Bituminaria mixture

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the production of road-building materials, namely, mixtures of stone materials with anti-icing additive, processed organic binders (bitumen), and can be used for covering the rough surface on the roads. Technical problem - increasing the effectiveness of anti-icing additives without compromising strength bitumomineraljnykh coverage and reducing corrosion to the metal parts of vehicles. This is achieved by bituminaria mixture containing the crushed stone, crushed sand, natural or a mixture of anti-icing additive and bitumen contains as anti-icing additives mineral powder, obtained by joint grinding carbonate rocks (limestone) with 50-70% by weight mineral powder of alkaline chlorides and/or selectionne metals, with 3-8% by weight of water-soluble chlorides of alkaline phosphates and/or selectionne metals (e.g., one or dvuhkamernyi sodium phosphate, simple or superphosphate) and 2-3% by weight mineral powder bitumen, moreover, the share of these chlorides Costa">

The invention relates to the production of road-building materials, namely, mixtures of stone materials with anti-icing additive, processed organic binders /bitumen/, and can be applied when the pavement with a rough surface on the roads.

Widely known bituminaria mixture comprising gravel, sand, crushed, natural, or their mixture, mineral powder and bitumen, in the following ratio, wt.%: gravel - 0-100, sand - 0-100, mineral powder - 0-30, bitumen - 1,5-10 /in excess of 100% of the mineral mixture/ /GOST 9128-84, Materials and products for road construction. The Handbook. I. Century Gorlachev, I. L. Goryachko, E. R. Pinus and others Under the editor. N. B. Gorelysheva. M., "Transport", 1986, S. 150-153; Quick reference Builder of roads. Weitzman, M. I., Egotv B. N. M., "Transport", 1972, 222-225 C./.

The disadvantage of these bituminaria mixtures is the lack of anti-icing properties that require winter maintenance of roads to handle surface coatings chemical and friction materials.

Closest to the technical nature of the claimed technical solution is bicommissural the following ratio of components, wt. %: macadam - 2-11 mm - 55, crushed sand, 34, mineral powder - 7, deicing component 4, bitumen - 6,3 /in excess of 100% of the mineral mixture / /avca N 3308250, Germany, C 04 B 26/26/

The disadvantage of this bitumomineraljnykh mix is the low efficiency of deicing component, since the granules of chlorides, such as sodium, enclosed in a plastic sheath, included in the work only after the destruction of the plastic shell when the wear of the coating under the action of the wheels of the transport /movement of more than 5 thousand Veh/day/; the introduction of this deicing component in bituminaria mixture reduces the strength of the coating and almost twice increases the cost of the mixture; chlorides contribute to corrosion of metal parts of vehicles and construction of roads.

The aim of the invention is to increase the effectiveness of anti-icing additives without compromising the strength of the coating and reduce corrosion to the metal parts of the vehicle.

This goal is achieved by the fact that known bituminaria mixture containing the crushed stone, crushed sand, natural or a mixture of anti-icing additive and bitumen contains as anti-icing additives mine is imich phosphates of alkaline and/or selectionne metals and bitumen, the percentage of chlorides /for example, sodium or calcium/ is 50-70% by weight mineral powder, water soluble phosphates (for example, one or dvuhkamernyi sodium phosphate, simple or double superphosphate/ - 3-8% by weight of chloride, and bitumen - 2-3% by weight mineral powder, while the share of these chlorides is 3-7% by weight bitumomineraljnykh mixture with water absorption last 4-9% by volume, in the following ratio, wt.%:

gravel - 0-83,5

the sand is crushed, natural, or a mixture of 10-80

indicated mineral powder - 4,5-14

bitumen - 2-6

Comparable analysis of the proposed technical solutions to the prototype allows to conclude that the proposed bituminaria mixture differs from a known presence in it of a new substance, namely, mineral powder, prepared by the joint grinding carbonate rocks /limestone/ with chlorides and phosphates of alkali and/or selectionne metals and bitumen. Therefore, the proposed solution meets the criteria of the invention of "novelty."

Analysis of the known technical solutions shows that the chlorides and phosphates of alkali and/or selectionne metals are widely used to combat gionta and maintenance of roads. VSN 24-88. M., "Transport", 1989, PP 6.6.5 - 6.6.12/.

This chlorides in the solid or liquid /brine/ form process the surface of the road. Corrosion inhibitors /phosphates/ injected into chlorides in the amount of 0.5-7% by weight of chlorides before applying them.

It is also known the use of granules of calcium chloride was placed in a special capsule /Verglimit/ added to the asphalt mixture layer of wear in the course of its preparation /Performance of two icl - retardant oferlays. "Public Works", 1987, 118, N 7, p. 40-43/. The disadvantage of the first method of application of chlorides and phosphates for icing is that during operation of the road these salts are rapidly removed from surface by the wheels of vehicles with snow melt water and precipitation in the form of rain, which requires repeated treatments.

The disadvantage of the second method is the low efficiency of anti-icing additives, because the work includes only those granules chlorides, which are opened in the destruction of the capsules when worn cover /heavy traffic/. While there is a decrease in strength of the coating and three times increases the cost of the asphalt mix.

The use of echeveste/ with chlorides and phosphates of alkali and/or selectionne metals and bitumen, in bituminaria mixtures in the literature is not known.

The difference between the claimed technical solution is known is that the introduction bituminaria mixture indicated mineral powder allows you to get a positive effect: without compromising strength and durability of the coating, to improve the efficiency of chlorides, to protect the metal parts of the vehicle from corrosion, to reduce the cost bitumomineraljnykh mixture and to expand the scope of its application.

In a joint grinding carbonate rocks /limestone/ with chlorides and phosphates is achieved not only for the fine grinding of components, but in the highest degree homogeneous mixtures thereof.

While chlorides and phosphates are partially grafted on the surface of the carbonaceous particles. Introducing a comminuted materials bitumen prevents the aggregation of fine particles and changes their surface, making it related wagamama bitumomineraljnykh mix /asphalt/. With the introduction of the specified mineral powder in bituminaria blend it evenly in it and contributes to a better structuring of bitumen due to the affinity of the surface, which leads to increased strength and TEPLOSET corrosive effects of chlorides on the metal part of the vehicle due to the formation of protective water-insoluble phosphate films.

In bituminaria the coating has pores that communicate with the surface and with each other /water absorption 4-9%/. When entering the pore water is the offset of the asphalt film from the surface of the particles of chlorides and phosphates and dissolving them in water. Dissolution occurs rapidly due to the smallness of the particles, forming a concentrated solution /often saturated/.

On the surface bitumomineraljnykh cover chlorides are exposed when you wear them film of bitumen. But the concentration of chlorides in the solution here is always lower than in the deep layers bitumomineraljnykh layer, because the salts are chlorides dissolved here in more water, and partially removed from the melt water at the destruction of the glaze layer with precipitation as rain and snow.

Loss of salts in the surface layer of the coating shall be filled from the depth of the layer due to the suction action of the tires of the wheels of the transport and diffusion processes. Therefore, the salt concentration of chlorides and phosphates/ on the surface bitumomineraljnykh cover almost constant and sufficient to effectively reduce the adhesion of ice in the ice to the floor and for easier its destruction by the wheels of vehicles because it is th not only on roads with heavy traffic, that expands the scope of its application.

For the preparation of specified mineral powder used common materials low cost /crushed limestone /limestone/, salt, chlorides and phosphates of alkali and/or selectionne metals, bitumen/. The processes of preparation of mineral powder and anti-icing additives are combined in one operation - grinding. In addition, for the preparation of indicated mineral powder can be used substandard materials and waste. Due to the above, the value of the claimed bitumomineraljnykh mixture is significantly lower than the prototype.

Thus, the claimed bituminaria mixture meets the criteria of the invention "significant differences".

Example. For experimental verification of the proposed technical solutions were prepared bituminaria mixture, in which as anti-icing additives specified mineral powder, and prototype.

To prepare bituminaria mixtures used granite gravel fraction 5-20 mm and, as of sand, sifting crushing granite rubble Pavlovsky mine Voronezh region. Granite is possible bituminaria mixtures used viscous oil road bitumen brand BND - 60/90 according to GOST 22245-90.

Indicated mineral powder produced in a laboratory ball mill from carbonate rocks /limestone gravel Eletsky field Lipetsk region/ food salt /sodium chloride/, one-deputizing phosphate Leningrad plant "Krasny Khimik" /corrosion inhibitor/ and bitumen brand - BND - 60/90 according to GOST 22245-90. Before loading in the mill limestone rubble was dried to constant weight at a temperature of 105-110oC, chloride and sodium phosphate was used in air-dry condition, and bitumen pre-heated to a temperature of 120-140oC and mixed with suspended above materials. In the manufacture of specified mineral powder, the proportion of sodium chloride /table salt/ was taken equal to 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% by weight mineral powder, the proportion of sodium phosphate /corrosion inhibitor/ - 3% by weight of sodium chloride, and bitumen - 2-3% by weight of the powder. In the case of use as a corrosion inhibitor of double superphosphate its share amounts to 3% by weight of sodium chloride, and using dogsleding phosphate or simple superphosphate 6-8% by weight of chloride. In the grinding process was carried out by monitoring the grind that is ltate joint grinding of mineral powders possess hydrophobic properties /tests according to GOST 12784-78/.

