Method and device for rapid regulatory capacity of the power plant
(57) Abstract:The method and the device are designed for rapid regulatory capacity of the power plant. The turbine unit comprises a steam turbine and generator. When installing a redundant power generator (Rsduring operation of the installation activate the available energy storage. For regulated activation energy storage using fuzzy logic. Using fuzzy logic rules (FR1...4from operating experience of the installation. A device for implementing the method comprises a system of fuzzy logic, the inputs which reflect the excess power of the generator (Ps), as well as the energy situation-activated memory, and the outputs of which (d-j, i, o, q) denote the set of positional values (Y) for the degree of activation of the individual energy storage. Such method and apparatus would allow to increase the efficiency of regulation. 2 C. and 8 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il. The invention relates to a method for fast power control power plant with turbine unit containing steam turbine and generator, and for excess power of the generator during operation of the installation actinidine supply of electricity in an electric power supply system involves careful coordination between the production of electrical energy by the number of energy units and selection of this energy due to many customers in the electric distribution network. If the production and selection of electric energy are equally great, the mains frequency, which is the essential parameter in the electrical network is constant. Its nominal value, for example in the interconnected European power system is 50 Hz. The frequency deviation, which appears, for example, failure of the power unit, and due to the connection or disconnection of the consumer, can be considered as a measure to increase or decrease the power output. Along with the development of frequency deviations within the power supply system further task is to observe the specified exchange capacity on the ground due to the partial networks that make up the distribution network (United power grid or stand-alone grid). The requirement is therefore that the rapid increase in capacity of the power unit was available within seconds.Opportunities for fast power control and support frequency described in the journal "VGB Kraftwerkstechnik, number 1, January 1980, pages 18-23. While for rapid changes in power in the second range (quickly realized reserve) there are many at the same time or alter the required change in fuel supply. Therefore, at the power plant running on fossil fuel, to overcome the time lag during the first seconds open held still in the throttled position of the control valves of the steam turbine and due to this, practically without delay activate and discharge drives available pair.In addition to increasing capacity by eliminating throttling control valves of the steam turbine also switch provided in the water / steam circuit of a steam turbine heaters that are heated by a pair of intermediate selection from the steam turbine. Directed simultaneously through the heater low pressure condensate stream in a few seconds may be terminated or re-raised. This measure for fast power control in power, fossil fuel, by turning off the heater supply condensate is described, for example, in German patent DE-PS 33 04 292.To regulate and/or control quickly implemented (second) of reserve, that is, the regulated use steam to flow regenerative heaters and/or capacitors for heating and steam for those who use the device regulation. It makes for fast power control, i.e. to activate quickly realized reserve, throttling the steam supply to the heaters, the throttling of steam for technological needs and/or throttling of the condensate. Set of positional values for the adjustment of the valves in the outlets of the turbine and for the Executive bodies to regulate condensate formed in such a way that achieves the required excess capacity of the generator. The disadvantage, however, is that the coordination required rate of change of power and amplitude of power with other variables of the process, in particular with temperature changes in the line of heating and/or capacitors for heating and feeding auxiliary condensate is extremely difficult. In addition, are unaccounted priorities using separate measures for fast power control. In addition, due to the typical non-linear objects of regulation regulatory quality is not particularly high,
The basis of the invention therefore have the task of specifying how to quickly provide the power in the power plant, which is achieved especially the disorder simple means.On how this task according to the invention is solved due to the fact that the regulated activation energy storage using fuzzy logic, and use fuzzy logic rules from the experience of the operation of the facility and based on the excess power of the generator and on the basis of the energy situation activated drives determine the degree of activation of the individual energy storage devices.This invention proceeds from the consideration that it is necessary to evaluate different process parameters or process variables. When this analysis is essential for the regulated process variable process must be performed in their entirety. Using fuzzy logic then you can enter in the evaluation of the operating experience of the installation (expert knowledge) and be considered for subsequent formation position of the specified values.In the preferred form of further development to implement the necessary fuzzy logic rules take into account the priority of the use of a separate energy storage. In addition, the assessment process variables or process data to determine the position set values preferably take into account their willingness and/or VA system fuzzy logic, input signals which reflects the excess power of the generator, and the energy situation activated drives and outputs which indicate the degree of activation of the individual energy storage devices.In a preferred form of execution of the fuzzy logic system contains the first fuzzy logic controller, the signals at the inputs which reflect the energy situation activated drives, and the output of which indicates the strategy for use of the measures and temporary restrictions of individual activated drives. Preferably the first fuzzy logic controller includes the additional input signal, reflecting the degree of throttling at least one connected to the steam turbine-side tributary of the Executive body.Appropriate system of fuzzy logic provides a second fuzzy logic controller, the signals at the inputs which reflect the preset power value and the actual value of the excess power of the generator, as well as strategy use and limitations, and the outputs which indicate the set of positional values for the Executive bodies for the pair.The fuzzy logic system contains on the traditional value of at least one of the Executive body for the pair and the actual value of the temperature and/or pressure accumulated in the water / steam circuit of the feed water, and outputs which indicate the set of positional values for the Executive bodies of the condensate. Thus preferably the input signal of the third controller fuzzy logic reflects the value for the rate of change of the valve position at least one of the Executive body for the pair.Appropriate system of fuzzy logic contains in addition a fourth fuzzy logic controller, the input signal which reflects the actual value for the level in at least one intermediate storage device included in the water / steam circuit, and the output of which indicates the specified position is to enter the condensate in the accumulator condensate or output from it.Achieved by the invention advantages are, in particular, that due to the use of fuzzy logic with the use of the operating experience of the installation is achieved by the regulated activation in the process of exploitation of available energy storage. This can be considered priorities for the use of individual measures. In addition, ensure the careful management of the process while at the same time particularly efficient use of available energy storage. In particular, achieved what it in detail using the drawings. This figures shows:
Fig. 1 is a block diagram of a turbo-generator as a segment of the process of energy block and
Fig. 2 is a block diagram of the fuzzy logic system as a control device for the segment of the process according to Fig. 1.Fig. 1 shows a principle block diagram of a segment of the process of energy block with a turbo-generator, which consists of a partial high-pressure turbine 2, a partial intermediate pressure turbine 4 and a partial low-pressure turbine 6 and the generator 8 In the operation of the turbogenerator fresh pairs FD through the control valve fresh pair 10 is introduced into the partial high-pressure turbine 2. The first partial stream FD1and installed through control valve 12 of the second partial stream FD2is selected from the partial high-pressure turbine 2 line of heated high-pressure 14. Installed using the following control valve 16 and the third partial stream FD3is selected from the partial high-pressure turbine 2 to the capacity of the feed water 18. Spent steam FD' of the partial high-pressure turbine 2 flows through the intermediate superheater 20 to partial turbine average galdston control valve 22 are selected to be installed first partial stream MD1for line heating low pressure 24. Further selection occurs through established through control valve 26 of the second partial stream MD2condenser for heating 28. Further selection occurs through established through control valve 30, the third partial stream MD3as steam for technological needs PD. The spent vapor MD' partial intermediate pressure turbine 4 down through the bypass valve 32 to the partial low pressure turbine 6.Of the partial low-pressure turbine 6 is also a selection of steam for heating low-pressure 24 and condenser for heating 28. For this first partial flow of ND1directly, and the second partial stream of ND2through control valve 34 is led to the line of heated low pressure 24. Similarly to the condenser for heating 28 down the third partial stream of ND3directly, and the fourth partial flow of ND4through control valve 36. Spent steam ND' of the partial low-pressure turbine 6 is condensed in the condenser 40.The main condensate To drain from the space 42 of the capacitor 40 through a condensate pump 44 through linnassa feedwater 46 feedwater S is fed through the line of heated high-pressure 14. Auxiliary condensate NK1from the heated high-pressure 14 served by the auxiliary condensate pump 48 into the tank feed water 18. Similarly, the auxiliary condensate NK2from the heated low-pressure 24 is served by an auxiliary condensate pump 50 to the condenser 40, that is, his discharge space 42. Additionally, auxiliary condensate NK3from the condenser for heating 28 served by auxiliary condensate pump 52 in the discharge space 42 of the capacitor 40.While the flow of the main condensate and feedwater S produced by regulating the levels of LK/LSBWsupply auxiliary condensate NK1,2,3set through a separate level control NR1, NKR2or NKR3. It can be summed total specified positional value of YNKR. While connected through the condensate pump 48 from the discharge space 42 of the capacitor 40 drive cold water 54 is used for input or output of the main condensate K.Device for fast power control is shown in Fig. 2. It contains the system neced the initial values adjusted according to the frequency specified power value Psand the actual value of the excess power PIgenerator 8. The actual value of the excess power PImeasured by the measuring device 70 on the generator 8 (figure 1) Other input variables of the fuzzy logic system 60 are temperature TSWand pressure PSWfeedwater S, which is measured by the measuring device 72 in the tank feed water 18 (Fig.1). Next to the fuzzy logic system 60 as input values lead measured in the discharge space 42 of the capacitor 40, the condensate level LKand measured in the vessel feedwater 18 level feedwater LSWB. As further input quantities e1...enthe fuzzy logic system 60 down information about the degree of throttling (closing) D10D32regulating valve in the fresh pair of 10 or, respectively, the bypass valve 32 and data priorities for the use of the EP, the technical readiness of the TV and the characteristic load KL of the power plant, as well as further process variables R.Inputs e1...enbelong to the first fuzzy logic controller 62 system fuzzy logic 60. They account for a substantial DL is in its first fuzzy logic controller 62 of the rules of fuzzy logic FR1from experience with installation (expert knowledge) define the strategy use measures required to fast power control of the power unit. Next, they determine the time constraints of the energy storage devices to be activated on a segment of the process. This strategy, i.e. a stepped arrangement measures and restrictions form the output f of the first fuzzy logic controller 62.This output variable f is simultaneously input value of the second fuzzy logic controller 64. Further input quantities a and b of the second fuzzy logic controller 64 are adjusted according to the frequency specified power value PSor the actual value of the excess power PI. In the second fuzzy logic controller 64 of these input values a, b and f on the basis of fuzzy logic rules FR2determine the output value of the g - k. While the output value of the g - j are predetermined positional values, the output value of k is estimated by the rate of change of the valve position dYm/dt, as provided in part of the process, according to Fig. 1 Executive body 10, 12, 16, 22, 26, 32, 34 and 36. Output Velich valves 26 and 36 for condensate for heating. Output variable h indicates the specified positional values of YFD, YUKregulating valve fresh pair 10 or, respectively, the bypass valve 32. Output variable i indicates the commanded position value of YPDfor the regulating valve 30, which sets the amount selected per unit time steam for technological needs PD. Output variable j denotes the set of positional values of YKLfor control valves pair of intermediate selection 12, 16, 22 and 34.The output values of j and k of the second fuzzy logic controller 64 are simultaneously input values of the third fuzzy logic controller 66. As a further input variable with the third fuzzy logic controller 66 down the temperature TSWand pressure PSWfeed water's in the tank feed water 18. From these input values of j, k and c using fuzzy logic rules FR3as output values 1 and form specified positional values of YKP, YNKPto regulate condensate or auxiliary condensate NKR1,2,3.In the fourth fuzzy logic controller 68 system of fuzzy logic 60 as the output value q is ondensate 54 or the output of condensate K. For this purpose, the fuzzy logic controller 68 as the input value of d down to the level of the condensate and feedwater LKor LSWB. The education given positional values of YKKPhappens also with the help of fuzzy logic rules FR4.Due to the applied fuzzy logic 60 of technological knowledge is provided as careful management of the process power plant or power unit during rapid changes in power, and especially the effective use of available energy storage. While technological knowledge comes in fuzzy logic rules FR1- FR4separate controllers fuzzy logic 62 - 68. In particular, for the implementation of fuzzy logic rules FR1the first fuzzy logic controller 62 takes into account the priority of the use of a separate energy storage. The activation energy storage is due to the throttling of the steam supply to the heating lines 14 and 24 and/or by throttling the steam for technological needs PD or throttling condensate To and/ or side condensate NK1,2,3The formation of the corresponding set of positional values Y for regulating or adjusting klepnete generator PS. 1. Method for fast power control power plant with turbine unit containing steam turbine (2, 4, 6) and the generator (8), and excess power of the generator (PSduring operation of the installation activate the available energy storage, characterized in that the regulated activation energy storage using fuzzy logic, and use fuzzy logic rules (FR1-4from experience of use and based on the excess power of the generator (PSand based on the energy situation activated drives determine the degree of activation of the individual energy storage devices.