Coaxial mixing element-burner type gas-gas to the combustion chambers of high-performance generators synthesis gas
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of organic synthesis, namely, devices and technologies for processing gaseous hydrocarbons into synthesis gas (nH2+CO) by the method of non-equilibrium partial oxidation of the hydrocarbon gas with oxygen. Coaxial mixing element - burner type gas-gas to the combustion chambers of high-performance generators synthesis gas nH2+CO - contains a cooled cylindrical body, two or more coaxial channel for separate entry into the reaction zone of the combustion chamber of the oxidizer and the fuel component in the mixture with gases-correctors composition of CO2H2O, cooled end plate, the nodes of a supply of an oxidant and a combustible component, the nodes of the inlet and outlet of the cooling component from the opposite side. And coaxial channels, the area of the bore of which is equal to 0,02 0,1...free square face plate made with the possibility of tangential spin in opposite directions of the jets of fuel component and the oxidizer, for which the input of each of the coaxial channel is made tangential by-pass hole, and the output of each of coaxially completeness of combustion. 4 Il. /7 The invention relates to the field of organic synthesis, namely, devices and technologies for processing gaseous hydrocarbons into synthesis gas (nH2+ CO) by the method of non-equilibrium, partial oxidation of the hydrocarbon gas with oxygen. This invention can be used to create generators synthesis gas with high volumetric efficiency and high, not below 0.9, the conversion rate of the source gases in the synthesis gas (carbon).Coaxial burner type gas-gas" known and widely used in various thermal devices, including a high-temperature reactors-converters hydrocarbon gases. Known burner, made in the form of a rod with a water-cooled casing, the top of which is placed the carts oxidant, natural gas, gas-correctors of the composition of the synthesis gas (H2O CO2), and in the lower part of the input device components into the reaction zone in the form of two coaxial channels located on the periphery of the end of the water cooled heads. Convertible gases are introduced into the reaction zone of a large volume of the reactor is lined with walls or co-axial streams of varying the speed of the e products of combustion in the reaction volume of the reactor together with the burner, essentially, formed the unit ideal mixing).Known coaxial burner mounted in the generators synthesis gas (see U.S. patent 2582938, NCI 48-196, 15.01.52; USA 3945942, NCI 252-373, MKI With 01 In 1/16, 23.03.76; USA 4582630, NCI 252-373, MKI With 01 In 3/36, 15.04.86; USA 5087270, NCI 48-127.9, MKI B 01 J 7/00, 11.02.92; USA 5358696, NCI 423-610, MKI C 01 B 3/24, 25.10.94). In these patents describes not only the burner, but the organization of the circulation of currents in the apparatus of ideal mixing.Known multi-function coaxial burner reactor synthesis gas, which is represented in the United Kingdom patent 2219003, NCI SE, MKI With 01 In 3/36, 29.11.89 (applicant company shell), adopted as a prototype. It contains five concentric axial channels input convertible gases, liquid hydrocarbons and solid pulverized fuel (coal), but the latter two components may be missing. In the absence of the spirit of the last components of the burner is a coaxial burner type gas-gas", which has five zones enter convertible gases. Intensification of mixing convertible component is reached, the task is significantly different axial velocities for each of the five zones. When the oxidant is supplied, for example, Chereau zone with speed 5 - 84 m/s, and through the second peripheral zone with a speed of 0 to 15 m/s is fed a mixture of gases with a low content of the hydrocarbon component (e.g., mixture of natural gas and CO2). Multi-function coaxial burner according to this patent is intended for use in the generation of synthesis gas with respect to H2/CO= 1 to 1.6 operating at pressures up to 12 MPa (mostly at 4 MPa) and at an average temperature of 1400oC forming apparatus of ideal mixing.The principal difference that defines the purpose of the present invention, the proposed coaxial mixing element - burner from the prototype is to provide effective mixing and high combustion completeness only near the end of the bottom of the burner (combustion chamber of the generator) by creating a structured vortex zone when using the burner in flow generators synthesis gas, in which a combined schematic perfect mixing and perfect displacement.The objective is achieved by providing high-speed modes expiration of coaxial jets, namely intense and mutually opposite tangential twist of each of the coaxial flow while maintaining the approximate Ravenstahl section of coaxial channels, in which move swirling flows to the open area of the end plate of the burner.To achieve this goal in coaxial mixing element-burner containing coaxial channels for separate entry into the reaction zone of the combustion chamber of the generator synthesis gas of a gaseous oxidizer and a combustible component, cooled end plate, the nodes of a supply of an oxidant and a combustible component, the nodes of the inlet and outlet of the cooling component at the input of each of the coaxial channel is made tangential bypass holes on the output of each of these set screws (swirler), and the square bore coaxial channels equal to 0.02...0.1 free space end of the bottom of the burner.In Fig. 1 presents a General view of the coaxial mixing element - burner with two coaxial channels (one belt) input components, which is a major modification.In Fig. 2 shows the view from the bottom end of the coaxial mixing element of the burner shown in Fig. 1.In Fig. 3 and 4 presents options basic modification.The proposed coaxial mixing element - burner contains a cooled cylindrical the fuel component 3, the Central tract of the filing of the second main component (e.g., oxidant) 4 made in the form of coaxial cylinders, the feeders of the main components 5 and 6, the node inlet and outlet of the cooler 7, the fastening device with adjacent assemblies 8. The paths of the supply oxidizing and combustible components containing additive gas offsets or without them, at the entrance to the mixing element, are setting the nozzles 9 and 10, and at the entrance to the channels of the input components in the reaction zone is made tangential bypass holes 11 and 12, providing the required magnitude and direction of the twist of the threads, amplified by screws - multiple helical finned 13 and 14, mounted on the outlet of each of the coaxial channel, near the cutoff of the input streams into the reaction zone of the combustion chamber of the gasifier synthesis gas.The proposed coaxial mixing element - burner operates as follows. Fuel component and the oxidizer separately fed through tuning the nozzles 9 and 10 nodes in the supply of components 5 and 6 and from there to the coaxial channels, the entrance to which is made tangential bypass holes 11,12. Passing through these bypass holes, threads secretpotion expires in the form of an annular jets outward (into the combustion chamber of the generator synthesis gas), forming near the end of the bottom of structured vortex area.Tangential twist both threads is such that the modules of the moments of momentum fluxes are approximately equal. The moment of momentum of the flow is equal to r m V,where r is the effective radius, m is the mass flow rate, V- the tangential component of velocity at the edge of a channel (see Fig. 2, type a). Tangential flow velocity is in the range 50...150 m/s, the axial velocity of the flow, defined by wall sections of the channel is 10...30% of the tangential velocity. The typical size for coaxial mixing element - burner is the outer diameter of the end plate D (see Fig. 1) lying in the range 70...180 mmFormed a well-developed vortex area near the bottom end of the coaxial mixing element - burner depends, as calculations show, not only from the high-speed flow, and geometry end of the bottom: the ratio of total output square threads (square passage sections of coaxial channels) to the open area of the end plate. The optimum value of the ratio of the areas is 0.02...0.1.In Fig. 3 shows a modification of the coaxial mixing element with Svobodnyy end plate D is in the range of 0.2 - of 0.5, while the ratio of the total area of bore coaxial channels to the open area of the end plate is 0,02 - 0,1.In Fig. 4 shows a modification of the mixing element with the number of zones of the input components is greater than one, the ratio of the total area of the input components to the open area of the bottom is equal to 0,02 - 0,1. In each of the additional coaxial channels at the entrance tangential bypass holes at the output of set screws. The proposed coaxial mixing element - burner as a single mixing element type "gas-gas" can be used for combustion generators synthesis gas with a flow rate of the combustible component (hydrocarbon gas) 0.375 - 3.75 t/h and the pressure in the reaction zone of the combustion chamber 2 to 15 MPa. Coaxial mixing element-burner type gas-gas to the combustion chambers of high-performance generators synthesis gas nH2+ CO, containing a cooled cylindrical body, two or more coaxial channel for separate entry into the reaction zone of the combustion chamber of the oxidizer and the fuel component in the mixture in gas-correctors composition of CO2H2O, cooled end plate, the nodes peony, characterized in that the coaxial channels, square bore which is equal to 0.02 . .. free 0,1 square face plate made with the possibility of tangential spin in opposite directions of the jets of fuel component and the oxidizer, for which the input of each of the coaxial channel is made tangential by-pass hole, and the output of each of the coaxial channel set screws.
FIELD: hydrocarbon conversion catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: catalyst for generation of synthesis gas via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons is a complex composite composed of ceramic matrix and, dispersed throughout the matrix, coarse particles of a material and their aggregates in amounts from 0.5 to 70% by weight. Catalyst comprises system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Dispersed material is selected from rare-earth and transition metal oxides, and mixtures thereof, metals and alloys thereof, period 4 metal carbides, and mixtures thereof, which differ from the matrix in what concerns both composition and structure. Preparation procedure comprises providing homogenous mass containing caking-able ceramic matrix material and material to be dispersed, appropriately shaping the mass, and heat treatment. Material to be dispersed are powders containing metallic aluminum. Homogenous mass is used for impregnation of fibrous and/or woven materials forming on caking system of parallel and/or perpendicularly crossing channels. Before heat treatment, shaped mass is preliminarily treated under hydrothermal conditions.
EFFECT: increased resistance of catalyst to thermal impacts with sufficiently high specific surface and activity retained.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex