The transmission line


H01P3/02 - with two longitudinal conductors
H01B11/12 - Arrangements for exhibiting specific transmission characteristics (loading coils per seH01F0017080000; coil-loaded circuits H04B)

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to electronic engineering and microelectronics, and in particular to transmission lines. The technical result is the construction of transmission lines with controlled using an external voltage wave impedance and length. On a transmission line can be built modulators and switches. The transmission line that contains multiple two-wire transmission lines, in which one of the conductors General, and other conductors, including those made with different length, or are connected with the conductive areas or performed with a gap relative to the conductive sections forming an ohmic contact to the semiconductor layer, electron or hole conduction type formed with navipress the contact-conductive sections are made at the beginning or at the end of the transmission line or at the beginning and end of the transmission line, the surface layer is made of semiconductor or metal layer with another navipress contact, forming a film of a p-n junction or a Schottky barrier with inhomogeneous along the direction crossing areas impurity profile when carrying conductors with a gap relative to the conductive formed navipress contact, on the surface of which is formed the p-n junction or a Schottky barrier with inhomogeneous along the direction crossing areas impurity profile with other navipress contact, the choice of the wave resistance and the length of the transmission line is determined by the voltage at the p-n junctions or Schottky barriers. 5 C.p. f-crystals, 15 ill.

The invention relates to the field of electronics and microelectronics, and in particular to transmission lines. The invention can be used to build transmission lines with controlled characteristic impedance and length, as well as the switch.

Prior art

Under the transmission line is usually understood as a device that enables the directed transport of electric energy or to transmit signals from one object to another. Usually the transmission line in electrical and radio engineering is a system of wires or cables. Most often in the microwave microelectronics uses a microstrip transmission line, representing a two-wire line containing two conductive strips, between which is formed an insulating or politology layer. See, for example, "electronics", Encyclopedia words the 405. The disadvantages of all transmission lines is that the parameters of the transmission line, such as an impedance and length, are not governed by an external voltage source, which makes it difficult to microminiaturization, setting, frequency restructuring and coordination of a large number of microwave devices.

The objective of this invention is to provide a transmission line that has no analogues, with adjustable using an external electrical voltage wave impedance and controlled using an external voltage the line length and the creation of a transmission line to regulate when an external electrical voltage number connected to the transmission line loads and to connect to a transmission line using an external electrical voltage required load, and also to modulate the magnitude of the load connected to the transmission line, controlling voltage.

The solution of this problem is provided by the fact that the transmission line that contains multiple two-wire transmission lines, in which one of the conductors General, and other conductors, including those made with different length, or are connected with the conductive areas 1, forming the floor with the Ohm relatively conductive areas 1, formed at the beginning or at the end of the transmission line or at the beginning and end of the transmission line, on the surface of the semiconductor layer electron or hole conduction type formed with navipress contact made of semiconductor or metal region with other navipress by forming a contact with the semiconductor layer p-n junction or a Schottky barrier with inhomogeneous along the direction crossing areas 1 impurity profile when carrying conductors with a gap relative to the conductive areas 1 over the gap made another semiconductor layer electron or hole conduction type formed with navipress contact, on the surface of which is formed the p-n junction or a Schottky barrier with inhomogeneous along the direction crossing areas 1 impurity profile with other navipress contact, the choice of the wave resistance and the length of the transmission line is determined by the voltage at the p-n junctions or Schottky barriers. In addition, the transmission line may differ by the fact that over conductive areas and contacts to semiconductor regions made of insulating layer or insulating layer is made between the contacts to the means of using an external bias in the number of two-wire lines, forming a transmission line.

In the following the invention is illustrated by drawings and schedules are:

in Fig. 1 shows a transmission line with a variable wave impedance with the input source with the source of control voltage;

in Fig. 2 - transmission line with a variable impedance, manufactured in planar technology;

in Fig. 3 - transmission line with a variable impedance, which p-n junction (Schottky barrier) is formed on the input and output lines;

in Fig. 4 is the transmission line with a variable characteristic impedance and length;

in Fig. 5 - part device transmission lines with controlled characteristic impedance and length;

in Fig. 6 is a variant of the device of the transmission line with controlled characteristic impedance and length;

in Fig. 7 - part device transmission line with a p-n junction in the form of a wedge;

in Fig. 8 - the device is wedge-shaped p-n junction in the transmission line, made over the gaps between the conductive areas and conductors;

in Fig. 9 is a transmission line with a p-n junction on heterogeneous alloy substrate;

in Fig. 10 is an example of using a transmission line as a switch;

in Fig. 11 - vospolenie transmission lines with controlled characteristic impedance and length;

in Fig. 13 is a device made of a transmission line with controlled characteristic impedance and length;

in Fig. 14 - the calculated dependence of the wave resistance of the line from the number of the strips;

In Fig. 15 experimental dependence of the standing wave ratio transmission lines from voltage.

To explain the operation of the controlled transmission lines refer to Fig. 1, which shows one of the variants of the proposed transmission line that contains (see Fig. 1) conductive strips 1, conductive strip 2 which forms with areas of 1 two-wire line, the dielectric layer 3, inhomogeneously doped along line width impurities of n-type semiconductor layer 4 with the ohmic contact region 5 with ohmic contact, which forms with the region 4 of p-n junction or a Schottky barrier. In Fig. 1 shows also a source of control voltage 6 connected p-n junction through the orifice 7, which serves for decoupling circuits of the input signal and the control voltage AC, input signal source 8. On top of the conductive strips 1 are formed n-type layer 4, forming strips 1 ohmic contact. Moreover, the layer 4 inhomogeneously doped along the width of the line (along napravleniya region 5 with ohmic contact, which forms with the region 4 of p-n junction or a Schottky barrier. Increasing the blocking voltage U (source 6) on the transition of the size along the Z region of neutrality in the n-type semiconductor H(U) is continuously decreasing. This effective line width W with increments equal to the width of the strips 1, repeat H(U), which leads to a proportional increase in wave resistance of the line is ~ 1 H(U)).

When manufacturing semiconductor devices by planar epitaxial technology all contacts, as a rule, are formed on one surface of the semiconductor wafer, and the contacts are separated from each other by a dielectric layer (SiO2). In Fig. 2 presents the managed transmission line is made through a planar-epitaxial technology. The line contains (see Fig. 2) conductive strips 1, conductive strip 2, the dielectric layer 3, inhomogeneous alloy along line width impurities of n-type region 4 with ohmic contact region 5 with ohmic contact, which forms with the region 4 of p-n junction. In Fig. 2 shows also the source of control voltage 6 connected p-n junction through the orifice 7, which serves for decoupling circuits of the input source and control the and and antimony (to form ohmic contact with the n-type semiconductor). As the dielectric used is silicon dioxide. Ohmic contact to p-region 5 made of aluminum. Ohmic contact to the n-region 4 (signalisierung in the area of contact is also made of aluminum, the strip 2 is also made of aluminum. All of the contacts from each other separated by a protective layer of silicon dioxide 9. To exclude the influence of capacitive coupling between areas 1 and 5 p-n junction (Schottky barrier) may be formed over a portion of the strips 1. Cm. Fig. 3, which shows one of the variants of the proposed transmission line, which contains the conductors 11 (continuations which are conductive areas 1) made with different length, conductive strip 2 (common conductor, forming with conductors 11 two-wire line), the dielectric layer 3, inhomogeneous alloy along line width impurities of n-type region 4 with ohmic contact region 5 with ohmic contact, which forms with the region 4 of p-n junction or a Schottky barrier. In Fig. 3 shows also a source of control voltage 6 connected p-n junction through the orifice 7, which serves for decoupling circuits of the input signal and the control voltage AC, input signal source 8, the resistance nagm the degree of doping of the film 4 increases the output line along the Z growth Z) and falls on the entrance line along Z. The second way to eliminate unwanted influence of capacitive coupling between areas 1 and 5 is that the p-n junction is inhomogeneous along the Z lagerbuchse as the n-region and p-region. Moreover, as growth control voltage the size of the region of neutrality along Z in the p-region is reduced, as in the n-region.

To review the operation of the transmission line, which varies as the wave impedance and line length, refer to Fig. 4, which presents an example of such a transmission line. The line has conductors 11, which on the inlet and outlet lines are connected with the conductive areas 1, conductive strip 2 (common conductor, forming with 11 two-wire line), the dielectric layer 3, inhomogeneous alloy along the width of the line z impurities of n-type (along the direction crossing the conductive areas 1), region 4 with ohmic contact region 5 with ohmic contact, which forms with the region 4 of p-n junction or a Schottky barrier. In Fig. 4 shows also the source of control voltage 6 connected p-n junction through the orifice 7, which serves for decoupling circuits of the input signal and the control voltage AC, input signal source 8, the resistance of ICEM the degree of doping of the film 4 increases the output line along the Z growth Z) and falls on the entrance line along Z. Increasing the blocking voltage U (source 6) on the transition of the size along the Z region of neutrality in the n-type semiconductor H(U) is continuously decreasing. This effective line width W with increments equal to the width of the strips 1, repeat H(U), which leads to a proportional increase in wave resistance of the line ( ~ 1/H(U)). The length of the line with increasing blocking voltage gradually grows to a maximum length of the strips 1. Thus the space charge region (SCR) gradually fills the whole film 4.

To simultaneously control both the length and characteristic impedance of the line must conductive areas 1 to comply with a clearance relative to the conductors 11 and over the gap to form a p-n junction or a Schottky barrier with non-uniform area distribution of impurities. Cm. Fig. 5, 6, which shows the arrangement of a transmission line. The line contains conductive areas 1, continuations which are the conductors 11, conductive strip 2 (common conductor, forming with 11 two-wire line), the dielectric layer 3, inhomogeneous alloy along line width impurities of n-type region 4 with ohmic contact region 5 with ohmic contact, kotoraya 6, connected p-n junction through the orifice 7, which serves for decoupling circuits of the input signal and the control voltage AC, input signal source 8, the resistor 10, connected to the output line. Moreover, the p-n junction (Schottky barrier) is performed at the beginning and at the end of the line. While the degree of alloying film 4 increases the output line along Z (along the direction crossing the conductive areas 1) (increasing Z) and falls on the entrance line along the z-Conductive areas 1 performed with a gap relative to the conductor 11 (Fig. 5), over the gap formed p-n junction or a Schottky barrier with non-uniform in space (along the direction crossing the conductive areas 1) the distribution profile of the impurity (Fig. 6). The P-n junction formed over the gap, contains a heterogeneous alloy along line width impurities of n-type region 12 with ohmic contact region 13 with an ohmic contact, which forms with the region 12 of the p-n junction or a Schottky barrier. To a p-n junction connected to a source of control voltage 14. The degree of doping of the film 12 increases (above the gap) at the entrance of the line along the Z growth Z) and falls at the output line along z between the conductors 11, which form a film by etnikai 11 at the zero value of the control voltage source 14, the space charge region (SCR) extends over the entire thickness of the film 12. Depending on the voltage control sources with input and output transmission lines are connected through the area of neutrality semiconductor films 4, 12 different strips 1 (Fig. 6 one such strip in the middle of the line). Obviously, film 4, 12 can be made as one film (same as film 5, 13).

Note also that the p-n junction with inhomogeneous impurity profile is formed by 4 and 5 (or 12 and 13) can be performed homogeneously alloyed layer 4 (12) when inhomogeneously doped along the direction crossing areas 1 layer 5 (12 except for the sections between the conductors 11, which is weakly doped, or made of a dielectric material.). In the considered and discussed further examples for certainty layer 4 and 12 formed with an electronic conductivity type. It is obvious that the layer 4, as well as the layer 12, may be performed also with hole conductivity type, the layer 5 (13) should be made of semiconductor electronic type or metal, forming a layer 4 of p-n junction or Schottky barrier, in addition, the layer 3 may be made of dielectric and semiconductor or semi-insulating semiconductor. In some cases, the layer 3 may be unavailable or the hard part (as an insulating layer between the conductors can be an air gap). Obviously, the layer 4 or 12 may be homogeneous or heterogeneous in space thickness, the choice of the doping profile and the thickness of the layer 4 (12) is limited by the condition of full depletion layer 4 (12) or its part, the main charge carriers to the breakdown of p-n junction or Schottky barrier when applying for external offset:

< / BR>
where Ui is the breakdown voltage of the semiconductor layer 4 (12); y - coordinate, measured from the metallurgical boundary of the p-n junction or Schottky barrier in the direction along the thickness of the layer 4 (12), q is the elementary charge; Ni(x, y, z) is the distribution profile of the impurity in the film 4 or 12; d(x,z) is the thickness of the layer 4 (12); z, the x - coordinates on the surface of layer 4 (12);s- permittivity layer 4 (12); Uk - built-in potential. And region 5 (13) can be doped both homogeneously and inhomogeneously along the surface. Obviously, the barrier on the surface of the layer 4, as well as on the surface layer 12 may be formed of a compound (on the part of the surface layer 4(12) made of p-n junction and on the other side of the same surface of the Schottky barrier), and p-n junction can be made also in the form of a heterojunction.

The P-n junction with inhomogeneous impurity profile along the surface can be realized, in particular, when the implementation is AutoRAE contains a p-n junction, made wedge-shaped film of p-type 4, performed on the n-type substrate 5, an ohmic contact to the foil made of aluminum, on the film surface is made conductive areas 1, over which is formed a dielectric layer 9 is formed on the conductor 2. The film thickness decreases along the direction Z. increasing the blocking voltage U (source 6) on the transition of the size along the Z region of neutrality in the semiconductor p-type H(U) is continuously decreasing. In Fig. 8 shows the device of the transmission line with two control voltages, which contains the p-n junction with a wedge-shaped film of n-type 12, is performed on the substrate p+ - type 13, ohmic contact to the foil made of aluminum, on the film surface is made conductive areas 11, over which is formed a dielectric layer 9 is formed on the common conductor 2. Between conductors 11 film or lightly doped, or between the conductors formed in the dielectric sections, insulating the conductors 11 from each other. In Fig. 9 shows an example of a transmission line with a p-n junction on heterogeneous alloy substrate. The P-n junction with inhomogeneous impurity profile along the surface can be realized, in particular, when the film is Fig. 9 shows the p-n junction with inhomogeneous alloy substrate used in the transmission line. The P-n junction includes a substrate, and the degree of substrate doping increases along the surface direction Z. Homogeneous film 4 is performed on the substrate 5 opposite type conductivity. The thickness of the space charge region gets stronger in that part of the substrate, which is weaker doped, resulting in a film is formed uniform in thickness, the region of neutrality. Increasing the blocking voltage U (source 6) on the transition of the size along the Z region of neutrality in the semiconductor p-type H(U) is continuously decreasing. And fewer conductive sections 1 are connected through the area of neutrality.

The transmission line can be used as a switch when connecting each of the strips 1 at the output transmission line through a separate load from the input source, which is connected with the ohmic contact 4 and the conductor 2. In the example of the transmission line used as a switch in Fig. 10. The line contains a semiconductor layer 4 formed on podhajce opposite type conductivity 5. On the surface layer 4 is elektricheski layer 9. Increasing the blocking voltage U (source control voltage 6) at the p-n junction (the dimension along the direction crossing the strips 1) the area of neutrality in the semiconductor 4 is continuously decreasing, therefore the number of loads that are connected with the input source (including a constant) through the region of neutrality semiconductor film 4 and the strip 1, is also reduced. In particular the switch when carrying inductive loads and 10 can be used as an adjustable controlling voltage inductance, when loaded 10 capacitive can be used as an adjustable controlling voltage capacity, when loaded 10 ohmic can be used as an adjustable controlling voltage resistor. The load can be used load with distributed parameters (for example, the plate having a volume resistivity). The transmission line shown in Fig. 6, can be used as a switch (Fig. 11) when connecting each of the strips 1 at the output transmission line through a separate load from the input source, and the choice of a particular load or a certain number naprosilsya variables sources of control voltage.

Examples of embodiment of the invention.

On the substrate 3 with a thickness of 0.5 mm (D=0.5 mm) of silicon dioxide were formed 100 strips 1 with the width of each 40 μm. The greatest length was 40 mm, the length of the smallest was 15 mm strips were made holes with a width of 50 μm (Fig. 12). Over the bars at the beginning and at the end of the line was formed, the polysilicon layer 4 with a thickness of 0.6 μm with a donor impurity concentration of ~ 10151/cm3. In the layer by ion implantation of phosphorus at an energy of 200 KEV formed inhomogeneously doped impurity profile, and the implant dose is linearly changed along the width of the line (along z) 11012ion/cm2to 2,51011ion/cm2. While the degree of doping of the films were increased output line along the Z growth Z) and fell on the entrance line along z Over holes degree of doping of the films were grown at the entrance of the line along the Z growth Z) and fell at the exit line along the Z 11012ion/cm2to 2,51011ion/cm2and in the intervals between the strips of tape additional legionares. The Schottky barrier 5 was formed over a layer of polysilicon applying metallization of aluminum. Ohmic contact to the polysilicon was performed taglibrary. After fabrication of the wire contacts the surface of the device was covered with a protective layer 9 (SiO2). Conducting site 2 was performed on the other side of the substrate is aluminum. In Fig. 13 shows the device is made of a transmission line with controlled characteristic impedance and length.

An impedance of the transmission line (Zc) was determined by formulas (see K. Gupta, P. Garg, R. Chadha. Machine design of microwave devices. - M.: Radio and communication, pages 41-42), where W is the width of the transmission line.

Zc= C/(21/2)ln(8D/W+0,25 W/D) for W/D 1

< / BR>
= (1+1)/2+(1-1)/2((1+10D/W)-1/2)

1the relative dielectric constant of SiO2C=120 Ohms. The calculated dependence of the wave resistance of the line from the number of the strips 1 shown in Fig. 14.

The measured dependence of the standing wave ratio (VSWR) when the value of the blocking voltage of the source 14 of ~ 0.5 volts in the measuring line with a characteristic impedance of 50 Ohms, one end of which is connected to the source of the input signal with a frequency of 1.2 GHz and an internal impedance of 50 Ohms, and the second is connected to the transmission line, which is loaded on the load 50 Ohms, is shown in Fig. 15. The length of the front of the technological tools allows you to create a transmission line with controlled characteristic impedance and length.

Industrial applicability. The invention can be used in the electronic industry.

1. The transmission line that contains multiple two-wire transmission lines, in which one of the conductors General, and other conductors, including those made with different lengths, connected with the conductive areas forming an ohmic contact to the first semiconductor layer, electron or hole conduction type formed with navipress the contact-conductive sections are made at the beginning or at the end of the transmission line or at the beginning and end of the transmission line, on the surface of the first semiconductor layer made of semiconductor or metal layer with another navipress contact, forming a first semiconductor layer of the p-n junction or a Schottky barrier with inhomogeneous along the direction crossing the conductive areas of the impurity profile, the choice of the wave resistance and the length of the transmission line is determined by the voltage at the p-n junctions or Schottky barriers.

2. The transmission line under item 1, characterized in that the said other conductors and conductive parts are connected through another semiconductor layer electron or hole-type Schottky barrier with inhomogeneous along the direction crossing the conductive areas of the impurity profile with other navipress contact.

3. The transmission line under item 1, characterized in that the insulating layer is made between the contacts to semiconductor regions.

4. The transmission line under item 1, characterized in that the said other conductors and conductive parts are connected through another semiconductor layer electron or hole conduction type formed with navipress contact, the surface of which is formed the other p-n junction or a Schottky barrier with inhomogeneous along the direction crossing the conductive areas of the impurity profile with other navipress contact, and the insulating layer is made between the contacts to semiconductor regions.

5. The transmission line under item 1, characterized in that the insulating layer is made over conductive areas and contacts to semiconductor regions.

6. The transmission line under item 1, characterized in that the said other conductors and conductive parts are connected through another semiconductor layer electron or hole conduction type formed with navipress contact, the surface of which is formed the other p-n junction or a Schottky barrier with inhomogeneous along the direction crossing the conductive areas of the impurity is a diversified areas made of insulating the layer.

 

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