Furnace for thermal processing of carbonaceous materials

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the production of active carbons and can be used for the heat treatment of materials in technology electro, gold extraction, construction and other industries, as well as for the reactivation of spent carbon sorbents. The furnace includes a reactor carbonization in the form of a slit camera with sites loading and unloading of the product, means for supplying a coolant in the form of rectangular ducts and exhaust of gaseous products of pyrolysis, heat exchanger, gas generator, a furnace burning. The ducts connect the furnace burning with the heat exchanger. Tool for removal of pyrolysis products released in the form of a metallic pipeline connects the reactor carbonization with the furnace burning. For carrying out the activation process, the furnace is equipped with nozzles for input H2And CO2. The proposed furnace reduces 35-45% of energy consumption in the production of active carbons by utilizing heat generated by the combustion of pyrolysis products, and minimize heat loss and to improve the quality of coal. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The invention relates to the field of production and can be ispolzovaniem, and for the reactivation of spent carbon sorbent A. W.).

Known heat treatment furnace for processing carbon-containing materials, comprising a housing located inside a cylindrical retort, heating elements, refractory insulation and pipes for entry of the gaseous reactants, and the inside lining is additionally installed pipe heated gaseous reagent (see and.with. The USSR, N 796629, publ. 29.03.79, class A, 27 B 5/16).

A disadvantage of the known furnace is the complexity of manufacturing, high energy consumption, low efficiency of the process of carbonization, activation and regeneration.

Most similar to that proposed by the technical nature and the number of matching characteristics, i.e., the prototype, is the furnace containing the dryer, reactor carbonization, the camera activation and HRSG, the camera activation provided outside the camera oxidative gasification, the entrance to which is connected to the output toplivoprovodov mixture from the dryer, and the output to the input of the recovery boiler, in which is located the coil (see U.S. Pat. RF N 2051094, class C 01 B 31/08, publ. 27.12.95).

Obtained in this invention, the activated carbon is characterized by the heterogeneity of the quality is HLA high and 40 thousand RUB/t, the elements of the furnace often fail, requiring replacement or repair.

The objective of the invention is

- decrease of the coefficient of non-uniformity of the quality of active carbons up to 5-7%,

increasing the volume of sorbent pores (up to 1.2 m3/g), strength (92-94%),

- reducing energy consumption up to 15-18 thousand rubles per 1 ton.off.,

- increase (2.0 to 3.0 times), time turnaround of the furnace.

The task is achieved by the proposed design of the furnace containing the reactor carbonization tool for loading raw material and unloading of the product, means for supplying fluid and a means for removal of gaseous products of pyrolysis.

A significant difference from the prototype is the implementation of the reactor-carbonator as through with crack-like camera with respect to the width of the cross section to the length equal to 1:(10 to 14), and means for supplying fluid made in the form of rectangular ducts, each of which is executed with respect to the cross-sectional area to length: equal to 1:(20 2) connecting the furnace burning with heat recuperator, and a means for removal of gaseous pyrolysis products are made in the form of a metallic pipe that connects reactor-carbonizate oven is equipped with nozzles for removal of carbon dioxide and water vapor.

The technical result from the use of the invention is as follows.

For efficient thermal treatment of carbonaceous materials, particularly at high mass fraction of volatile substances (up to 70-75%), for example, seeds of fruit trees, with the aim of maximum development of sorbing volume (Vmi+ VIU) long and minimal cracking and abrasion of moving particles ensures uniform heat and a certain speed of movement of the particles. Moreover, funding decomposition products (limit and unsaturated hydrocarbons, aromatic substances, compounds with long carbon chain) is not deposited on the outer surface of carbonizate, and promptly removed and incinerated with the utilization of heat received, and the unit provides durability, characterized by minimal heat loss to the environment.

In addition, the location of major components of the furnace provides simplicity and ease of replacement without destroying the insulation.

The invention is illustrated in the drawing, which shows a General view of a furnace for thermal treatment of carbonaceous materials.

The proposed furnace contains reactor carbonization 1 with the nodes is provided with a rectangular ducts 5, designed to heat reactor-carbonator 1, the injectors 6, 7, the heat exchanger 8, installed after reactor-carbonator and intended for heating the air supplied through the duct 9 into the gas generator 10, made in the form of a cylindrical chamber lined with refractory brick and is connected with the furnace combustion 11, in which through the pipe 2 serves carbonization gases, the branch pipes 13, 14, intended to supply water vapor and carbon dioxide.

The whole structure is installed in a single reference frame.

The oven works as follows.

In hot gas generator 10 download solid fuel, such as substandard seeds of fruit trees, wood, peat, etc. Derived producer gas through the injector 6 is supplied to the furnace combustion 11 where it is mixed with heated air and dosed is directed into the ducts 5 for heating the reactor-carbonator. Moving on to the reactor, the carbon material is gradually heated to 850-900oC, the heating rate provided equal 1-8oC/min, and heat preservation ensured by the housing 4 and through node 3 unloading is satriana or deep activating in a rotating barabanschikom and burned in the furnace 11. If necessary for carrying out the controlled oxidation of carbonizate through the branch pipes 13, 14 in the reactor 1 serves carbon dioxide and water vapor.

Further, the gas generator 10 is shut off and the heat treatment process is carried out by burning (recycling) of the carbonization gases treated carbonaceous raw materials. The heat exchanger 8 is used for heating the air supplied by the duct 9.

As a result of numerous experiments with the training design of the stove that the achievement of the task is provided when performing a slit camera with the ratio of the width of the cross section of H with length L equal to 1:(10-14).

If this ratio is smaller, it increases the rate of heating of the particles of raw materials and reduced his time in the reaction zone, which leads to deterioration of the quality of active carbons, an increase in the degree of heterogeneity (15-17%) as mechanical strength, and volume of sorbent pores.

For the ratio H:L more than 1:(10-14), the accumulation of pyrolytic carbon on the surface of the particles, which also contributes to heterogeneity.. Along with this, reduced to 2.0 to 3.0 times the mileage of the furnace, because the walls of the chamber are under registrati to (30-35 thousand rubles) production of 1 ton of finished product.

Calculations and research on the choice of ducts for coolant and reactor-carbonization showed that this object is achieved more effectively through the use of rectangular ducts supplying coolant to the reactor-carbonization. However, a significant role is played by the ratio of the area S of the cross-section of the duct to its length is 1.

The greatest reduction in energy consumption (up to 15-18 thousand per 1 ton of sorbent) and the maximum turnaround mileage (2 years) can only be achieved if the ratio of S:1, equal to 1:(202). The deviation of this ratio in the lower side leads to poor quality of coal, the emergence of zones of overheating, reduce the degree of homogeneity of the quality of the products, frequent repairs due to corrosion of the reactor-carbonator.

The increase in the ratio S: 1 in a big way leads to an increase in heat loss and the formation of pyrocarbon, blocking the entrances to the micropores of the coal.

The establishment of combustion chamber with heat exchanger ensures minimal heat loss to the environment, improves the quality of the indicators and the degree of homogeneity of the resulting product.

The proposed tool for removal of gaseous pyrolysis products, you who supports a significant reduction of energy consumption (because heat is generated by burning combustible gases of the treated carbonaceous raw material), and a significant improvement in product quality.

Experiments have shown that during operation of the proposed furnace

- reduced the coefficient of heterogeneity in the quality of the products up to 5-7%,

- increases the amount of sorbent pores to 1.2-1.4 cm3/g, the mechanical strength up to 92-94%, the turnaround time is 2.5-3.0 times,

- reduced energy consumption up to 15-18 thousand rubles per 1 ton of finished product.

From the above it follows that each of the signs stated together to a greater or lesser extent affect the achievement of objectives, and the entirety is sufficient to characterize the claimed technical solution.

1. Furnace for thermal processing of carbonaceous materials, including reactor carbonization with sites loading and unloading of the product, means for supplying fluid and a means for removal of gaseous products of pyrolysis, the heat exchanger, the gas generator and the furnace combustion, characterized in that the reactor carbonization made in the form of through with crack-like camera with respect to the width of the cross section to the length, x is made with respect to the cross-sectional area to length, equal to 1 : (20 2) connecting the furnace burning with heat recuperator, and a means for removal of gaseous pyrolysis products are made in the form of a metallic pipe that connects reactor carbonization with the furnace burning.

2. Oven under item 1, characterized in that for carrying out the controlled oxidation of carbonizate oven is equipped with nozzles for input of carbon dioxide and water vapor.

 

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