To prepare bitumomineraljnykh mixture prototype mineral powder prepared from the same limestone gravel without the addition of chloride and phosphate and bitumen. In its properties powder meets the requirements of GOST 16557-78. Deicing component was prepared according to recipe requests N 3808250, wt. %: styleproperty copolymer brand of qualified electronic signature certificate of the Voronezh plant SC - 9, brand polyurethane PU-2 - 4, salt - 87. When cooking bituminaria mixtures of the claimed composition of the mineral powder was introduced from the calculation that the sodium chloride was 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9% by weight bitumomineraljnykh mixture. The compositions bituminaria mixtures are presented in table. 1

Standard specimen diameter and height 70,1 mm for bituminaria mixtures prepared with the use of gravel, and the diameter and height of 50.5 mm for granite screenings were produced and tested according to requirements of GOST 12801-84 and VSN 123-77.

To determine the adhesion of ice to the surface bituminaria mixtures produced samples with a diameter of 150 mm and height 30 mm, the Adhesion of the ice was determined by testing the shear torsional steel frame of size 100 x 100 x 25 mm, which was placed on the surface of the sample and it was filled with distilled water at the rate of half what lineu 10 mm After that, the samples were placed in the freezer, where they were frozen until complete freezing at a temperature of -10oC.

Tests on the corrosion of metal carried out in aqueous extracts, which were obtained as follows. After testing bituminaria samples on the strength of their dried, was destroyed by heating, and then were given a portion of the weight of 1000 g, was poured into distilled water 1000 ml and was kept in for 3 days. After that, the salt solution was poured into glass containers. The destruction of samples from bituminaria mixtures of the prototype was carried out in such a way that the destruction suffered and capsules deicing component. For testing corrosion used a metal plate size 100 x 50 mm cut from the wings of the car and carefully sanded with sandpaper on both sides. Corrosion was determined visually by the appearance of metal plates using the method "wetting and drying".

The test results of samples bituminaria mixtures are presented in table. 2.

Analysis of test results shows that bituminaria mixture, containing in its composition in a content of sodium chloride in the range of 3-7% by weight of the mixture have an index of adhesion of ice is lower than that of the prototype /mix 2-4 and polished samples of the prototype/. At the close particle size distribution of the prototype and declare bitumomineraljnykh blend /mix 3/ marked not only reducing the adhesion of ice, but also increase the strength and heat resistance in comparison with the prototype.

With increasing chloride content in the mixture is sharply reduced strength samples /mix 5/. When you reduce the amount of sodium chloride there has been a sharp decline in anti-icing properties of the mixture /blend 1/. Mix 2 table. 2 in practice, road construction is used for coating with a rough surface.

Therefore, despite lower rates of physical and mechanical properties in comparison with the prototype, they are much higher standards VSN 123-77 and exceed the adhesive properties of the prototype, i.e. the adhesion of ice to 1.6 times lower. On anti-icing and strength properties affected and the chloride content in the mineral powder.

It is established that the optimum content of chlorides in the mineral powder, obtained by joint grinding components, should be 50-70% of its mass /mix 2-4/. Increase or decrease the chloride content in the mineral powder leads to shortage or excessive mineral powder in bitumomineraljnykh mixture, scale, introduction in bituminaria mixture of sodium phosphate in an amount of 3% by weight of chloride contributes to the improvement of the corrosion resistance of metal.

Thus, the metal plate is placed in the aqueous extract salt from bituminaria samples of the prototype, already after 3 cycles of "wetting-drying were completely covered by the products of corrosion /rust/, while the metal plate is placed in the aqueous extract salts from the samples of the inventive bitumomineraljnykh mixture even after 50 cycles "wetting-drying" had practically no corrosion.

Thus, the claimed technical solution allows to improve de-icing effectiveness bitumomineraljnykh mixture and the quality /durability and heat resistance, to reduce the effects of corrosion on the metal parts of vehicles, to reduce the cost bituminaria mixtures and to expand the scope of their application. The most effective application of the proposed technical solution in the thin-film device layers covering of roads /layers wear, roughness, protective and so forth/.

1. Bituminaria mixture containing the crushed stone, crushed sand, natural, or their mixture, the counter is hydrated powder, received joint grinding carbonate rocks with 50-70% by weight mineral powder of alkaline chlorides and/or selectionne metals, with 3-8% by weight of water-soluble chlorides of alkaline phosphates and/or selectionne metals and 2-3% by weight mineral powder bitumen, in the following ratio, wt.%:

Gravel - 0 - 83,5

The sand is crushed, natural or a mixture of 10 - 80

Indicated mineral powder - 4,5 - 14

Bitumen - 2 - 6

2. Bituminaria mixture under item 1, characterized in that the alkaline chlorides and/or selectionne metals are 3-7% by weight bitumomineraljnykh mixture.

3. Bituminaria mixture under item 1, characterized in that the water absorption bitumomineraljnykh mixture is 4-9% by volume.

 

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