Hydro power plant
(57) Abstract:The power plant is designed to generate electrical energy by converting the potential energy of water. The energy Converter of water in the energy of the air stream consists of several siphon pipes through which water flows from the top of the water in the lower reach. The upper portion of each of the siphons, i.e., the region with the highest value of the vacuum is supplied by a separate duct collector, where is the air turbine connected to a generator. The design of the plant allows to extend the scope of hydroelectric dam. 2 Il. The invention relates to techniques for the generation of electric energy, in particular to non-traditional sources of energy.A device that converts the energy of sea waves into electrical energy (see Kirillin C. A. Power. The main problems. - M.: Knowledge, 1990, S. 72-73), which is floating on the water platform, divided into open bottom section filled with air. Waves passing under the platform, alternately compress in the sections of the air. Installed on a flow path of air flowing from the partition budet to convert wave energy into electrical energy.The disadvantages of this device are small power output from the wind? as well as bulkiness, because this device must have a large linear dimensions, so that vibrations of the platform under the action of the waves were small. In addition, the direction of flow of air from one section to another will be changed periodically, and this leads to periodic stopping of the air turbine and generator, which further reduces the capacity of the power plant and requires the use of special reversible generator.Also known hydropneumatic power plant (A. M. Gorlov. A New Opportunity for Hydro: Using Air Turbines for Generating Electricity. Hydro Review, September 1992, Volume 11, Number 5), consisting of a sealed hydrovodone Converter that converts the energy of water in the energy of the air stream, dam, creating a drop of water relative to the bottom of the water and power unit, which houses the air turbine generators. The main element of this plant is air and water tight Converter, constructed of concrete and placed in the river. It can be performed one - and two-chamber. According to the author the development of more effective is the double Converter consisting of two identityrelated system of inlet and exhaust valves, which provide emptying one camera when filling in another and Vice versa. When one chamber is filled, the air out through the air duct opens into the chamber, which is emptied by turning this air turbine.In this device the direction of the air flow in the duct will periodically change, which will lead to the next cycle of operation of the turbine and generator: acceleration - maximum speed - deceleration of the rotation - stop, etc. on the same cycle, which leads to a decrease of the power plant capacity and also requires the use of a reversible generator. According to the author of the prototype when the level difference of the upper and lower pools of 6.5 feet (1,98 m) pressure (pressure), which moves along the duct, the air flow is 13 feet water column (3,96 m of water.article = 38,86 kPa) for a more perfect triple LNB (see ibid.).The Converter of this plant, especially a two-chamber, is quite complex, bulky design, which includes four alternately opening and closing the shutter, axles and hinges which are constantly in the water, which reduces the reliability of this device is x and small rivers).The present invention is to increase the power and extend the scope of its application.This technical result is achieved in that the energy Converter of water in the energy of the air flow is made in the form of a battery siphon pipelines, the upper part of each of which is connected by a duct with the common collector, in which is located an air impeller.Run the Converter in the form of siphons can dramatically increase the capacity of the power plant, because the vacuum in the upper part of the siphon is 7 metres column of water (68,65 kPa) (see Chugaev P. P. Hydraulics. - L.: Energoizdat, 1982, S. 222), and to achieve such values of vacuum with a small level difference in the upper and lower pools, because the magnitude of the vacuum in the siphon depends mainly on the height of the raising of the upper part of the siphon above the water level upstream and is determined according to the following dependence (see ibid., S. 221):
< / BR>where h' is the height of the raising of the upper part of the siphon above the water level upstream;
- full drag coefficient that takes into account the pressure loss from the entrance to the siphon from the top;
v - velocity of flow of water in the siphon;
g is the acceleration slobodnog the mini-station. Ed. Karelin C. J., Krivchenko, J. - M., 1987, S. 21):
N = gQHthe CN.about.,
where is the air density;
g - free fall acceleration;
Q is the flow rate of the air flow;
H - current pressure (pressure differential);
the CN.about.- Energy efficiency equipment.Hydropneumatic the concept of electricity production according to research (see A. M. Goriov. A New Opportunity for Hydro: Using Air Turbines for Generating Electricity. Hydro Review, September 1992, Volume 11, Number 5) is effective when the pressure on the dam up to 13 feet (3,96 m), and at high pressures preferably hydraulic turbine. As can be seen from the foregoing, under these conditions, the differential pressure, which moves the air flow, and hence the flow rate of the air flow above the siphon (with the same diameter of the duct). When this air flow, and hence the power station can be magnified by increasing the number of siphons in the battery. The latter is limited only by the flow of the river.Besides made siphons can be quite simply out of the ordinary steel or plastic pipes. When this is not required, as in the case of the construction of the prototype, diversion of the river in a different direction.To install the proposed power is by drops (thresholds), that expands the scope of its application.In Fig. 1 shows a General view of the hydro-power station, and Fig. 2 is a diagram illustrating the principle of its work.The design consists of a dam 1 on which is fixed the battery siphon pipes 2, each of which through duct 3 communicates with the manifold, where the air turbine 4, and further with the atmosphere. The vacuum pump 5 is connected to the mouth of the duct and connected with the latter by means of the valves 6 and 7. All of these components of the plant except siphons and most of the ducts are located in unit 8.Hydro power plant operates as follows. Before starting the plant closes the valve 7 and the valve 6 is opened and turns on the vacuum pump 5, creating siphons pressure less than atmospheric. As a result, after the siphon pipes 2 starts the movement of water from the upper pool at the bottom. After that, the valve 6 is closed and the valve 7 is opened and due to the pressure difference arising due to the presence of vacuum in the siphon starts the movement of the air flow from the atmosphere through an air turbine 4 and the duct 3 in the siphon pipes 2. Po energy. In order to avoid stopping the flow of water in pipes 2 air supply ducts 3 is regulated by valve 7 and should not reduce the water consumption by more than 0.2 maximum when each pipeline 2 is a full cross-section (without supply air). Hydro power plant, including low-head dam, the energy Converter of water in the energy of the air flow, the air turbine, characterized in that the energy Converter made in the form of battery siphon pipelines, the upper part of each of which are connected by ducts with the manifold, where the air turbine.
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has metallic hubs of stator and rotor, wherein crowns of stator and rotor are concentrically pressed. Crowns of stator and rotor are made of durable ceramics and are additionally equipped with connections, allowing to exclude non-controlled turning of crowns in hubs and spontaneous axial displacement thereof.
EFFECT: higher reliability and efficiency.
FIELD: turbines using kinetic energy of liquid flow.
SUBSTANCE: proposed turbine has turbine case , stay ring with cascade of stay vanes, wicket-gate mechanism with cascade of adjustable vanes, operating element with cascade of flange-mounted blades and drive shaft coupled with electric generator step-up gear, operating element chamber, and draft tube. It is also provided with straightening mechanism that has cascade of vanes, chain transmission that has sprockets and shafts; external and internal rims are made in cross-sectional areas in the form of ovals. Cascade of blades is made in the form of caterpillar cascade. Operating element blades are cylindrical in shape and hinge-joined through chain transmission whose drive sprocket is coupled with drive shaft. Flanges of operating element blades are provided with supporting rollers mounted in fixed supports and joined with chain transmission shafts at distances of two adjacent operating-mechanism blades; guides are made in the form of oval junctions joined with turbine internal rim in vicinity of their abutting against butt-ends of flanges carrying operating element blades.
EFFECT: enhanced turbine efficiency.
1 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mobile generator plants.
SUBSTANCE: proposed generator plant has frame that mounts power unit, foot-operated air pump, and compressed-air cylinders whose air lines communicate with generator plant. Control panel is electrically connected to output of electric generator vertically installed on generator plant housing and mechanically coupled with exciter and power unit made in the form of vertical-shaft pneumostatic motor. The latter has sealed case with inlet, outlet, and safety valves closed with cover that accommodates vertical rotor mounted in case and cover bearings and made in the form of shaft with two power drives attached thereto by means of U-shaped frames. Power drives are installed on either side of vertical shaft and spaced 180 deg. apart in horizontal plane. Each of them has a number of similar members symmetrically mounted one on top of other, their quantity being dependent of desired power. Each member is essentially rhombic plate made of light-mass and high-strength metal whose longitudinal axis is longest diagonal parallel to that of other power drive. Through ducts are provided on front ends of rhomb and L-shaped blind ducts, on its rear butt-ends. All these ducts are closed with covers kinematically coupled with drive cylinder piston. Compressed air fed to sealed housing opens covers, and unbalanced forces are built up on each member which set power unit in rotary motion. Air evacuation from sealed housing closes covers with the result that no forces are built up on drive members.
EFFECT: enhanced power output and torque.
2 cl, 21 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device is designed for converting kinetic energy of free flow of water into electric energy. Proposed microhydroelectric station contains hydraulic turbine with horizontal axle of rotation connected with submersed sealed electric generator. Station is provided with carrying frame consisting of sections on ends of which shields are installed to form confuser at inlet of water flow, and diffuser at outlet. Slow speed generator is used as electric generator whose shaft is directly connected with shaft of hydraulic turbine consisting of separate sections mounted on bearing supports. Each section contains one or more blade propulsors displaced through equal angle relative to each other. Each propulsor has two blades pointed in opposite directions being essentially NASA section modified by provision of cavity on lower plane, maximum depth of which being from 10 to 14% of maximum height of section and installed on posts secured on shaft of hydraulic turbine for fixed displacement of blades in radial and angular directions.
EFFECT: reduced cost of manufacture and mounting.
FIELD: engine manufacturing.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of operation of self-contained power station powered by diesel-generator set. According to proposed method of operation of self-contained power station powered by diesel generator set equipped with additional flywheel and disconnect clutch with automatic control members, additional flywheel is mounted on separate shaft which is connected with diesel-generator set by means of disconnect clutch. Preparatory operation is carried out to set power station into operation with subsequent overcoming of short-time starting resistances from consumer. Additional flywheel is connected to shut down diesel generator set by means of disconnect clutch. Power station is started under no load, and its coming to rated speed is detected by readings of generator shaft speed pickups. Load is connected and intensity of generator shaft speed drop is checked. Information is automatically transmitted to controller wherefrom, at termination of generator speed drop, signal is transmitted to disconnect clutch, and rotating additional flywheel is disconnected from diesel generator set, thus changing the set for accelerated mode of restoration of initial rated speed.
EFFECT: provision of power saving operation at stable conditions for overcoming designed resistance torque and short-time overloads exceeding capabilities of chosen supply source.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device is designed for converting kinetic energy of small and medium rivers into elastic energy. Proposed hydraulic unit contains hydraulic turbine installed on frame with bearings on its shaft, generator mechanically coupled with hydraulic turbine, stream shaper and device in form of plates to protect hydraulic unit from floating debris. Hydraulic unit has intermediate vertically and horizontally installed shafts with bearings interconnected by conical gears. Vertical shaft is arranged in well built near bank and communicating with river by channel made under level of maximum possible thickness of ice cover. Part of horizontal shaft connected with hydraulic turbine is arranged in said channel. Upper end of vertical shaft is connected with generator through ground horizontal shaft and step-up reduction unit. Stream shaper is made in form of flaps installed on shaft for turning to direct water stream of river to its central part between which turnable gate is installed for contacting with one of flaps to direct water stream to right-hand or left-hand side of hydraulic turbine.
EFFECT: provision of reliable operation all year round.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: plant is designed for generating electric energy and pumping of water. Proposed device contains floating base in form of catamaran with channel between housing of catamaran in which water wheel with blades on its outer surface is mounted, and electric generator mechanically coupled with shaft of water wheel. Diameter of water wheel is less than its length. End faces of water wheel are covered, and front profile of water wheel blades is made to logarithmic spiral. Moreover, plant is furnished with water pump, and drive of electric generator is made in form of step-up harmonic gearing whose flexible gear is coupled with end face of water pump. Output shaft of step-up gearing is aligned with shafts of water wheel and electric generator, being coupled with water pump by step-up belt drive. Drive sheave of step-up belt drive is installed on shaft of electric generator. Controllable clutches are installed on shafts of belt drive.
EFFECT: improved reliability and enlarged operating capabilities of plant.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: machines or engines for liquids.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises converter for converting flow power into kinetic energy of rotation and hydraulic turbines connected in series. The hydraulic turbine is made of hollow load-bearing shaft-cylinder with conical deflectors on the bases. The semi-cylindrical blades are secured to the shaft-cylinder along the generatrix of the cylinder or at an angle to the generatrix. The load-bearing shaft-cylinder is inscribed into the inner ends of the semi-cylindrical blades, and their outer ends tightened by means of rings define multi-blade cylinder provided with variable buoyancy that is controlled by ballast in the hollow section of the shaft-cylinder. The hydraulic turbine can be submerged into water completely or partially and interposed between the bearings and connected with the actuating mechanism through flexible links, clutches, and gearings. The actuating mechanism comprise one or several massive inertia flywheels made of disk or drum or cylinder connected through clutches and gears with the consumer.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
3 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: electromechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed generator primarily designed to supply with power borehole instrument of face telemetering system in the course of boring has internal stator and rotor; the latter mounts turbine in its front part that has casing carrying rectangular- or trapezoidal-section helical blades. These blades are free to vary their angle of lift depending on conditions of borehole washing with drilling fluid. Blades may be made of flexible material and have two parts of which one part is joined with turbine casing and other (loose) part is free to bend in transverse plane. In addition, blades may have variable stiffness in cross-sectional area and variable height of cross-section profile; loose parts of blades may be joined with ring. Blade turn limiter responding to maximal discharge of drilling fluid may be provided on the turbine casing.
EFFECT: enhanced operating reliability and extended variation range of drilling fluid discharge through generator turbine.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydraulic turbine generators are designed for creating stationary and portable hydraulic plants of modular type. Generators have rotor with central shaft non-rotating around horizontal axis or vertical axis (as version) on which chain drive gears are rigidly fitted, each being coupled through independent chain drive with planet pinion members arranged radially and uniformly around central shaft. Each member has blade reduction gear consisting of gear of chain drive and of large and small cylindrical gears, the latter being coaxial and rigidly coupled with gear of chain drive of blade reduction gear, and large cylindrical gear is rigidly secured on axle of blade installed horizontally for generator (or vertically, as version). Each blade rests by ends of its axle for rotation on brackets secured on hubs by bases. Hubs are installed on both ends of shaft for rotation and tops of brackets at both ends of central shaft are connected by ring rims being drive wheels connected with energy converters by flexible drive.
EFFECT: provision of effective and reliable operation.
3 cl, 4 dwg