Cutting head for receiving high pressure liquid jet

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to hydraulic machines, high pressure to obtain a high-pressure cutting supersonic liquid jets with a small angle expansion of their external borders in the open air space. In the cutting head for receiving high pressure liquid jet canal sealer is made variable cross-section. The length of the surface area of the Central channel of the seal, made from the nozzle in the form of a Laval nozzle, is much greater than the diameter of the inlet of the nozzle channel in its front section. The diameters of the inlet of the nozzle channel and the outlet channel of the seal in their end sections are equal, and the diameter of the outlet channel liner is not smaller than the diameter of the inlet section of the channel of the seal, the surface of which is made in the form of a Laval nozzle. In this two-stage cylindrical liner cutting head provided with a conical end, made at its smaller diameter and in contact with the input conical end of the deformable seal, and between the ends of the holder and the liner is installed shim and the insert with a smaller diameter is located in the holder, and Bo is t: when the fluid pressure at 250 MPa and the diameter of the outlet nozzle 100 ám cutting head provides the angle of the external borders of the jet in the free air space of not more than when the length of the cylindrical part of the flowing stream is not less than 0.5 mm 1 C. p. F.-ly, 1 Il.

The invention relates to the field of machine tools, in particular to hydraulic machines, high pressure, and can be used, for example, when designing working heads gidroliznyh devices to obtain Morashtite thin cutting supersonic liquid jets.

Known nozzle for receiving the fluid cutting jet (see and.with. N 1228915, publ. 07.05.86, bull. N 17, IPC6B 05 B 1/02) containing socket with a spherical end face and an axial channel of the fluid supply mounted on the nozzle holder, flush mounted in the holder liner with an outer conical surface and the outlet nozzle has a cylindrical shape with a conical inlet part, covering the liner sleeve adjacent its end to the spherical end fitting located with a clearance relative to the addressed end of the liner. The device has installed in the output side of the channel fitting swirler in the form of a conical tapering in the direction of the fluid spring, the smaller base of which is located outside of the channel fitting on the end of the liner. The internal diameter of the smaller base is set equal to the hole diameter of the cross section of the inlet part of the channel liner which is the impossibility of achieving sustainable jet at the nozzle exit of small diameter, forming a supersonic jet cutting fluids with enhanced properties (high specific pressure on the workpiece surface).

Jet with improved cutting properties is a jet leaving the nozzle with a minimum angle of its exposure in free air space, and the parameters that affect the opening angle of the jet, multiple, and the main ones are the following: the level of initial turbulations flow of liquid supplied to the nozzle (the smaller, the better the stream output), geometry and workmanship of the Central channel of the nozzle (providing a minimum turbulization in the fluid flow), the level of the working fluid pressure depends on the flow rate of the jet (more or less than the speed of sound, that significantly affects the external geometry of the flowing stream).

Today there is no consensus regarding the mechanisms of disintegration of jets of high and ultrahigh pressures, and there are no General mathematical relationships for determining the initial length of the cylindrical section of the jet, so in each case it is necessary to find it experimentally.

In the known device to receive ustoichivee more than one millimeter) and subsonic speeds leakage of the fluid (so that is, for operating pressures of the fluid is less than 60 MPa), when the contribution of the quality (level of roughness) of the surface of the Central channel of the nozzle and its geometry in the inhibition of cross-border part of the flow (in cross section) and turbulization in comparison with the velocity fields of the main axial portion of the stream is not so significant. For supersonic jets of small diameter (35...100) μm forced swirling flow only resplit stream at the output due to inertial forces and, thereby, increase the opening angle of the jet in free air space, which, of course, will adversely affect its cutting properties. Known cutting head (and.with. N 597427, publ. 15.03.78, bull. N-10, MCP6B 05 B 1/02) for receiving high-pressure jet, containing situated in the body of the holder and installed sequentially and coaxially in contact with each other nozzle, a deformable seal and liner made them a Central channel, and the channel seal is made variable cross-section. In the canal sealer is a two-stage liner with the conical end of the ledge. Between the ends of the holder and the liner is installed shim. Insert a smaller diameter is located in the holder, and large - in the case the at the exit end of the liner and the surface of the Central channel deformable seal on the one hand, and between the end surface of the Central discharge opening of the deformable gasket and the inlet of the nozzle in its front section.

The presence of these design flaws lead to significant turbulence in the flow of fluid supplied to the inlet of the nozzle, and, as a consequence, deterioration of the cutting properties of the emerging liquid jet (increase the angle of divergence of the jet in the free air space).

The task of the invention is to improve the cutting properties of the jet by reducing the level of turbulence and cavitation in the flow cross section of the fluid supplied directly to the cross section of the inlet nozzle.

Technical result achieved when using the present invention, is characterized by the following parameters cutting jet: when the value of the working fluid pressure at 250 MPa and the diameter of the outlet nozzle 100 μm, the angle of expansion of the external borders of the streams does not exceed six degrees when the length of the cylindrical part of the jet is not less than 0.5 mm

The above technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known device the cutting head for receiving vysokonaporny is aligned in contact with each other nozzle, a deformable seal and liner made them a Central channel, and the channel seal is made variable cross-section, according to the invention the diameters of the channels of the nozzle and seal in their contacting end sections are equal and much less than the channel length of the seal, the surface area with which the nozzle is made in the form of a Laval nozzle diameters flow areas of the channels of the liner and sealer in the area of their pair are equal and not less than the diameter of the inlet section of the channel seal is made in the form of a Laval nozzle.

According to the invention the deformable seal cutting head made of metal.

The execution of the diameter of the inlet channel of the nozzle and the outlet seal in their end sections are equal leads to such primary technical effect as an exception gradation at the junction of their assasino contacting ends and means and to the exclusion of further turbulence in the fluid flow at the entrance to the nozzle, which, in turn, reduces the angle of expansion of the external borders of the jets in free air space.

The execution of the diameter of the outlet liner is not smaller than the diameter of the entrance open is to function effectively, as the imposition of sources of turbulence of fluid flow (tapered edge of the liner at the time of deformation of the seal may be formed from the material of the ring "influx") beyond smooth (in the mathematical sense) of the surface area of the Central channel of the seal, which, ultimately, reduces the angle of expansion of the external borders of the thin supersonic jet in free air space.

Execution of the length of the surface area of the Central canal sealer (having the form of a Laval nozzle) from the nozzle of the cutting head is a lot bigger than the diameter of the inlet channel to the nozzle of the cutting head in its front section provides the primary technical effect, as the maximum possible laminarization fluid flow leaving the Central channel of the liner. Smooth the surface of the Central channel of the seal, made in the form of a Laval nozzle, plays the role of a damper fluid flow, while its length is selected calculation-experimental method depending on the nominal value of the diameter of the inlet nozzle and the working fluid pressure, which, ultimately, reduces the angle of expansion of the external borders of the thin St. the political sense) surface area of the Central channel of the seal is much greater than the diameter of the inlet of the nozzle channel in its front section provides such sverhsummarny technical effect, as an additional gradual reduction to the minimum design value pass hole of the Central channel of the gasket is deformed during application of the axial load to the liner in a moment of mutual nozzle seal, the deformable seal and liner during Assembly of the cutting head.

The mentioned technical effect provides the final formation of the geometry of the Laval nozzle and the local increase in the rate of fluid flow, which leads to additional sverhsummarny the laminar < / span > flow of thin liquid stream over the cross-section of the Central channel of the seal with the smallest diameter.

The invention is illustrated by a drawing, which shows a diagram of the cutting head for receiving high-pressure liquid jet, where:

1 - body;

2 - the holder;

3 - nozzle;

4 - deformable gasket;

5 - two-stage liner;

6 - an adjusting washer;

L is the length of the surface area of the Central channel of the seal, made in the form of a Laval nozzle.

The cutting head contains located in the housing 1 holder 2, and installed sequentially and coaxially in contact with each other, the nozzle 3, for example, from Capparis 5, made them a Central channel, while the channel of the seal 4 is made variable cross-section.

The length L of the surface area of the Central channel of the seal 4, made from the nozzle 3 in the form of a Laval nozzle, is much greater than the diameter of the inlet channel of the nozzle 3 in its end section (the larger the diameter of the inlet channel of the nozzle 3, the more the above-mentioned relation). The diameters of the inlet hole of the nozzle 3 and the outlet seal 4 in their end sections are equal, and the diameter of the outlet of the liner 5 is not smaller than the diameter of the inlet section of the Central channel of the seal 4, the surface of which is made in the form of a Laval nozzle. Two-stage cylindrical liner 5 of the cutting head provided with a conical end, made at its smaller diameter and in contact with the input conical end face of the seal 4, and the shim 6 installed between the ends of the holder 2 and the liner 5 and the liner 5 smaller diameter is located in the holder 2, and large - in the housing 1.

The device operates as follows.

When filing in the cutting head of the working fluid under pressure from the liner 5 by performing output is arnosti which is made in the form of a Laval nozzle, a jet of fluid regardless of the history of its formation additionally turbulizers, as a maximum, only the end section of the outlet of the liner 5 and the cross section of the inlet fluid flow in the channel of the seal, the surface of which is made in the form of a Laval nozzle. The possible appearance of influx metal seal 4 at the sharp edge of the tapered end of the liner 5 in the preliminary axial deformation of the seal 4 on the calculated value due to selection of the thickness of the shim 6 can cause further turbulence in the fluid flow.

The length L of the Central channel of the seal 4, the value of which is much greater than the diameter of the inlet nozzle 3 in its front section, a flow of high-pressure fluid maximum calms down, that is laminaribioside to the highest possible status as due to optimally matched experimental values of size L, and, additionally, by increasing the flow rate of a fluid in a local narrowing of the Central canal sealer 4, finally took shape in the course of its axial deformation during Assembly of the cutting head. This, eventually, and provides the minimum angle of divergence of the jet are paid 3 and the outlet seal 4 in their end sections reduce to the lowest possible level the turbulization of the flow of liquid.

The proposed device allows you to get the cutting supersonic jet of fluid with the angle of the disclosure in a free air space of not more than six degrees when the length of the cylindrical part of the flowing stream is not less than 0.5 mm when the fluid pressure at the inlet 250 MPa and the diameter of the outlet nozzle 100 microns.

The invention can be effectively used in admixture in liquid diamond dust a certain fractional composition, for example, to separate the different gemstones with a nozzle diameter of the outlet (30. . . 60) microns (by minimizing the thickness of the cut provided by the reduced angles of divergence of the boundaries of the jet of fluid in a free air space).

1. Cutting head for receiving high-pressure liquid streams containing located in the holder case, and installed sequentially and coaxially in contact with each other nozzle, a deformable seal and liner made them a Central channel, and the channel seal is made variable cross-section, characterized in that the diameters of the channels of the nozzle and seal in their contacting end sections are equal and much less than the length of the canal sealer, castledyke and seal contact end sections are equal and not less than the diameter of the inlet section of the channel seal made in the form of a Laval nozzle.

2. Cutting head for receiving high pressure liquid jet under item 1, wherein the deformable seal is made of metal.

 

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