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that for the implementation of fuzzy logic rules (FR1) take into account the priority (EP) the use of a separate energy storage devices.3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that for determining the set of positional values (Y) for a separate energy storage account information (TB) about their readiness.4. Device for rapid regulatory capacity of the power plant with turbine unit containing steam turbine (2, 4, 6) and the generator (8), and for Ostanin energy storage, characterized in that it has a system of fuzzy logic (60), the input signals (a - e) reflect the excess power of the generator (PS), as well as the energy situation activated drives, and the outputs of which (g - j, 1, o, q) indicate the degree of activation of the individual energy storage devices.5. The device according to p. 4, characterized in that the fuzzy logic system (60) includes a first fuzzy logic controller (62), the signals at the inputs (e1- en) which reflect the energy situation activated drives, and the output (f) which specifies the strategy for use of the measures and temporary restrictions activated drive or each activated memory.6. The device under item 5, wherein the first fuzzy logic controller (62) includes an input (e) for the degree of throttling (DFDDUKat least one associated with a steam turbine (2, 4, 6) on the side of inflow of the Executive body (10, 32).7. Device according to any one of paragraphs.4 to 6, characterized in that it has a second fuzzy logic controller (64), the signals at the inputs (a, b, f,) of which reflect the specified power value (PS) and the actual value of the excess capacity is defined positional values (Y) for the Executive bodies (10, 12, 16, 22, 26, 30, 32, 34, 36).8. Device according to any one of paragraphs.4 to 7, characterized in that it has a third fuzzy logic controller (66), the signals at the inputs (c, j, k) which reflect the specified positional value (YKLat least one Executive body for the pair of intermediate selection (12, 16, 22, 34) and the actual value of the temperature (TSWand/or the actual value of the pressure (PSW) accumulated feed water (S), and outputs (1, o) which indicate the set of positional values (YKP, YNKPfor Executive bodies for condensate(44, 48, 50, 52).9. The device under item 8, characterized in that the input signal (k) of the third fuzzy logic controller (66) reflects the value for the rate of change of the valve position (dYm/dt) at least one Executive body.10. Device according to any one of paragraphs.4 to 9, characterized in that there is a fourth fuzzy logic controller (68), the signal at the output of which (d) reflects the value (LK, LSBWfor level in at least one intermediate storage (18, 42) and the output (q) which indicates the commanded position value (YKKPto enter the condensate K in the drive condensate (54) or output from it.
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system consists of steam turbine 1, turbogenerator 2 and boiler. Turbine 1 is opened by acting onto valves 4 using governor 3 governor 3 is set into operation under action of centrifugal pendulum 5, electric motor 6, electrohydraulic converter 7 and manual control mechanism 8. Sensor 9 improves sensitivity of system actuating members. System is furnished also with control pressure sensor 10, controllable opening setter 11 of turbine 1, amplifiers 14 and 15, limiter 16 and proportional differential converter 17. To decrease nonlinearity of "frequency-power" curve of tubular 1 system is furnished with division unit 18, pressure sensor 19 is control stage of high-pressure cylinder of turbine 1, pressure sensor 20 before turbine 1 and change-over switch 21.
EFFECT: provision of automatic control of power of generating unit at considerable reduction of dead zone in frequency and nonlinearity of "frequency-power" curve of turbine operating in network.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in thermal power stations for economic automated control of steam-turbine power-generating units under nominal and sliding pressure conditions. According to invention, regulative valves on lines delivering steam to turbine are kept fully open under all operating conditions of power-generating unit. To change over from one steady-state mode to the other within the limits of rated load, fuel feed regulating valves and feed water regulating valves delivering fuel and water into boiler are acted upon. To change over for load exceeding rated one, regulating valves on lines of steam extraction for regeneration, which are also fully opened, are partially closed. Valves delivering steam to turbine are partially closed for a short period of time when frequency in power supply network deviates from tolerable value, with subsequent return of valves in initial fully open state after setting of frequency within preset limits.
EFFECT: provision of operation of steam-turbine power-generating unit under all loads with minimum losses for steam throttling, materially increased economy of operation.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: use of oil heat of the coal-pulverizing plant, applicable in heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: the method for operation of the thermal power station consists in the fact that steam is produced in the boiler, to this end, coal dust and air are fed to the boiler, coal grinding is accomplished in the coal-pulverizing plant, air heated in the air heater is used as the drying agent, permanent lubrication and cooling of the coal- pulverizing plant bearings are accomplished by oil, which is cooled by passage through an oil cooler. Air picked up from the atmosphere and fed to the boiler air heater is used as the oil cooler cooling medium.
EFFECT: enhanced economical efficiency of the thermal power station.
FIELD: electrical engineering; power supply of communication systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed plant provides uninterrupted delivery of voltage to load connected to power supply line by connecting power supply line with rotating member with turbine operating to Rankine cycle and connected to device which operates as motor when power supply line supplied voltage to rotate rotating member and generate stored kinetic energy, and operates as generator when power supply line does not operate and rotating member rotates owing to delivery of vapor-like working medium to turbine. Device controls working medium depending of operating conditions of plant in response to losses in power supply line.
EFFECT: improved reliability of power supply of consumer.
8 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: power unit checking facilities.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system contains current state data acquisition logic unit which receives great number of variable charactering current state of power unit. Logic unit of acquisition of designed constants receives great number of designed constant for power unit. Logic analyzing unit calculates operation efficiency of power unit. Method includes obtaining of great number of current state variable for power unit. Operation efficiency of power unit is evaluated with due account of current state variable and designed constants.
EFFECT: reduced labor input when analyzing efficiency and expenses of power unit.
22 cl, 15 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hybrid superreliable power generating system. proposed system contains primary power unit generating power and secondary power unit in form of closed-cycle steam turbine capable of generating 100% power generated by primary power unit which is heated at spinning reserve by waste heat of primary power unit where closed-cycle steam turbine is maintained preferably at idling under spinning reservoir conditions. Closed-cycle steam turbine contains burner which burns the same fuel as primary power unit and which products heat sufficient for generating energy equal to 100% of energy delivered by primary power unit to supply load after stopping of primary power unit.
EFFECT: provision of superreliable generation of electric energy.
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in designing systems of automatic control of power of steam boiler-turbine power units, both with drum and with straight-through boilers. In power automatic control system with control of power only by boiler regulator (according to open scheme), fuel flow rate corrector is provided in boiler regulator taking into account influence of instability of calorific power of fuel onto generation of power, efficiency of power unit and influence of change of position of regulating valves of turbine in process of power control.
EFFECT: improved quality of control.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed to control water temperature in the equipment cooling circuit and can be used in power engineering. The proposed hydraulic device incorporates a heat exchanger and additionally a water heater allowing maintaining the water temperature of up to +35°C and not below a preset level, during the equipment downtime irrespective of the time of year. Note that the said water heater comprises a steam-water heater and multipurpose valves.
EFFECT: keeping equipment safe and sound at low ambient temperatures.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to power engineering and may be used for automatic control of steam-gas plants (SGP) automatic control. According to invention, steam pressure detector is connected to one of SGP capacity controller inlets via differentiator upstream control valves of steam turbine (ST), and generator of anticipatory signal of ST controller is arranged in the form of two summators, to inlets of the first of which, outlets are connected from identifiers of current values of gas turbines (GT) capacities, and to inlets of the other - via damper - identifier of current ST capacity value, outlet of the first summator via another damper and outlet of SGP capacity setting generator.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase quality of control as a result of simplification of SGP control system adjustment and accuracy of control due to the fact that additional signal is sent to ST controller on unbalance between specified and actual capacity of SGP.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: steam turbine plant comprises at least one steam turbine and at least one steam generator to generate steam to actuate steam turbine. Steam turbine plant incorporates at least one bearing structural component that features starting temperature exceeding 250°C. Temperature of steam and aforesaid structural component is continuously measured. Steam is fed into aforesaid structural component after starting the turbine. Steam starting temperature is lower than that of structural component, steam temperature being increased with respect to initial transition value. Starting and initial transition temperatures are selected so that structural component temperature change per unit time is lower than preset limiting value. Structural component temperature is, first, decreased to minimum, then it goes up.
EFFECT: fast preparation for starting, reduced thermal structural strain.
12 cl, 3 dwg