Nozzle and method of pre-mixing using this injector

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to nozzles, providing premixing of fuel and air for combustion chambers of gas turbine installations. In the fuel injector toplivopodayuschie channels are oriented and located relative to the rear end of the adjacent cylindrical sections so that when the nozzles are in emergency mode expiring of these fuels does not contribute to maintenance of combustion inside the mixing chamber upon expiration of the limited period when the ratio of fuel-air below a certain threshold ratio. The invention allows to prevent the flame inside the mixing chamber of the nozzle, to simplify the design and reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere. 2 C. p 11 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il.

The invention relates to nozzles, providing premixing of fuel and air for combustion chambers of gas turbine installations, and, more specifically, to a nozzle with premixing of fuel and air, which has an improved ability to suppress the flame when it occurs inside the nozzle. The invention relates also to a method of pre-mixing of fuel and air with the use of the argie or as industrial power plants must meet strict rules regarding content in the exhaust of harmful gases, first of all nitrogen oxide (NOh), carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbons. To minimize unwanted emissions, industrial gas turbines are equipped with nozzles with premixing, in which fuel and air are mixed before feeding them into the combustion chamber, and combustion. Complete premixing of fuel and air provides a uniformly low temperature flame, which is a prerequisite for suppression of education (NOhand promotes complete combustion of fuel.

One option fuel injector and pre-mix is a nozzle with a tangential feed of fuel. Examples of nozzles with tangential fuel for gas turbines is shown in U.S. patent N 5307643, N 5402633, N 5461865 and N 5479773, which all belong to the applicant of the present invention. These fuel injectors contain the mixing chamber (mixing chamber), limited in the radial direction of the Central component (inset), located on the axis of the nozzle, and a pair of cylindrical sections. Sections are mutually displaced in the radial direction to form a pair of inlet slots, through each of which is tanline toplivopodajushchih of channels for supplying the fuel into the inlet air stream. Air and fuel enter the mixing chamber, savariaud (twisted) around a Central insert inside the mixing chamber and become fully mixed. The fuel-air mixture flows longitudinally through the mixing chamber and is injected into the combustion chamber of the installation, where it ignites and burns. Since a nozzle with a tangential feed provides obtain highly homogeneous, fully-mixed air-fuel mixture, this nozzle is particularly effective in preventing the formation of NOhand ensure complete combustion.

In addition to the efficient mixing of fuel and air injector and pre-mix should provide a number of desirable characteristics. For example, such a nozzle should contribute to the spatial and temporal stability of the flame in the combustion chamber. In the absence of such stability of the combustion chamber will be exposed to low-frequency pressure fluctuations, which can lead to stress, reducing its service life. In addition, a nozzle with a pre-mix should be sustainable in relation to the education of the flame inside the nozzle. This means that foroe overcame opposition absorption. Resistance to the initiation of the flame is important because inflammation inside the mixing chamber can easily corrupt the cylindrical section and the Central box, which may have limited resistance to high temperatures.

Unfortunately, the requirement of a full mixing of fuel and air, the stability of the flame and resistance to the occurrence of flame often mutually contradictory. Constructive solutions that improve one of these desirable properties, often worsen another property or some other property. As a consequence, the achievement of effective combinations of complete mixing of fuel and air, high stability and flame resistance education is a very difficult technical task.

Thus, the problem to which the present invention is directed, is the creation of a nozzle with premixing with an enhanced ability to prevent the flame inside the mixing chamber of the nozzle, but not at the expense of increasing unwanted gas emissions or deterioration of the stability of the flame in the combustion chamber. Another challenge is to avoid over-complicating the design and technology is by the creation of a method of premixing fuel and air in the fuel injector, containing the Central insert and at least two cylindrical sections, which ensures the prevention of the appearance of the flame inside the mixing chamber of the nozzle without increasing unwanted gas emissions or deterioration of the stability of the flame in the combustion chamber.

The task is solved by the fact that fuel injector with premixing has a Central insert and at least two cylindrical sections, arranged with a mutual offset of the circle, and each section has a front end and offset from it in the peripheral direction of the rear end, which ends on the trailing edge, the combination of the sections covers the circumference of the Central box, limiting in the radial direction of the mixing chamber, the front end of each section and the rear end of the adjacent section define radially inner and outer edges of the inlet slit to enter the air stream in the mixing chamber, the front end of the at least one cylindrical section provided with a set of distributed along the length of the nozzle toplivopodajushchih channels, each of which has an outlet opening for the entry of fuel into the air stream when Atochem combustion in the mixing chamber, certain toplivopodayuschie channels are oriented and located relative to the rear end of the adjacent cylindrical sections so that when the nozzles are in emergency mode expiring of these fuels does not contribute to maintenance of combustion inside the mixing chamber upon expiration of the limited period when the ratio of fuel-air below a certain threshold ratio.

While this limited time period is preferably chosen sufficiently short to prevent damage to the nozzle, making it unsuitable for long-term use. In addition, this limited period of time, it is advisable to choose a sufficiently short to ensure that the quality indicators of the nozzle when working in the established mode after suppressing exceeded the permissible minimum value.

One of the important distinguishing features of the injector of the present invention is that in certain toplivopodayuschie channels oriented and positioned so that when the nozzles are in emergency mode expiring of these fuels does not make any contribution in maintaining combustion within the mixing chamber.

In one embodiment, the nozzle certain toplivopodayuschie channels oriented and positioned so that when the nozzle operates in emergency mode, jet fuel flowing from these channels are adjacent cylindrical section, for example on the surface of its rear end and do not pass in the radial direction to the Central box. Thus, the rear end of the adjacent cylindrical section acts as a physical barrier, limiting when the nozzles are in emergency mode, the promotion in the radial direction of the jets of fuel flowing from certain toplivopodajushchih channels.

In another embodiment, the front end of the at least one cylindrical section and the rear end of the adjacent sections provide aerodynamic effects on jet fuel flowing from the selected toplivopodajushchih channels in order to limit their movement in the radial direction, to which may be located so their exit holes are displaced in the peripheral direction relative to the output plane of the inlet slits in the direction opposite to the direction of air flow. Preferably also be arranged and oriented toplivopodayuschie channels so that flowing from them jet fuel when operating in emergency mode were unable to achieve in the radial direction of the zone of reduced velocity fluid near the Central insert. It is preferable that the speed of the fluid in the zone of reduced velocity was insufficient to throw the flame from the mixing chamber.

According to one preferred embodiment of the nozzle according to the invention defined toplivopodayuschie channels are oriented in such a way as to form a jet fuel, essentially in the transverse direction relative to the air flow.

The tasks are resolved that the method of pre-mixing of fuel and air in the fuel injector provides an input air flow in the mixing chamber of the nozzle through the inlet slit and the input of the jets of fuel through the outlet toplivopodajushchih channels in the flow of air inside the mixing chamber, p is alot offset around the circumference, and each section has a front end and offset from it in the peripheral direction of the rear end, which ends on the trailing edge, the combination of the sections covers the circumference of the Central box, limiting in the radial direction of the mixing chamber, the front end of each section and the rear end of the adjacent section define radially inner and outer edges of the inlet slit, the front end of the at least one cylindrical section provided with a set of distributed along the length of the nozzle toplivopodajushchih channels, each of which has an outlet opening, the nozzle having a given mode of operation may also work in emergency mode, characterized by the presence of combustion in the mixing chamber, while jet fuel from certain toplivopodajushchih channels serve and guide so that they were held in the radial direction is not more than a limited distance when the nozzles in the set mode and not contributed to maintaining combustion within the mixing chamber when operating in emergency mode after the limited period when the ratio of fuel-air below a certain threshold ratio.

Fig. 1 is a perspective image of a nozzle with premixing, in section, designed for industrial gas turbine installations.

Fig. 2 is a view of the nozzle in the direction indicated by the arrows 2-2 in Fig.1, which shows the location toplivopodajushchih channels according to the invention and illustrates the nozzle as specified in, or in emergency mode.

Fig. 3 is a view similar to the view of Fig. 2, showing an arrangement of channels in the known nozzle and illustrating its operation in emergency mode.

Fig. 4 is a histogram representing the experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and advantages of the present invention.

The present invention is based in part on identifying the following facts.

1. The penetration of flame in the mixing chamber of the nozzle with premixing injector goes in emergency mode, which is characterized by a decrease in the rate of flow and mass transfer in the flow of air entering the mixing chamber.

2. The picture is about mixing with air.

3. Incompletely mixed fuel helps to maintain combustion and prevents the suppression of the flame in the mixing chamber.

In Fig. 1 and 2 shows the nozzle 10 with premixing for industrial gas turbines. The nozzle 10 has a longitudinal axis 12, the front end plate 14 and the rear end plate 16, and at least two cylindrical sections 18 along the longitudinal axis of the nozzle, between the two end plates. Discharge nozzle 20 of the nozzle passes through the rear end plate 14, while the outer end of the discharge nozzle 20 defines the outlet plane 22. The cylindrical section 18 and end plates 14, 16 form a mixing chamber 24, which in the longitudinal direction is limited to the exhaust plane 22. In the chamber 24 is premixing of fuel and air before they enter the chamber 26 of the combustion.

Each cylindrical section in its diametrical cross-section has a front end 28, characterized by the presence of thickened portion 32, and the rear end 34, ending with a trailing edge 36. Each section has an interior radial surface 38 facing the longitudinal axis of the nozzle and define concave and preferably represents a partial surface of rotation around the respective longitudinal axis 40a, 40b cylindrical section located inside the mixing chamber. In the context of this description, the expression "surface partial rotation" means that the surface formed by rotating a line within the part of the full turn around one of the axes 40a, 40b. Axis of the cylindrical sections parallel to the longitudinal axis of the nozzle and is offset relative to the axis in the radial direction at equal distances. Accordingly, the front end of one cylindrical section in combination with the rear end of the adjacent section define in the radial direction, respectively, the outer and the inner edge of the inlet slit 42, which serves as inlet stream of primary air, indicated by arrows 44 in the mixing chamber. The width W of each slit in the radial direction decreases as it approaches to the mixing chamber, so that each inlet gap accelerates the incoming air stream in the direction of the output plane of the slit, i.e., the neck 46.

In the thickened part of the front end of the at least one cylindrical section hosted the fuel line 48. From each line leaves the group of fifteen toplivopodajushchih channels 52, mutually offset in the longitudinal direction, i.e., distributed by DL primary air. The axis of the channels 52 are oriented essentially in the radial direction.

The cylindrical section 18 together comprise the Central box 58, which departs from the front end plate 14 in the direction of the rear end plate 16. The Central insert 58 includes a base 60, to allow the tip 62 and the side shell 64. This shell is stretched in the longitudinal direction from the base 60 to the nozzle tip 62, forming an inner boundary of the mixing chamber 24 in the radial direction and the outer limit of the channel 66 of the secondary air. The diameter of the shell is reduced in the longitudinal direction so that the radial clearance C, separating each section from the Central insertion increases towards the outlet plane of the nozzle. The base 60 has a multiplicity of holes (not shown) for supplying secondary air into the channel 66. The output end of the handpiece 62 is made obtuse, i.e., it is quite wide and has a flat or slightly rounded surface, and in the longitudinal direction of the tip 62 is aligned with the outlet plane 22.

Toplivopodayuschaya pipe 72 secondary fuel passes through the insert 28 in the longitudinal direction and is used for baking is. the nozzle tip made many nozzles, one of which is designated as 74. Nozzles are used for injection of secondary fuel and secondary air into the chamber 26 of the combustion.

The nozzle has a normal or a given mode of operation, which is illustrated by the upper half of Fig. 2. When functioning in a given mode, the thread 44 of the primary air enters the nozzle tangentially (i.e., tangent) through each inlet slot 42. Jet 76A of the high pressure fuel is injected from each toplivovozdushnoy channel 52 and is inserted in the transverse direction of the incoming air flow. Because the air flow has a significant speed jet 76A fuel is deflected in an arc of a circle, as is shown in the form of the average path 78A of the fuel jet. The fuel jet comes in the radial direction only approximately half the width W of the slit before the fuel is substantially mixed with the incoming air. The fuel and air together flow into the mixing chamber, twisted around a Central insert and become fully mixed. Swirling air-fuel mixture flowing in the longitudinal direction and, ultimately, is injected through the exhaust nozzle 20 in the chamber is the influence of the combustion process inside the mixing chamber 24. Freelance mode known nozzle, representing the prior art, is illustrated in Fig. 3. In the known nozzle, the axis 56' of each toplivovozdushnoy channel 52' passes near the rear edge 36' of adjacent sections 18' and the output plane 46' inlet slit. When working in emergency mode, the hot combustion products are expanded inside the combustion chamber, preventing the flow of air through the inlet slit 42'. As a result, the level of mass transfer and the rate of the input stream 44' air significantly reduced compared with the specified mode. As a consequence, the jet 76b' of the fuel remains almost intact, and its variance is minimal, as illustrated by the average trajectory 78b' fuel spray. Near the front end of the nozzle, where the value of the radial clearance C between the cylindrical section and the Central insert is small, intact fuel jet can penetrate in the radial direction in the Central area of the insert, where the fuel can locally to enrich the fuel-air mixture. The speed of the air-fuel mixture in the zone of the Central insertion and especially near its front end may also be too small to safely and effectively dispose of or remove the flame you through the tion, can only exacerbate this situation by enabling you to maintain combustion, i.e., facilitating the flame to remain inside the mixing chamber.

The operation of the fuel injector according to the present invention is illustrated in the lower part of Fig. 2. Some toplivopodayuschie channels 52, and preferably, all toplivopodayuschie channels located relative to the rear end 34 adjacent the cylindrical section so that the fuel flowing from these channels capable of supporting combustion within the mixing chamber only during a limited time interval. The duration of this interval depends, at least in part, on the intensity of the flame and the resistance of the injectors to the presence of flame within the mixing chamber. This time interval should be made short enough to prevent damage, which will make the jet unsuitable for further work.

More specifically, the time interval should be sufficiently short so that the subsequent operation in a given mode, provided the performance, though degraded, but still above a predetermined minimum level. Degraded but acceptable characteristics of the La manufacturer or owner of the installation. In a variant, corresponding to the most stringent criteria, the channels are arranged in such a way as to make the feed fuel is completely ineffective in maintaining combustion within the mixing chamber when operating in emergency mode, i.e. not making any contribution in the combustion process.

In the nozzle shown in Fig. 1 and 2, the position toplivopodajushchih channels is set by the value of the offset axes of the channel relative to the output plane of the inlet slit. Is depicted in Fig. 2 as an example, the channel 52 is located so that its outlet 54 is displaced in the peripheral direction (i.e., on a circle centered on the longitudinal axis 12) relative to the output plane 46 of the inlet slit in the direction opposite to the flow of the incoming air. The offset should be at least sufficient for the average trajectory 78b rejected jets 76b fuel touched the rear edge 36 adjacent the cylindrical section when the nozzle operates in emergency mode. In other words, the offset of the average path 78b circumference in the direction of air flow should not extend beyond the rear edge 36 of the adjacent sections at the level corresponding internal (radial nab the jet 76b into the surface of the rear end of the adjacent cylindrical sections, so adjacent section acts as a physical barrier, limiting the promotion of jet fuel in the radial direction. Therefore, the fuel flowing out of the channels 52, not able to significantly enrich the fuel mixture in the Central area of the insert.

In practice, the offset value can be selected larger than shown in the illustration in Fig. 2, in order to take into account such factors as the manufacturing tolerances and the forecasting errors of the average path 78b in vneshtatnoy mode. However, it may be inappropriate to shift the channels in the opposite direction to the air flow, so that their outlet openings 54 will be in sector S on the thickened portion 32 of the front end of the section. Sector S is characterized by susceptibility to separation of the fluid and turbulence when the thread 44 of the air which surrounds the thickness in the portion 32 to flow into the inlet slit 42. The location of the channels corresponding to the position of their outlets within sector S may be adverse to the characteristics of the nozzles in the set mode.

As described above, the position of the channels 52 is chosen so that the rear cohesively of the channel, take place in the radial direction, which prevents the fuel from the jet to support combustion in the mixing chamber. Alternatively, the position of the channels can be selected so that when operating in emergency mode cylindrical section hindered too deep penetration of intact fuel jets in the radial direction by providing rather aerodynamic than the physical impact. For example, toplivopodayuschie channels may be substantially offset from the output plane 46 of the inlet slit in the direction opposite the incoming flow of air to the incoming air, even in emergency mode, had sufficient time to mix with the fuel and thereby to prevent contact of the undiluted fuel in the Central area of the insert.

The criticality of the situation toplivopodajushchih channels was confirmed in tests of five nozzles in conditions that were representative of the gas turbine installation. For the detection of combustion inside the mixing chamber, each nozzle was equipped with thermocouples. In each trial to test the injector, in a certain ratio, was supplied fuel and vpetsialnoe the ignition device. When the regime of combustion device ignition off and continued burning was monitored by removing samples from thermocouple. For each injector this item was repeated using different proportions of fuel to air in order to set the threshold for this ratio, below which the nozzle suppressed the flames within three seconds after turning off the ignition device. Each threshold ratio of fuel to air is then expressed as "reserve capacity of the suppression of the flame", the corresponding percentage of the difference between the threshold ratio of fuel to air and the base ratio. The basic ratio of the fuel-air was taken equal to 0.24, since it is expected that this ratio should be maximum when the actual use of nozzles in a predetermined operation mode.

The results of the tests are presented as histograms in Fig. 4 shows a stock's ability to suppress the flame for each of the tested nozzles under conditions simulating the base load (corresponding to 100% of the installed capacity of the installation) and the load, comprising 70% of the base. The set of tested injectors consisted of three original injectors, oboznachila the original nozzle was a fully stocked nozzle, had no common parts with other source nozzles. Derivatives nozzles were made of the same parts as that of the corresponding original injectors, but they initially made toplivopodayuschie channels were blocked and replaced by a newly drilled channels.

The nominal offset value relative to the output plane of the inlet slit (and, hence, relative to the position of the channels in the original nozzle is shown in Fig. 4 mm. Negative values correspond to a displacement in the direction of the air flow (i.e. towards the mixing chamber), whereas positive values offset in the opposite direction to the air flow (i.e. from the mixing chamber). For example, the channels in one cylindrical section of the nozzle P1focused on 1,96 mm in the direction of the mixing chamber and the channels in the other sections - 1,60 mm in the opposite direction.

In some cases, in the process of testing, the inherent limitations of the test bench is not possible to accurately establish the true value of a threshold ratio of fuel to air. In these cases it was not possible to obtain values of this ratio, high enough to make the nozzle face is supply ability suppress the flames had at least the value shown in the histogram.

From tests carried out at the design stage, it was known that the nozzle P1demonstrates an unexpectedly high resistance to the initiation of the flame. The analysis of this nozzle discovered that her nominal position toplivopodajushchih channels significantly (1.6 mm and an increase of 1.96 mm) differed from the provisions stipulated in the design. Probably the cause of such displacement was repeated Assembly and disassembly of the nozzle in the process of its development.

It has been suggested that high ability to suppress flame characteristic of the nozzle may be due to the location of channels. This assumption led to the discovery that the combustion within the mixing chamber has a significant resistance to flow of air, and that, as a result, the fuel spray can be experienced only minimal deviation, so that the fuel flowing out of the channels, oriented as it was made known in the nozzles can penetrate deep enough inside the mixing chamber to support combustion. Significant and critical influence of the position of these channels is underlined by the fact that the nozzle P1demontay of its cylindrical sections substantially shifted in a negative direction.

Nozzle P2and P3- this is a normal nozzle, in which toplivopodayuschie channels are roughly in line with their project, i.e., approximately opposite the rear edge of the adjacent section, as shown in Fig. 3. In General, reserve capacity of suppression flame was for these two nozzles 19% (calculated as the average of 21, 18, 18 and 17%, see Fig. 4). Nozzle C1and C3is the injector, in which toplivopodayuschie channels shifted in accordance with the present invention in the direction corresponding to the distance from the mixing chamber. Taken together, these injectors have demonstrated reserve capacity of the suppression of the flame is not less than 30%, because the average value of this quantity for jets C1is 30% and for nozzles C3- at least 30%. Thus, from the above experimental results it is clear that the injector constructed according to the present invention will have substantially increased the value of the reserve capacity of the suppression of the flame is at least 58% higher than the same value for standard nozzles.

The foregoing description referred to the nozzle with essentially radial orientation toplivopodajushchih channels, but Nerevarine esponal, oriented in such a way as to inject the fuel so that the component of its velocity is directed along the circumference from the mixing chamber, may be more effective than a channel with a similar situation, but oriented radially.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention all toplivopodayuschie channels are located and oriented as described above. However, the stock enhancement of the ability of suppressing a flame can be achieved, even if the manner described are oriented not all channels. For example, it is most likely that the main contribution in maintaining combustion in the mixing chamber can make the channels that are closer to the front end of the nozzle. For this reason, the improvement of the characteristics for suppressing combustion can be achieved, even if positioned and oriented according to the invention only the portion of the channel, which is located at the front end of the nozzle. However, there were no disadvantages when similarly positioned and oriented all channels, and in the latter case, simplifies the manufacture of the nozzle.

Although the present invention has been described on the example of the preferred options for SP changes, not beyond the limits of ideas and scope of the invention as defined in the claims.

1. Fuel injector with a pre-mix containing the Central insert and at least two cylindrical sections, arranged with a mutual offset of the circle, and each section has a front end and offset from it in the peripheral direction of the rear end, which ends on the trailing edge, the combination of the sections covers the circumference of the Central box, limiting in the radial direction of the mixing chamber, the front end of each section and the rear end of the adjacent section define radially inner and outer edges of the inlet slit to enter the air stream in the mixing chamber, the front end of the at least one cylindrical section provided with a set of distributed along the length of the nozzle toplivopodajushchih channels, each of which has an outlet opening for the entry of fuel into the air flow, the nozzle having a given mode of operation may also work in emergency mode, characterized by the presence of combustion in the mixing chamber, characterized in that certain toplivopodayuschie channels oriented the nozzle in emergency mode expiring of these fuels does not contribute to maintenance of combustion inside the mixing chamber upon expiration of the limited period when the ratio of fuel-air below a certain threshold ratio.

2. Fuel injector under item 1, characterized in that the said limited time interval chosen short enough to prevent damage to the nozzle, making it unsuitable for long-term use.

3. Fuel injector under item 1, characterized in that the said limited time interval is selected sufficiently short to ensure that the quality indicators of the nozzle when working in the established mode after the suppression of combustion, exceeded the permissible minimum value.

4. Fuel injector according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that certain toplivopodayuschie channels oriented and positioned so that when the nozzles are in emergency mode expiring of these fuels does not make any contribution in maintaining combustion within the mixing chamber.

5. Fuel injector according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that certain toplivopodayuschie channels oriented and positioned so that when the nozzles are in emergency mode, the average trajectories of the jets of fuel flowing from these channels extend in the peripheral direction at the level of the internal radial edge of the inlet shch the previous paragraphs, characterized in that certain toplivopodayuschie channels oriented and positioned so that when the nozzles are in emergency mode, jet fuel flowing from these channels into the surface of the rear end of the adjacent cylindrical sections.

7. Fuel injector according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the rear end of the adjacent cylindrical section acts as a physical barrier, limiting when the nozzles are in emergency mode, the promotion in the radial direction of the jets of fuel flowing from the selected toplivopodajushchih channels.

8. Fuel injector according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 5, characterized in that the front end of the at least one cylindrical section and the rear end of the adjacent sections provide aerodynamic effects on jet fuel flowing from the selected toplivopodajushchih channels to limit their movement in the radial direction when the nozzles are in emergency mode.

9. Fuel injector according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that certain toplivopodayuschie channels are arranged so that their outlet openings are displaced in the peripheral CLASS="ptx2">

10. Fuel injector according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that certain toplivopodayuschie channels oriented and positioned so that the expiring of them jet fuel when operating in emergency mode, unable to walk in the radial direction to the zone of reduced velocity fluid near the Central insert.

11. Fuel injector under item 10, characterized in that the velocity of the fluid in the zone of reduced velocity is insufficient to throw the flame from the mixing chamber.

12. Fuel injector according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that certain toplivopodayuschie channels are oriented in such a way as to form a jet fuel, essentially in the transverse direction relative to the air flow.

13. The method of pre-mixing of fuel and air in the fuel injector, providing input air flow in the mixing chamber of the nozzle through the inlet slit and the input of the jets of fuel through the outlet toplivopodajushchih channels in the flow of air inside the mixing chamber, and the nozzle has a Central insert and at least two cylindrical sections located with mutual smashem direction rear end, which ends on the trailing edge, the combination of the sections covers the circumference of the Central box, limiting in the radial direction of the mixing chamber, the front end of each section and the rear end of the adjacent section define radially inner and outer edges of the inlet slit, the front end of the at least one cylindrical section provided with a set of distributed along the length of the nozzle toplivopodajushchih channels, each of which has an outlet opening, the nozzle having a given mode of operation may also work in emergency mode, characterized by the presence of combustion in the mixing chamber, characterized in that that jet fuel from certain toplivopodajushchih channels serve and guide so that they were held in the radial direction is not more than a limited distance when the nozzles in the set mode and not contributed to maintaining combustion within the mixing chamber when operating in emergency mode after the limited period when the ratio of fuel-air below a certain threshold ratio.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to the field of energy and is designed to prepare mixtures in chemical production, pharmaceutical production, food and heat engines

The invention relates to a device for eddy dissipation air mixture fed to the combustion zone of turbulent jets, mazut

Injector // 2053444

The invention relates to the field of energy and can be used for thermal and chemical processing facilities, equipment and other objects of the national economy working fluid produced in the form of hot gas

The invention relates to an aircraft, in particular to fuel systems for gas turbine engines and to a method of supplying fuel to a gas turbine engine

The invention relates to the field of aircraft engine industry

The invention relates to the field of energy, in particular to the design of combustion chambers, and is intended to improve the fuel efficiency of the gas turbine engine and completeness of fuel combustion

The invention relates to energy and can be used in gas-pumping aggregates of main gas pipelines, independent power plants and other power plants, contains gas turbine actuator, gas-fired

The invention relates to energy and can be used in small-sized mobile gas turbines fuel into the combustion chamber

The invention relates to gas turbine units operating on natural gas, namely, the fuel injection system

The invention relates to fuel systems multi-engine aircraft using cryogenic fuel

Drain system // 2244142

FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas-turbine engines.

SUBSTANCE: system is designed for utilization of fuel leaks in drain systems of gas-turbine engines. Proposed system contains drain tank divided into upper and lower spaces by spring-loaded flexible partition. Upper space is connected through check valve and drain valve with nozzle manifolds, through other check valve, with atmosphere, and through third check valve, with fuel pump input. Lower space is connected with high-pressure source through pressure selector. Fuel-air medium sensor is installed under check valve communicating with atmosphere. Selector is made in form of electromagnetic valve with spool device. Check valve connected with fuel pump is located lower than minimum permissible fuel level in tank, level being set by program. Such design of drain system precludes getting of air to fuel pump input and meets ecological requirements as to effective combustion of fuel owing to return of fuel from drain tank into fuel tank at steady state operating conditions of engine.

EFFECT: provision of pollution-free engine.

1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; engines.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for draining fuel leaks from manifold and returning fuel into engine fuel system. Proposed device contain drain tank connected with drain fuel source, ejector with working nozzle, outlet and receiving chamber, drain tank shutoff valve, float installed in drain tank and connected with shutoff valve. Constant pressure valve connected with ejector outlet is installed at inlet of ejector working nozzle. Throttling needle with spring and piston is installed in working nozzle of ejector. One space of piston being connected with drain space and the other, with ejector outlet.

EFFECT: prevention of cavitation in ejector and getting of air into fuel system.

1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices and methods of combustion of fuel-air mixture in air-jet engines, small-size gas-turbine engines and gas-turbine plants. Proposed low-pressure nozzle contains annular atomizing edges, body accommodating central air swirler, channel to feed fuel with auger swirler, and outer air swirler arranged on nozzle body. Channel to supply swirled high-pressure air is arranged around fuel feed channel. Two-tier jet outer air swirler is provided with outer and inner inclined holes, air vortex stabilizer and annular outer and inner atomizing edges. Method of fuel atomizing by low-pressure nozzle comes to delivery of fuel and pressure feeding of air through central swirler and outer swirler. Fuel is fed between two swirler air flows formed by central swirler and channel to supply swirler high-pressure air. Flows of air and fuel getting to annular atomizing edges of nozzle form finely dispersed fuel air-mixture. Drops of mixture are atomized by air jets of outer swirler first on its inner annular atomizing edge, and then on outer edge. Said peculiarities of proposed invention increase payload capacity of aircraft, reduce exhaust of harmful substances.

EFFECT: reduced energy losses and expenses.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: rocketry and aeronautical engineering; fuel systems of flying vehicles.

SUBSTANCE: device proposed for realization of this method includes fuel tanks connected in succession by means of pipe lines; sequence of fuel utilization is estimated by intensity of heating of fuel contained in them.

EFFECT: reduction of temperature at engine plant inlet.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: metered delivery of fluid medium from supply source to users.

SUBSTANCE: proposed meter includes metering valve sliding in body at working stroke C; this valve has inlet hole for receiving fluid medium from supply source and outlet for discharge of fluid medium to user. Meter is provided with passage for fluid medium for performing washing motion of fluid medium over contact surfaces of valve and body. Passage is formed by helical groove at width L and screw pitch P. Besides that injector is proposed which is fitted with this meter.

EFFECT: avoidance of accumulation of contaminants during flow of fluid medium through meter.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; turbomachines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed fuel injection system contains high-pressure pump for delivering fuel at high pressure from fuel tank, fuel nozzles arranged in combustion chamber of turbomachine and metering device located between said high-pressure pump and fuel nozzles to control rate of fuel getting into fuel nozzles from high-pressure pump. Metering device contains delivery valve operated in accordance with two delivery levels by metering valve to which fuel is delivered from said high-pressure pump. Electrically controlled shutoff valve is provided additionally to cut off fuel delivery to said fuel nozzles.

EFFECT: possibility of limiting heating of fuel and setting optimum dimensions of system components.

5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: devices for mixing of fuel components including gaseous and liquid fuel, water vapor and air before their supply to the combustion chamber.

SUBSTANCE: the mixer of fuel components has a fuel supply manifold and a system for preparation of the fuel-containing mixture including a device of multi-point fuel injection. The system for preparation of the fuel-containing mixture is made in the form of a single Venturi tube, the device of multi-point fuel injection installed in the Venturi tube up to its critical section is made in the form of a tore-shaped stream-lined manifold with openings on the outer and inner surfaces. The tore-shaped manifold of multi-point injection is tear-shaped.

EFFECT: simplified and lightened construction of the mixer, reduced friction loss.

2 cl, 2 dwg

Up!