The product with a metal main body and method of manufacturing

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a product with a metal main body, made in the form of gas turbine components, in particular in the form of blades. The product contains a metal main body with at least one padded inside the longitudinal channel and many branches off from him the transverse channels. On the main body lies outside the covering layer. He serves as a protective or adhesive layer. Enriched layer covering respectively the wall of the longitudinal channel and respectively of the transverse channels and parts of the top layer. Outside, more can be provided a ceramic insulating layer. The invention reduces the cost of production, as well as receiving coating on the inner surface of the transverse channels without uncontrolled narrow cross-section. 3 C. and 16 h.p. f-crystals, 4 Il.

The invention relates to a product with a metallic main body of an alloy with at least one located inside the main body longitudinal channel and many branches off from him, having respectively an outlet opening in the main body of the transverse channels.

This invention LASS="ptx2">

For stationary gas turbines (with previously normal material temperatures of about 950oC) and for gas turbines in aircraft engines (with previously normal input temperatures of the order of 1100oC) increasing the inlet temperature was achieved by using specially developed alloys as the main materials for parts subjected to high thermal load, as guide vanes, rotor blades, the heat shield elements and the like. In particular, by using single-crystal superalloys can be used metal temperatures significantly above 1000oC. due to this may be at an increased efficiency of the gas turbine.

Along with thermo-mechanical loads of the gas turbine components exposed to chemical influences, for example, flue gases with temperatures above 1300oC. For a sufficient resistance with respect to such effects, such component is covered with a metal protective layer. The protective layer should also have sufficiently good mechanical properties. In particular, taking into account the mechanical interaction between the protective layer and the main material of the protective detail what about the material; he should also, if possible, not be prone to cracking, so as to prevent exposure of the base material, followed by corrosion and oxidation.

Metal protective layers for metallic components, in particular for gas turbine components, to improve the resistance to corrosion and/or oxidation are known in the level of technology in a wide variety. The class of alloys for protective layers are known under the generic term "MCrAlY alloys, and M denotes at least one element from the group consisting of iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), and Nickel (Ni), and other essential components are chromium (Cr), aluminum (Al) and yttrium (Y).

A protective layer of MCrAIY alloy, which improves corrosion and oxidation characteristics of the product in the field of surface temperatures from 600 to 1150oC, described in EP-0412397 A1. The protective layer contains, along with 22-60% chromium 0-15% aluminum, 0.3 to 2% yttrium or 0.3-2% other element from the group of rare earth metals component of 1-20% rhenium. The substrate is Nickel; if necessary, may be added other elements, particularly cobalt. Due to the good thermal conductivity of the metallic protective layer is covered with a protective layer of the part is exposed on the second floor for gas turbine components and other components from alloys based on Nickel or cobalt-based is known from EP 0486489 B1. This protective coating contains the following elements (listed in parts by weight): 25-40% Nickel, 28-32% chromium, 7 to 9% aluminum, 1 to 2% silicon, at least 5% cobalt, 0.3 to 1% of rare earth metal such as yttrium. Characteristics of individual constituents explicitly specified in this publication.

In EP 0397731 B1 describes a two-layer protective layer made of two different alloys. External MCrAlY alloy is the alloy and contains (indicated in parts by weight): 15-40% chromium, 3 to 15% aluminum, and 0.2 to 3% of at least one element from the group of yttrium, tantalum, hafnium, scandium, zirconium, niobium and silicon. This external alloy with its sides covered, if necessary, in particular when cooled from the inside of the metal parts to protect against particularly high temperatures thermobarrier layer. Thermobattery layer can be made of zirconium oxide with addition of yttrium oxide. To prevent peeling thermobarrier layer from the outer alloy, is provided by the external oxidation of the alloy before applying thermobarrier layer.

In the prior art it is also known, in the case of turbine blades to produce the inner coating of relatively narrow channels of the cooling metal, such as aluminum (J. E. Restall et al.: "A Process for Pr is ikela, which is also applicable to the internal surfaces of the cooling channels, also described in the literature (R. S. Parzuchowski: "Gas Phase Deposition of Aluminium on Nickel Alloys", Thin Solid Films 45, 1977, pp. 349-355). Possible is also the use of chromium or a combination of aluminum and chromium. In addition, reference should be made to DE 4119967 C1. It should be noted that the inner cover for the cooling channels in the prior art, in principle, only together with such external coatings.

Blades for an advanced gas turbines, for example for aircraft engines and increasing extent also for stationary gas turbines, currently design comprehensively. Thus it is possible to distinguish the following characteristics: Metal main body, that is actually vane, cast-resistant material and thin-walled. Due to this, it must be possible efficient cooling from the inner side of blade cooling medium, in particular a gas, like air. The main body contains for this purpose at least one longitudinal channel cooling and many branches off from him the transverse cooling channels.

On the hot gas side of the blades is provided by a coating that protects there is another floor on the side of the hot gas from the ceramic material to reduce heat flow in the blade. It is desirable also internal coating to protect against due to the oxidation of the weakening of the wall thickness and the occurrence of cracking on the side of the cooling medium. Transverse cooling channels can be considered as a perforation in the working side of the blade and/or the platform/platforms through which there is a cooling medium. Due to this can be achieved particularly good distribution and, if necessary, also the education of the veil cooling medium on the side of the hot gas. It leads to film cooling.

The objective of the invention is to specify a product containing the main metal body with at least one longitudinal channel, marked outside on the main body of the covering layer of an alloy different from the alloy of the main body, and positioned over the top layer of the ceramic layer, which can be manufactured economically from the point of view of costs. In addition, there shall be advantageous from the point of view of the method of manufacture for such products, which, in particular, all transverse channels provide coverage without uncontrolled narrowing of its cross-section.

The first will deliver reechnyh channels, supported metal coating layer containing an alloy that is different from the alloy of the main body, and then the metal enriched layer with the formation of cooling channels with a protective coating, and enriched layer in each of the output hole is marked on a small part of the top layer.

The covering layer is preferably made of a MCrAlY alloy and preferably has a thickness of 180 μm to 300 μm. As MCrAlY alloy can be used in alloys, in particular, is known from EP 0412397 A1 and EP 0486489 B1.

Enriched layer on the product preferably has a thickness of from 30 μm to 100 μm.

Enriched layer is made, in particular, in the form of a diffusion layer, i.e. the layer that is formed by diffusionism specifically deposited metal in the main body. As such a metal can in particular be used aluminum, chromium, and chromium-aluminum alloys, and particularly preferred is aluminum, not chrome.

Especially preferred is also that the product contains ceramic insulating layer that covers the outside of the covering layer and at each exit hole also enriched layer on small parts of the top layer, where obogaschat 100 μm to 500 μm, in particular from 200 μm to 300 μm.

The product, in particular with one or more of the above described forms of execution is made, in particular as a gas turbine component, such as a blade or a heat shield element. Its constructive characteristics make it particularly suitable for calculation in the sense that it could withstand the mechanical, thermal and chemical loads, which should be considered when working in a gas turbine, and the product is flown by the hot flue gas.

Directed to a method of manufacturing the task as the first corresponding to the invention perform is solved in that on the surface of the base body with at least one located within the longitudinal channel of the applied metal coating layer, and through the main body and the covering layer to bore through the longitudinal channel of the transverse channels and on the surface of the longitudinal channel, the transverse channels and the outlet openings of the transverse channels on the surface of the respective small parts coating layer is applied enriched layer and the main body with a top layer and enriched layer is subjected to heat treatment and coating layer looks.

Napravleniya fact, on the surface of the base body with at least one located within the longitudinal channel of the applied metal coating layer, and through the main body and the covering layer to bore through the longitudinal channel of the transverse channels and on the surface of the longitudinal channel, the transverse channels and the outlet openings of the transverse channels on the surface of a coating layer, on the appropriate small part of the coating layer is applied enriched layer, and the coating layer looks and the covering layer provide a ceramic insulating layer and a main body with a top layer enriched layer and a ceramic insulating layer is subjected to heat treatment.

Regarding the first form of execution of the method it should be noted that the smoothing coating layer is, in particular, in order to remove incurred when applying the enriched layer on unwanted places, used for enriched education enriched layer material surface layer.

Regarding the second form of execution of the method it should be noted that the operation of the smoothing coating layer produced in accordance with the requirements subject to application of the ceramic insulating layer, moreover, the first form of execution of the method, the covering layer is in particular, a protective layer, which should protect the main body from corrosion and/or oxidation. Under the second form of execution of the method, the covering layer is, in particular, as an adhesive layer to bind the ceramic insulating layer with the main body. This binding occurs possibly through appearing on the top layer of thin oxide film. This film may occur due to oxidation of the top layer or may be applied through a separate operation. If necessary, formed by oxidation of the top layer film can before applying the ceramic insulating layer is also modified, in particular by introducing other chemical elements, such as nitrogen.

The covering layer in any form complete method can be applied by way of plasma spraying at low pressure (LPPS) or by the method of plasma spraying in vacuum (VPS). In particular, the method of plasma spraying in vacuum prefer for applying a coating layer of the MCrAlY alloy.

For the application of enriched layer on the main body precipitated from the vapor phase and diffuse preferably at least one of the elements aluminum and chromium, the I or chromium to the material of the main body or the cover layer.

Drilling the transverse channels in the main body is produced preferably by a laser method of drilling, electrochemical method tankowanie (ECM) or spark erosion (EDM).

If the method should be applied insulating layer, it is preferably produced by the method of plasma spraying in the atmosphere (APS) or by physical deposition (PVD). The method of plasma spraying it is particularly advantageous from the point of view of costs way gives a mostly unstructured ceramic insulating layer, while the method of deposition from the vapor phase, which is usually more expensive than the sputtering method, can give a ceramic insulating layer, which consists of separate, grown on the top layer of columnar crystallites. This heat-insulating layer of columnar crystallites is compared with unstructured insulating layer significant benefits, for which, however, must be paid significantly higher production costs. The choice between a flat insulating layer and the insulating layer of columnar crystallites should therefore be addressed separately for each private is sustained fashion for solution annealing and/or thermal hardening provided with a cover main body.

A special advantage of the invention lies in the fact that when applied internal coating external surface should not be closed. In addition, due to the sequence in the manufacture and due to the following after coating operations, in particular by burnishing, provided that neither between the part surface and a top layer or covering layer does not occur or does not remain in phase with a high content material-enriched layer, in particular of aluminum. The fact that these phases it is known that they are prone to cracking. Thus, the formation of cracks can largely be avoided.

The method according to the invention, moreover, provides that all transverse cooling channels, that is, all the outlets of the cooling air supplied by the floor.

Preferably enriched layer is applied by means of chemical deposition (CDV = Chemical Vapour Deposition), in particular diffusion process. By this choice of method of application for the internal coating is kept small contamination of the outer surface. Because it consists of even rough after deposition of a coating layer, which is preferably made of p is Low Pressure Plasma Spraying), in the subsequent process of smoothing, which if necessary can be abrasive method (grinding process), is achieved residue removing all unwanted residues. In addition, the number of heat treatments can be relatively small.

If the item should be provided in the insulating layer, it may preferably be applied by way of physical deposition (PVD = Physical Vapour Deposition).

The above products are used as components of the turbine is relatively high service life.

The method of manufacture, based on the sequence of production, has the advantage that the transverse channels, i.e. holes for cooling air is not closed, but only narrowed with good reproducibility. This can be shown on the design of the components in the drawing scale.

Examples of carrying out the invention are explained in the following in more detail by using the drawings on which is shown:

Fig. 1 - cut blades of a gas turbine without an external insulating layer;

Fig. 2 - cut blades of a gas turbine with an external insulating layer;

Fig. 3 is a block diagram of a method for manufacturing a blade of a gas turbine according to the figure is according to figure 1, the blade 2 for a gas turbine includes a metal main body 4. In the case of this main body 4 can be discussed, in particular, of such of supersplash Nickel-based or cobalt. Approximately centrally within the main body 4 is a longitudinal channel 6. From this longitudinal channel 6 branches off many transverse channels 8. The longitudinal channel 6 and the transverse channels 8, as will be clear later, after the supply of the internal coating are used for passing A cooling medium, in particular cooling gas as the air.

Outside on each side of the main body 4 is directly applied coating layer 10. This covering layer 10 consists of MCrAlY alloy. It has preferably a thickness of 180 μm to 300 μm. Outlet 14 when it is left free. The covering layer 10 is preferably applied by way of plasma spraying at low pressure or plasma spraying in a vacuum. It performs the function (outer, protective layer.

For internal coating provides enriched layer 12. It covers only the wall of the longitudinal channel 6 and the wall of the transverse channels 8. In addition, he is also in the outer region of the transverse channels 8, leaving free the outlet openings 14 and covers this side of a small part of D from 30 μm to 100 μm. He applied preferably by a diffusion method, and chromium and/or aluminum are precipitated from the vapor phase and injected by diffusion.

You can see that the blade 2 is thus provided with a coating of longitudinal cooling channel 6A and many branches off from it has a floor transverse cooling channels 8A to pass through them, cooling medium A.

Blade 2 with figure 2 largely corresponds to the one from figure 1. However, here on the outside, i.e. on the top layer 10, has a ceramic insulating layer 20. The covering layer 10, which preferably is again made of a MCrAlY alloy, has here the function of the adhesive layer. Insulating layer 20 has a thickness of from 100 μm to 500 μm, preferably a thickness of from 200 μm to 300 μm. It may consist of a conventional known materials. Worthy of mention only that the insulating layer 20 covers the outside of the covering layer 10 and in the outer region of the transverse channels 8, leaving free the outlet 14 is also a small part or the overlap area 22 enriched layer 12. Insulating layer 20 may be made by way of plasma spraying at atmospheric pressure (APS = Atmospheric Plasma Spraying) and the manufacture of the blade 2 according to figure 1. According to figure 3 at the beginning in the first operation 30 produce a casting that is making molded main body 4 including a longitudinal channel 6. Can be also provided by a number of longitudinal channels 6. In the second operation 32 mechanically treated. This produces milling shank blades, milling sealing surfaces of the blades 4 and/or another processing operation so that we obtain a billet. In subsequent operation 34 produce the application of the coating layer 10 on the main body 4. This covering layer 10 may consist, in particular, of the MCrAlY alloy. The coating produced by the method of plasma spraying at low pressure or vacuum (LPPS = Low Pressure Plasma Spraying or VPS = Vacuum Plasma Spraying). With this preparation, if necessary, subjected to a bonding heat treatment. The covering layer 10 is used when the blade 2 as a protective layer.

In the subsequent operation 36 make drilling the transverse channels 8. You can use a variety of technologies. If we are talking about the channels 8 a circular cross-section, also on carts to the generated output holes, you can use laser treatment. If in contrast it ito can be used electrochemical method tankowanie (EMC = electro Chemical Milling) or the way electric tankowanie (EDM = Electrical Discharge Milling).

Then 38, namely the application of internal coatings. Here we are talking about the application of enriched layer 12. This application can be made, for example, using a reactive gas through a diffusion process (CVD = Chemical Vapour Deposition) or the method of installation of powder with subsequent diffusion process. The beginning has already been pointed out that such methods are in themselves known.

So after the main body 4 got its external metallic coating 10, 12, it fail in operation 40 to the heat treatment. This operation 40 requires that the material of the base body 4 has received its optimal characteristics of the material. In this operation 40, it is, in particular, diffusion annealing and subsequent hardening. In subsequent operation 42 eliminate the roughness made now vanes 4. This is due to the mechanical process of burnishing. This removes also remains on the surface of the cover layer 10, thereby avoiding, for example, occurrence of cracks due to brittle-rich aluminum phases.

In figure 4 the operation 30-38 correspond to operations 30-38 in figure 3. Therefore, repeated descriptions of their refuse.

Operation 38 in the figure Eseniya insulating layer 20 in operation 46.

In operation 46 is the application of the insulating layer 20, namely by deposition from the vapor phase. This is the preferred process of electron-beam deposition (EB-PVD = Electron Beam Physical Vapour Deposition). While in the manufacture according to figure 3, the blade 2 is outside the metal surface, the blade 2 according to figure 4 is now outside of the ceramic surface.

