A method of manufacturing a metal cylinders

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of metal forming and welding, and in particular to methods of manufacturing a cylindrical cylinder with convex bottoms, widely used in various branches of engineering as reservoirs for gas and liquid. Use an internal slip ring with tapered end sections and a middle cylindrical base section. The lower boundary of the tolerance on the outside diameter of the said ring coincides with the upper boundary of the tolerance on the internal diameters of the sides of the bottoms. Edges of the sides of the bottoms when assembling pull on slip ring axial movement. On the outer surface of the slip ring in the zone of the weld on the width of the above-mentioned gap perform the recess around its perimeter, thereby obtaining a high-quality weld seam throughout its thickness and the perimeter is achieved by the fact. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 7 Il.

The invention relates to the field of metal forming and welding, namely, to methods for producing cylindrical containers with convex bottoms, widely used in various branches of engineering as reservoirs for gas or liquid.

Known methods of manufacturing tsilindricheskoi harvesting and subsequent welding closed under the force of the pressing edges sakaranaho bottoms, heated to the temperature of the welding heat (see , for example, USSR author's certificate N 978976, IPC B 21 D 51/24, 1982) [1].

This technology requires the use of relatively complex seaming equipment and does not guarantee reliable strength and density of the material of the cylinder in the zone of the weld, i.e., in the center of the bottom, where the voltage is highest.

More technological, and more appropriate from the point of view of operational properties is a method of manufacturing metal cans, including separate manufacture of the convex bottoms (one deaf and one with the mouth) with cylindrical flanges on them through, mainly, deep drawing and subsequent welding of circular seams or to an intermediate cylindrical shell (see, for example, patent RF N 2009749, IPC B 21 D 51/24, 1994) [2] , or to each other (see, for example, patent RF N 2073576, IPC B 21 D 51/24, 1997) [3].

This method allows to solve the problem of strength deaf bottom in the zone of the weld and to exclude the use of seaming machines. Manufacturer bottoms can be produced at less bulky equipment, because this process does not participate intermediate cylindrical shell (the body of the container). In addition, this engineer is between the bottom and sides or between the bottoms has a significant length, depending on the diameter of the cylinder, and since the voltage at the seam at a given pressure inside the cylinder also depend on the diameter of the container, a sufficient safety margin of the seam may be provided.

However, a significant drawback of the known method is the difficulty of precise alignment of the welded edges of the shells and heads (or two sides of the bottoms) due to the presence of certain tolerances in the manufacture and another element of the container on out-of-roundness, size, diameter, etc. and mismatch as a consequence of the actual size and shape of the welded edges. This effect ultimately on the quality of the weld (possible local weld, emptiness) and its strength in places where the presence of defects in welding butt.

The closest analogue to the invention to the technical essence and the achieved result is a method of manufacturing metal cans, including the manufacture of the upper and lower ends of the convex portion and a cylindrical flange, welded flange side of each of the bottoms of the annular seam using during Assembly, at least one internal slip rings in the area of the annular bead (see, for example, GOST 15860-84 "welded steel Cylinders for liquefied is zevah welds, connecting the shell with the bottoms or bottoms between a partially solves the problem of the proper joining of the edges of the shell and/or the sides of the bottoms during welding, because the ring is a common base for both the articulating surfaces.

However, even the presence of slip rings does not guarantee an exact match contours of welded edges, the possible lack of local inconsistencies between them, etc. In connection with this, in itself, the use of slip rings does not solve fully the problem of obtaining high-quality annular seam between the sides and/or bottoms of the container. This is aggravated by the fact that at the root of the weld is concentrated the bulk of its possible defects (lack of penetration, pores, slag inclusions), lining reduces the thickness of the seam, displays the root of the weld in the area between the welded edges, as it is fraught with possible development of cracks in the weld if hydraulic test or, which is more dangerous in operation.

The objective of the invention is to improve the accuracy of alignment of edges of the elements to be welded prior to welding, removing weld root from a gap between the welded edges and, consequently, improve the quality of the weld, i.e., its strength and density along its length.

Pointed to by and lower ends of the convex portion and a cylindrical flange, Assembly and welding of the parts of the container at their edges annular seams using at least one internal slip rings, use the inner back ring with a tapered end sections and a middle cylindrical base section, the lower boundary of the tolerance on the outside diameter of which coincides with the upper boundary of the tolerance on the internal diameters of the flanges of the bottom edges of the sides of the bottoms when assembling pull on slip ring axial movement with the gradual spreading out of them as they pass conical end sections and entering the cylindrical section slip rings to the formation of the welding gap between the welded edges, and on the outer surface of the slip ring in the zone of the weld on the width of the above-mentioned gap perform the recess around its perimeter.

In addition, it is possible to carry out the welding of the parts of the cylinder connection of the upper and lower ends directly to each other.

In addition, the welding parts of the container can be accomplished by connecting the upper and lower ends through the intermediate shell, the latter during Assembly pull each edge on a base ring axial movement with the gradual spreading out the edges by Merck slip rings to the formation of the welding gap between the welded edges of the shell and the side of the bottom, and the lower boundary of the tolerance on the outside diameter of the slip ring coincides with the upper boundary of the tolerance on the inside diameter of the shell.

The use of slip rings with tapered end sections and the ratio of the tolerances on the outside diameter of the rings and the inner diameter of the shell and/or the sides of the bottoms allows nadhani shell and/or the sides of the bottoms on a base ring gradual spreading of the edges of the shell and/or the sides of the bottoms and the adjustment of the shape of these edges on the base of the cylindrical surface of the middle section slip rings. This allows you to match the contours of welded edges, and hence to obtain a quality weld in the gap between the edges. The presence of grooves on the outer cylindrical surface of the slip ring in the weld seam area allows you to move the root of the weld, with all its defects in this deepening and get not only in shape, but also on the entire thickness of the welded edges proper seam.

Hereinafter the invention is explained in a specific exemplary embodiment and illustrated in the drawings, in which:

in Fig. 1 shows a General view of the welded container for hydrocarbon gases with swivel and number is a of Fig. 2 shows a variant of the same container in which the container is made of only two parts: heads with cylindrical flanges;

in Fig. 3 is a diagram of an Assembly of welded parts that make up the balloon, at the first stage of Assembly;

in Fig. 4 - arrangement of the welded parts of the container after completion of Assembly and welding;

in Fig. 5 is a structural variant support ring made of bent;

in Fig. 6 shows the implementation of indentations on the outer surface of the slip ring to the root of the weld;

in Fig. 7 is a diagram of stresses on the weld seam in the presence inside the cylinder pressure.

A method of manufacturing a cylinder is as follows.

In the manufacture of the container separately manufactured cylindrical shell 1, for example, from a pipe, and the lower deaf bottom 2 and top plate 3 with cylindrical flanges 4. Heads are made from sheet blanks by means of deep drawing. The upper plate 3 has a neck 5. Separately manufactured also bent the Shoe 6 to set the container in a vertical position. During the further Assembly of the container are also used slip rings 7, each of which has a conical end sections 8 and environments is re it has a triangular shape. Welded circular seams 11 connect all parts of the container in its final Assembly.

After fabrication of the individual parts of the container are their Assembly and subsequent welding. Sequence Assembly and welding of the container is as follows.

In the manufacture of the container, for example, in Fig. 2, first at the Assembly stand set part of the cylinder: the bottom plate 2 and top plate 3, and their convergence along the axis O1O2(Fig. 3) pull both parts of the cylindrical flanges 4 on a base ring 7: beginning at its end a conical sections 8, which gradually pumps edges Adigeni sides, and then, after deformation, these edges pull on the middle of the base cylindrical section 9 position of the ring 7. Because the lower boundary of the tolerance on the diameter D0ring 7 coincides with the upper limits of the tolerances on the diameters (D1and D2(Fig. 3), when the movement of parts of the container along the tapered sections 8 of the ring 7 is provided by first sampling the radial clearance, and then spreading out the edges Adigeni parts, i.e. the creation of tension, which allows to eliminate the influence of the deviation of the sizes of these edges D1and D2(ovality, ellipticity), the formation of ledges at their dock, etc. is de h - the thickness of the edges. Then produce the welding of these edges (submerged or in an atmosphere of inert gas). In Fig. 5 shows the ring 7 made of a flexible profiled tape in rolls.

If the container is made according to Fig. 1 of three parts (shell 1 and the bottom 2, 3), these operations are performed twice: for shells and the first bottom, and then for the shell and a second bottoms. In this case, use two slip rings 7.

Execution on a base ring 7 of the recess 10, for example, in the form of a triangle with a rounded top allows you to position the weld root, where the majority of defects (pores, rasplavlennyi metal, lack of penetration, slag inclusions), not in the working portion of the seam between the welded parts (Fig. 7), but outside, in the ring 7. As can be seen from Fig. 7, working voltagexis much less, therefore, are less likely to develop cracks in the weld. The width of the recess 10 on the surface of the ring 7 should correspond to the gap between the welded parts (Fig. 6). The depth H of the recess 10 is selected so as to securely remove the weld root area by a distance not less than the thickness h from the work area edges. Since the gap of butt weld equal (0,4 - 0,8) h, then the optimal depth against the greater the volume of weld metal, the consumption of the electrodes, energy, etc.

The final operation consists in Stripping the seam (or seams) and adjacent areas of the surfaces, painting and hydraulic testing. Can also be used in heat-treating cylinder or welded seams.

The method is tested in pilot manufacturing a cylinder for propane capacity 50 HP Carried out the welding of cylindrical shells with the heads at the outer diameter of 300 mm and a thickness of 3 mm made of carbon steel St. 3. Ring 7 of a width of 20 mm and thickness of 8 mm were produced by knurling with angles of taper on both end sections 30o. The outer diameter of the cylindrical part of the ring was equal0= 294+1mm and an inner diameter of the welded parts of the container (shell and/or the sides of the bottoms) D1= D2= 294 mm, which provides the thrust of the edges and their tightness when nadhani on the cylindrical part of the ring. The thickness of the edges of h = 3 mm, with or = 0.6 h = 1.8 mm (this is the width of the seam). The recess on the ring is made also of a width of 1.8 mm, and its depth is H = 1,5 = 1,5 x 1,8 = 2,7 mm After Assembly and welding in argon atmosphere was obtained cylinder of high quality, and the ultimate strength determined by the pressure at which the balloon is collapsed, according to trial metallicheskih cylinders, includes the manufacture of the upper and lower ends of the convex portion and a cylindrical flange, the Assembly and welding of the parts of the container at their edges annular seams using at least one internal slip rings, characterized in that use an internal slip ring with tapered end sections and a middle cylindrical base section, the lower boundary of the tolerance on the outside diameter of which coincides with the upper boundary of the tolerance on the internal diameters of the flanges of the bottom edges of the sides of the bottoms when assembling pull on slip ring axial movement, with the gradual spreading out of them as they pass conical end sections and entering the cylindrical section slip rings, to the formation of the welding gap between the welded edges, and on the outer surface of the slip ring in the zone of the weld on the width of the above-mentioned gap perform the recess around its perimeter.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the welding parts of the container is realized by the connection of the upper and lower ends directly to each other.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the welding parts of the container shall be implemented by connection of the upper and lower heads across the movement, with the gradual spreading of the edges as the passage of the conical end sections and entering the cylindrical section support ring to form a welding gap between the welded edges of the shell and the side of the bottom, and the lower boundary of the tolerance on the outside diameter of the slip ring coincides with the upper boundary of the tolerance on the inside diameter of the shell.

 

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FIELD: plastic working of metals, namely manufacture of high-pressure bottles.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of forming shell; swaging at least one open end of shell; forming bottom and mouth while making at least two mutually joined cone surfaces and increasing central angle from shell to mouth; at least after one swaging operation performing heat treatment of swaged end of shell. High-pressure bottle includes shell and two bottoms. One bottom has mouth for placing locking means. Bottom and mouth are made as one piece. Bottom from shell until mouth is in the form at least of two joined lateral surfaces of circular regular truncated cones. Each such joint is performed due to joining lateral surfaces of truncated cones along lines of bases of their small and large diameters respectively. Said joints may be smooth, with radius transitions.

EFFECT: simplified design of bottle, enhanced technological effectiveness of making it.

6 cl, 4 dwg

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