Coaxial mixing element-burner type "homogenized gas-gas to the combustion chambers of high-performance generators synthesis gas
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the synthesis, namely, devices and technologies for processing of hydrocarbons into synthesis gas, and can be used to obtain a synthesis gas according to the methods of equilibrium and non-equilibrium partial oxidation. Coaxial mixing element-burner type "homogenized gas-gas to the combustion chambers of high-performance generators synthesis gas nH2+ Contains a cooled cylindrical housing, the cooled end plate, the nodes of a supply of gaseous fuel and oxidant, the nodes of the supply and exhaust of cooling the component, the internal paths separate feeding gaseous oxidant and fuel. While it contains a homogenization device, made in the form of a cylindrical, provided with ribs, which are arranged one above the other and stacked on the tops of the ribs of the shell, while the inner shell is equipped with ribs on the outside and the outer shell is equipped with ribs on the inside. The use of this invention provides a reliable, without fire, obtaining a homogeneous mixture of oxidizer and fuel in the chamber minimum volume before submitting them to the reaction zone. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill. Izobretaja feedstock into synthesis gas (nH2+ FROM), and can be used to obtain a synthesis gas according to the methods of equilibrium, but mostly non-equilibrium partial oxidation pre-mixed gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen-containing oxidant.Known burners with preliminary mixing of the gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and oxidant proposed by the companies Texaco (U.S. patent 3945942, 252-373, MKI With 01 In 1/16, 23.03.76), Montecatini (U.S. patent 2859103, 48-196, 04.11.58), the French Institute of petroleum (U.S. patent 4582630, 252-373, MKI With 01 In 3/36, 15.04.86, French patent 2617577, MKI F 23 D 14/46, 15.06.80).In known burners of the company Texaco and the French petroleum Institute carried out a partial homogenization of the mixture of methane and oxidant prior to their entry into the reaction zone by feeding one of the components through tubes placed at the entrance or in the path of the bypass orifices, or nozzles, with overflow hole or nozzle is served the second component.In the patent Montecatini homogenization is carried out in a smooth cylindrical channel with screw (swirl), but the design is only for processes carried out at low (atmospheric) pressure.Proposed is to conduct processes of partial oxidation, but in practice are not widely used in high-speed generators (the reactors) because of their low reliability. When you start a high-speed generator (reactor), as it is known, is the casting pressure in the reaction zone, and therefore the emission of a flame in the internal volume of the burner, causing it to Podgora and possible fire. In addition, the proposed mixing elements-burners do not provide the high-performance organization by output parameters of nonequilibrium processes, high-speed, partial oxidation of the hydrocarbon gas in the reaction zone of high-performance and high-speed generator (reactor) synthesis gas at medium and high pressures.Known multi-function coaxial burner reactor synthesis gas, which is represented in the United Kingdom patent 2219003, NCI C5E, MKI With 01 In 3/36, 29.11.89 (applicant company shell), adopted as a prototype. It contains five concentric axial channels input convertible gases, liquid hydrocarbons and solid pulverized fuel (coal), but the latter two components may be missing. In the absence of the last two components of the burner is coaxially what has been created components is reached, the task is significantly different axial velocities for each of the five zones. When the oxidant is supplied, for example, through the first and third zones with a speed of 50-150 m/s, natural gas is fed through the Central and fourth peripheral zone with a speed from 5 to 84 m/s, and through the second peripheral zone with speed 0-15 m/s served a mixture of gases with a low content of the hydrocarbon component (e.g., mixture of natural gas and CO2). Multi-function coaxial burner according to this patent is intended for use in the generation of synthesis gas with respect to H2/CO = 1 to 1.6 operating at pressures up to 12.0 MPa (mostly at 4.0 MPa) and at an average temperature of 1400oC forming apparatus of ideal mixing.Known solutions used in reactors (converters), based on ideal mixing due to organizations macroview circulating currents in almost all of the reaction volume.The aim of the present invention is to provide a coaxial mixing element-burner, provides:
- reliable, without fire, obtaining a homogeneous mixture of oxidizer and fuel in the chamber minimum volume before submitting them to the reaction zone;
- enter a homogeneous mixture in a high-speed reaction zone of the combustion medium and in edeleny intensity microwire in the area of the bottom end of the mixing element in the initial zones of the reaction volume (in the area of the flame front), to maximize the completeness of the oxidation process with a minimum residence time of the stream in the reaction zone.This objective is achieved in that in a coaxial mixing element-burner containing cooled cylindrical casing, a cooled end plate, the nodes of a supply of oxidizer and fuel additive to him gases proofreaders composition of H2O CO2or without them, the site inlet and outlet of the cooling component, the internal paths of the oxidizer and fuel, there is also a device for the homogenization of oxidizer and fuel in the form of two spaced one below the other cylindrical shells with edges and stacked on the tops of the ribs, while one of the inner shell has an outer multiple, screw, for example, the right fin and the outer shell has an inner, multiple, spiral fins in the opposite direction (left). The channels of the fins in both shells have an equivalent hydraulic diameter dg= 1,5 - 5 mm, equal or different profile, for example, rectangular, trapezoidal, triangular or round. Between the membrane freely, without soldering, but with tightness presence on the tops of the ribs, while education is messenia and homogenization of oxidizer and fuel. Stable and well-developed area of microwires in the area of the end plate (on the initial phases of the reaction volume in the combustion zone), providing a high intensity and completeness of the conversion process, at high speed settings, implemented by the ratio of the total area of the channel cross-sectional area of input homogenized mixture in the reaction zone to a free, impervious square face plate equal to 0,02-0,1.Homogenizing the mixture of the components of the device homogenization coaxial mixing element-burner simultaneously performs and functions deploymaster of the flame arrester. Both membranes are made vysokoteploprovodnyh alloys based on copper and Nickel, copper or Nickel.In Fig. 1 presents a General view of the coaxial mixing element of Fig. 2 is a end view of a coaxial mixing element of Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a modification of the coaxial mixing element with the number of inputs of a homogenized mixture of oxidizer and fuel, more than one.Coaxial mixing element-burner (see Fig. 1) contains a cooled cylindrical body 1, the cooled end plate 2, the nodes in the supply of components 3 and 4, the nodes of the inlet and outlet of the cooler 5, equipped with d square coaxial finned channels in cross-section to input a homogenized mixture to the open area of the end plate is 0.02...0,1.The characteristic size of the coaxial mixing element-burner is the outer diameter of the end plate D (see Fig. 1) lying in the range 60...180 mmIn Fig. 3 shows a modification of the coaxial mixing element - burner with the number of inputs of a homogenized mixture of fuel and oxidant into the combustion chamber of the generator synthesis gas, more than one.In each of the inputs a homogenized mixture installed the described device homogenization, and the ratio of the total area of flow cross-sections of the channels to the open area of the end plate also, as with most of the mixing element shown in Fig. 1, is equal to 0,02 0,1....Coaxial mixing element-burner type "homogenized gas-gas" works as follows. Gaseous oxidant (oxygen, air, air enriched with oxygen) flows through the input 4 into the cylindrical cavity, and from there into the device homogenization, forming numerous microcamera mixing the components in the joining of the shells 6,7, provided with ribs, on the tops of the ribs. Here via the input 3 and an isolated ring cavity is also provided fuel (methane, natural gas). After mixing homogenized sweat the Torah synthesis gas by exothermic oxidation reaction takes place, heat is generated, and, therefore, heats up the body and face of the bottom of the mixing element, the body and end plate are cooled, for example, water, which is supplied and discharged through the site inlet and outlet of the cooler 5. For better heat transfer from the housing and end plate to the water they are made of vysokoteploprovodnyh materials, such as alloys based on copper and Nickel, copper or Nickel.The proposed coaxial mixing element-burner type "homogenized gas - gas", as a single mixing element can be used for combustion chambers of high-performance high-speed generators synthesis gas with a flow rate of fuel (hydrocarbon gas) - 0,375.. .3,75 t/h, with pressure in visokoskorostnoj reaction zone 2,0...15 MPa. 1. Coaxial mixing element-burner type "homogenized gas-gas to the combustion chambers of high-performance generators synthesis gas nH2+ CO, containing a cooled cylindrical housing, the cooled end plate, the nodes of a supply of gaseous fuel and oxidant, the nodes of the supply and exhaust of cooling the component, the internal paths separate feeding gaseous oxidant and fuel, characterized in that it contains use and stacked on the tops of the ribs of the shell, this inner shell is equipped with ribs on the outside and the outer shell is equipped with ribs on the inside.2. Coaxial mixing element-burner under item 1, characterized in that the ribs are attached to the shells, focused on single or multiple helices and directed mutually oppositely.3. Coaxial mixing element-burner on PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the total cross-sectional area of the channels formed by the ribs is equal to 0,02 - 0,1-free square end of the bottom.4. Coaxial mixing element-burner on PP.1 to 3, characterized in that the shell and the outer wall of the end plate is made of high-temperature materials, such as alloys of copper and Nickel.
FIELD: hydrocarbon conversion catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: catalyst for generation of synthesis gas via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons is a complex composite composed of ceramic matrix and, dispersed throughout the matrix, coarse particles of a material and their aggregates in amounts from 0.5 to 70% by weight. Catalyst comprises system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Dispersed material is selected from rare-earth and transition metal oxides, and mixtures thereof, metals and alloys thereof, period 4 metal carbides, and mixtures thereof, which differ from the matrix in what concerns both composition and structure. Preparation procedure comprises providing homogenous mass containing caking-able ceramic matrix material and material to be dispersed, appropriately shaping the mass, and heat treatment. Material to be dispersed are powders containing metallic aluminum. Homogenous mass is used for impregnation of fibrous and/or woven materials forming on caking system of parallel and/or perpendicularly crossing channels. Before heat treatment, shaped mass is preliminarily treated under hydrothermal conditions.
EFFECT: increased resistance of catalyst to thermal impacts with sufficiently high specific surface and activity retained.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex