Burner with pre-mixing of fuel gas and air

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a stationary gas turbine engines, in particular for low-emission combustion chambers. Burner with pre-mixture gas of fuel and air includes a housing with a tangential inlet slots, the Central body, the burner housing in the direction of flow is made in the form of a confuser, the gate area of which is smaller than the area of the tangential inlet slots 1.3 - 2 times, while the Central body is made in the form of a cone or conical shape of the body of rotation with a curvilinear generatrix, the apex of which is directed towards the exit of the burner housing. The invention allows to reduce the toxicity of combustion products to increase the stability of the operation of the burner and its reliability. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill.

The invention relates to the field of a stationary gas turbine engines, in particular low-emission combustors.

Known burners are disclosed in a flow direction of conical shape, consisting of two positioned between a separate conical bodies, the Central axes of which are sesenna one relative to the other in the longitudinal direction. Due to this offset along the length of the presentations through the Central nozzle and the area of the input slots - tangentially through pipelines with holes through which the exercise of blowing out fuel. Above each entrance slit formed input channel is equipped with an injector through which is extra fuel. The fuel - air mixture with fuel from the injector and fuel from pipelines in the form of a mixture exits the nozzle [1].

A disadvantage of the known burner is the possibility of leakage of flame into the internal cavity of the burner, i.e. in the zone where mixing of fuel with air, and the possibility of occurrence of pulsation (vibration) of combustion. The breakthrough of the flame is observed on the modes mainly partial power of the gas turbine, and the emergence of this combustion inside the burner several times increases the emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon.

Closest to the claimed design is a burner for pre-mixing of fuel gas with air before entering it into the combustion chamber of the gas turbine engine. Burner with blower has a cylindrical swirl the swirling chamber into which the air enters through the tangential slots, and the gas fuel through the radial channels, the walls of which are available for this gain. In votre flow of the gas mixture [2].

A disadvantage of known construction is the possibility of leakage of flame into the internal cavity of the burner, i.e. in the zone where mixing of fuel gas with air, which increases emissions of nitrogen oxides and reduces the reliability of operation of the burner, leading to burnout. This is because the flow rate of the gas mixture is determined not by the area of the nozzle at the exit and entrance area of narrow channels. When this area of the reverse currents generated downstream from the burner, mostly at partial loads of the turbine, is not supported by the high velocity fuel-air mixture, and when its speed is below the speed of flame propagation possible leakage of flame inside the burner, the increased emissions of nitrogen oxides and burnout burner.

The technical problem on which the invention is directed, is to reduce the toxicity of products of combustion, improved the stability of operation of the burner and its reliability.

The essence of the technical solutions is that in the burner with pre-mixing of fuel gas and air, comprising a housing with a tangential inlet slots, channels, fuel supply and the Central body in the inner cavity, with the CSO is smaller than the area of the tangential inlet slots 1.3...2 times, with this Central body is made in the form of a cone or conical shape of the body of rotation with a curvilinear generatrix, the apex of which is directed towards the exit of the burner housing. The output of the burner housing from the entrance of the square is designed in the shape of a cone, and the bottom in the direction of flow of the edge of the tangential inlet slots not made crossing the checkpoint size of the confuser.

The embodiment of the casing of the burner in the direction of flow in the form of a confuser, the gate area of which is smaller than the area of the tangential inlet slots, and the ratio of the area of the input slit to the entrance area, i.e. to the area of the critical section is 1.3...2, allows you to split the flow of the gas mixture critical section (entrance area) on 2 zones with the formation of these reverse currents, preventing leakage of flame into the combustion is performed, where the mixing of fuel with air, and reduce the occurrence of pulsation (vibration) of the combustion in the combustion chamber of the gas turbine engine. One area of the reverse currents are formed in the internal cavity of the housing of the burner, the second downstream from the output section of the housing of the burner. The reduction in flow area reduces the line currents and prevents soapui. When this circulation zone in the inner cavity of the housing of the burner is removed from the Central body, the form of which is calculated so that the rotating flow of the gas mixture in contact with the surface of the Central body.

A Central body in the form of a cone or conical shape of the body of rotation with a curvilinear generatrix, the apex of which is directed towards the exit of the burner housing, reduces pressure loss and to manage the flow velocity profile and the flow structure.

Run the output of the square housing of the burner more than a passing square his confused part, and the bottom in the direction of flow of the edges of the tangential inlet slots do not intersect the flow area of the housing of the burner allows you to manage the flow velocity profile and the flow structure and thereby form the output nozzle to affect the performance of the stabilization of the flame and combustion gas mixture. It also allows you to eliminate pulsation (vibration) combustion, to expand the range of combustion of the mixture and to reduce the emission of CO and NOx.

In Fig. 1 shows a burner with pre-mixing of fuel gas and air, longitudinal section.

The burner is made in the form of the housing 1 and consists of a flange 2, fastened with two offset each other confusioni 3 and 4, the Central axis 5, 6 are displaced one relative to the other in the longitudinal direction and form a tangential inlet slots 7, 8. In the walls 9, 10 confusion 3, 4 provided with channels 11, 12 supply of gaseous fuel 13. Arrow 14 shows the inlet air flow in the tangential inlet slots 7, 8. In the internal cavity 15 of the body 1 of the burner flange 2 is connected to the Central body 16. The body 1 of the burner in the direction of flow 17 is made in the form of a confusor 3,4 angle , the passage area S1 is smaller than the area of the tangential inlet slots 7 and 8, and the ratio of the area of the input slots 7 and 8 to the entrance area S1 of the housing 1 of the burner is 1.3...2. The Central body 16 in the form of a cone or conical shape of the body of rotation with a curvilinear generatrix 18, the top of which 19 are directed towards the outlet 20 of the housing 1. In addition, in Fig. 3 shows that the output area S2 at the output 20 of the burner housing 1 more passing space S1 him confused part of the length L, and the bottom in the direction of flow 17 edge 21 of the tangential inlet slots 7, 8 do not cross the flow area S1 of the housing 1 of the burner.

the feature 15, mixing and twisting with jets of gaseous fuel 13. To eliminate flow separation and the formation of a uniform velocity profile of the flow of the gas mixture is kept Central body 16, and passing through the neck bore S1, smoothly accelerating, by purchasing in the outlet section S2 maximum speed in all modes of operation of the gas turbine exceeds the speed of flame propagation, thanks excluded breakthrough flame into the internal cavity 15 of the burner. When the flow 17 of air-gas mixture in the inner cavity 15 no tear and stagnant zones, which can stabilize the flame in the short-term overshoot of the flame. When this downstream at the outlet 20 of the burner area in the reverse currents is kept high velocity of the gas mixture in the zone of the entrance area S1, which determines the flow rate, a plot of the velocity and the structure of the flow streams. The flame downstream at exit 20 cannot slip through with greater than the rate of flame spread, the area of the entrance area S1, i.e. the mouth of the nozzle. To ensure the reliability and duration of the resource of the burner nozzle is due to the high speed best kladenetsa stabilization of the flame in the expanding part (cone) surface is heated to a temperature exceeding the ignition temperature of the gas mixture within the inlet cavities 11, 12. Performing tangential inlet slots 7, 8 not to the entire length L, and on her part, i.e., without crossing bore S1, supplied part of the air 14 along the walls 3, 4 (or diffuser part) downstream from the mouth S1 in the firing space and creates a protective shroud. The cooling air is very small and does not affect the combustion gas-air mixture for all operating modes of the gas turbine, thus increasing the stability of operation of the burner, its resource and repeatedly reduced toxic emissions of NOXand CO.

Sources of information

1. CH, patent N 680467, F 23 L 17/00, 11/40, 1992

2. US patent N 5307634, F 02 C 1/00, 1992 - prototype.

1. Burner with pre-mixing of fuel gas and air, comprising a housing with a tangential inlet slots, cagalli fuel supply and the Central body in the inner cavity, wherein the burner housing in the direction of flow is made in the form of a confuser, the gate area of which is smaller than the area of the tangential inlet slots 1.3 - 2 times, while the Central body is made in the form of a cone or conical shape of the body of rotation to the under item 1, characterized in that the output of the burner housing from the entrance of the square is designed in the shape of a cone, and the bottom in the direction of flow of the edge of the tangential inlet slots not made crossing the checkpoint size of the confuser.

 

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FIELD: burners for combustion of gas.

SUBSTANCE: gas burner comprises air duct with a nozzle, gas duct coaxially mounted inside the air duct, and conical mixer. The end part of the air duct is provided with a row of openings uniformly arranged over the air duct at an acute angle to the axis of the burner. The axis of the opening is directed to the toroidal groove in the inner cylindrical surface of the nozzle. The gas duct is provided with a head with at least six ports which are eccentrically and uniformly arranged with respect to the axis of the burner at an acute angle to the axis of the burner. The ports in the air duct are inclined at an angle of 30-60o to the burner axis. The ports in the gas duct are inclined to the axis of the burner at an acute angle of 30-60o.

EFFECT: enhanced stability of combustion and efficiency.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: air or gas mixers.

SUBSTANCE: proposed air and gas mixer is used in gas burners at forced ventilation; mixer includes mixing chamber for forming combustible mixture fed to burner; first flow of primary air and gas and second flow of secondary air are fed to chamber through first and second passages, respectively. Mixer is provided with units for throttling the first and/or second passage for selective throttling of mixture of primary air and gas and/or secondary air fed to tubular chamber; mixer has tubular housing; cross section of first passage reduces in way of air-and-gas mixture flow; it is coaxial with second passage; first passage is located inside tubular housing and second passage is formed by tubular housing and first passage.

EFFECT: reduction of acoustic waves emitted by flame fronts; increased range of modulation of air-and-gas mixture; reduction of CO and Nox emissions.

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