of digital means of control, whose control outlet is switched to inlet of permission of beam supply of charged particles generator. Generator of charged particles is provided with accelerating and deviating magnets, multi-channel device of magnetic transportation of irradiation - with transporting and deviating magnets, and irradiating heads of radiotherapy devices - with scanning and focusing magnets. Windings of all magnets are made superconductive and are provided with channels of cooling, connected via vapour-gaseous mixture of cooling agent with cryogenic station, and via gaseous cooling agent - with refrigerating gas machines. Additionally complex contains means of physiological feedback, which include means, determining time parametres of breathing in form of thermally sensitive sensors, responding to cold air during inhale and to hot air during exhale or optoelectronic sensors, responding to change of chest dimensions during patient's breathing, and pulse wave of patient's heart beats in mode of real time, placed on patient's body.
EFFECT: application of invention makes it possible to irradiate malignant tumours of liver more accurately in process of patients' breathing without trauma to closely located healthy tissues and organs.
5 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medical equipment, and can be used in beam therapy of malignant tumours. The method involves pre-beam preparation consisting in fixation of a patient, evaluation of topographometric parametres of malignant tumours, development of a conformal irradiation procedure considering the topographometric parametres of malignant tumours, adjacent tissues and bodies critical to irradiation, a conformal irradiation session with controlling a dose produced by the malignant tumour, admissible parametres of an irradiation source, a radiation background, temperature of various irradiation source regions and magnetic optical chains of beam delivery to the malignant tumour. During the pre-beam preparation and conformal irradiation session, the patient is fixed in an identical adjusted position, the topographometric parametres of the malignant tumours are evaluated, and a hadron beam is delivered to the malignant tumour of the patient in the form of an enable pulse of beam delivery to the malignant pulmonary tumour during a respiratory pause of the patient in the absence of cardiac beat pulse wave peak with a constant size of a thorax. A therapeutic proton-ionic complex comprises a charged particle generator connected through a multichannel magnetic radiation transporter to a multichannel beam therapy apparatus supplied with radiating heads, a cryogenic station, a gas refrigerator unit, a control and alarm equipment, and also a digital control means subsystem with its driving output connected to an beam delivery enable input of the charged particle generator. The charged particle generator is supplied with accelerating and deflecting magnets, while the multichannel magnetic radiation transporter comprises transporting and deflecting magnets, and the irradiating heads of the beam therapy apparatuses have scanning and focusing magnets. All magnetic windings are superconducting and have the cooling channels connected by a gas-vapour mixture of the cooling agent with the cryogenic station, and by a gas cooling agent - with the gas refrigerators. In addition, the complex accommodates physiological feedback means comprising time respiratory parametre means in the form of heat-sensitive sensors reacting to cold air in inhalation and on hot air in exhalation or optical electronic sensors reacting on the thorax size variation in respiration, and cardiac beat pulse wave in real time located on the patient's body.
EFFECT: use of the invention allows more precise irradiation of the malignant pulmonary tumours during respiration not injuring the adjacent healthy tissues and bodies.
5 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medical equipment, and can be used in hadron radiation therapy of malignant tumours. The method involves the pre-radiation preparation consisting in fixing a patient, evaluating the topographometric parameters of the malignant tumours, developing a conformal irradiation session. Conducting the conformal irradiation session is combined with regulating a radiation dose received by the malignant tumour, adjusting the acceptable values of irradiation source parameters, a radiation background, temperature values of various places of the irradiation source and magnetooptical chain of beam delivery of the malignant tumour. During the pre-radiation preparation and conformal irradiation session, the patient is fixed in an identical adjusted position, the topographometric parameters of the malignant tumours are evaluated, and a hadron beam is delivered to the malignant tumour of the patient in the form of an enable pulse of beam delivery to the tracheal tumour during a respiratory pause of the patient in the absence of cardiac beat pulse wave peak with a constant size of a thorax. A complex comprises a charged particle generator connected through a multichannel magnetic radiation transporter to a multichannel radiation therapeutic apparatus supplied with radiating heads, a cryogenic station, a gas refrigerator unit, a control and alarm equipment, and also a digital control means subsystem. The charged particle generator is supplied with accelerating and deflecting magnets, while the multichannel magnetic radiation transporter comprises transporting and deflecting magnets, and the irradiating heads of the radiation therapeutic apparatuses have scanning and focusing magnets. All magnetic windings are superconducting and have the cooling channels connected by a gas-vapour mixture of the cooling agent with the cryogenic station, and by a gas cooling agent - with the gas refrigerators. In addition, the complex accommodates physiological feedback means comprising time respiratory evaluators in the form of heat-sensitive sensors or optical electronic sensors reacting on the thorax size variation in respiration, and cardiac beat pulse wave in real time located on the patient's body.
EFFECT: use of the invention allows more precise irradiation of the tracheal tumour during respiration not injuring the adjacent healthy tissues and organs.
5 cl, 2 dwg