Operation 46 is adjacent operation 48 to heat treatment (corresponding to operation 40 figure 3). Also here we are talking about diffusion annealing and thermal hardening of the base material of the blade 2. After this operation 48 is available for use blade 2 according to figure 2.

1. The product containing the main metal body made of at least one longitudinal channel, marked outside on the main body of the covering layer of an alloy different from the alloy of the main body, and positioned over the top layer of the ceramic layer, characterized in that it is made of transverse channels and on the surface of both longitudinal and transverse channels supported metal coating layer containing an alloy that is different from the alloy of the main body, and then the metal of the cut hole of the transverse channels applied on a small part of the top layer.

2. The product under item 1, characterized in that the covering layer 10 made of a McrAlY alloy and preferably has a thickness of from 180 to 300 μm.

3. The product under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the enriched layer 12 has a thickness of from 30 to 100 μm.

4. Product according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 3, characterized in that the enriched layer 12 is a diffusion layer.

5. Product according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 4, characterized in that the enriched layer 12 contains as an essential component of aluminum and/or chromium, preferably only aluminum.

6. Product according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 5, characterized in that it is provided with a ceramic insulating layer 20 that covers the outside of the covering layer 10 and on each output hole 14 of the transverse channels also enriched layer 12 on each small part 16 of the top layer 10.

7. The product under item 6, characterized in that the insulating layer 20 has a thickness of from 100 to 500 μm, preferably from 200 to 300 microns.

8. Product according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 7, characterized in that it is made in the form of gas turbine components, in particular in the form of the scapula.

9. Method of making articles containing basic metal body with it, at IU is alloy main body, and applied over the coating layer of the ceramic layer, wherein on the surface of the main body 4 with at least one located inside the longitudinal channel 6 is applied metallic coating layer 10, and through the main body 4 and the covering layer 10 to the longitudinal bore through the transverse channel 6 channel 8 and on the surface of the longitudinal channel 6, the transverse channels 8 and outlet port 14 of the transverse channels 8, on the surface of the respective small parts 16 a covering layer 10 is applied enriched layer 12, the main body 4 with a top layer 10 and enriched layer 12 is subjected to heat treatment and coating layer 10 looks.

10. The method according to p. 9, characterized in that the covering layer 10 is applied by way of plasma spraying at low pressure or plasma spraying in a vacuum.

11. The method according to p. 9 or 10, characterized in that for the application of enriched layer 12 sprayed and diffuse at least one of the elements: aluminum and chromium, preferably aluminum.

12. The method according to any of paragraphs.9 to 11, characterized in that the transverse channels 8 are drilled by a laser method of drilling, electrochemical method tankowanie or spark erosion.

hardening.

14. Method of making articles containing basic metal body made of at least one longitudinal channel, applied to the outside of the main body top layer of alloy that is different from the alloy of the main body, and positioned over the top layer of the ceramic layer, wherein the surface of the main body 4 with at least one located inside the longitudinal channel 6 is applied metallic coating layer 10, and through the main body 4 and the covering layer 10 to the longitudinal bore through the transverse channel 6 channel 8 and on the surface of the longitudinal channel 6, transverse channels 8 and outlet port 14 of the transverse channels 8, on the surface of a coating layer 10 on the respective small parts 16 a covering layer 10 is applied enriched layer 12, and the coating layer 10 looks and supply of ceramic insulating layer 20 and the main body 4 with a top layer 10, enriched layer 12 and the ceramic insulating layer 20, is subjected to heat treatment.

15. The method according to p. 14, characterized in that the insulating layer 20 is applied by way of plasma spraying in the atmosphere or by way of physical sputtering.

16. The method according to p. 14 or 15, characterized in that ylenia in a vacuum.

17. The method according to any of paragraphs.14 to 16, characterized in that for the application of enriched layer 12 sprayed and diffuse at least one of the elements: aluminum and chromium, preferably aluminum.

18. The method according to any of paragraphs.14 to 17, characterized in that the transverse channels 8 are drilled by a laser method of drilling, electrochemical method tankowanie or spark erosion.

19. The method according to any of paragraphs.14 to 18, characterized in that the heat treatment is performed for the diffusion annealing and/or hardening.

 

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