The method of disposal of liquid radioactive waste
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the technology for disposal of radioactive waste and chemical harmful active substances. Disposal of radioactive waste produced in the injection wells, which pump geothermal steam-water mixture from operating geothermal wells, pre-separated and used for teploelektrostanciya. The flow of steam-water mixture and radioactive waste regulate dosing pumps on the signals received from the monitoring wells. The technical result of the invention is to simplify the technology for disposal of radioactive waste, increase the utilization of geothermal waters, improving the environment and the simultaneous possibility of using the hydrothermal household needs. 1 Il. The invention relates to the technology for disposal of radioactive waste.There is a method of waste disposal, in aqueous solutions, with the dilution of these solutions water from porous and under the seabed geological formations and the introduction of the dilute solution in the same geologic formation (FR, application N 254638, IPC G 21 F 9/24).There is a method of disposal of liquid radioactive waste in injection wells in geological formations of high-temperature geothermal systems, by injection of radioactive waste into the drainage system folded ultrabasic, basic and acidic aluminosilicate igneous rocks containing magnesium, and monitoring of disposal through observation wells (Patent of Russian Federation N 2001454, IPC G 21 F 9/24, 1993, prototype).However, this invention has several disadvantages: the use of hydrothermal systems only in the structure of the andesitic stratovolcano volcanic island arc silicate composition. This is a very narrow scope, because the thickness of the silicate composition found in nature as rare as gold-bearing veins; disposal technology is complicated, because it requires mixing of waste in the process of downloading from acidic aqueous solutions at depths up to 500 mThis invention eliminates these drawbacks.The technical result of the invention is to simplify the technology for disposal of radioactive waste, increase the utilization of geothermal waters, improving the environment and the simultaneous possibility of acherontia liquid radioactive waste in injection wells in geological formations of high-temperature hydrothermal systems by injection of radioactive waste into the drainage system, folded ultrabasic, basic and acidic aluminosilicate igneous rocks containing magnesium, and monitoring of disposal through observation wells, the injection of radioactive waste produced in conjunction with the spent coolant and steam condensate from the steam-water mixture obtained from operating geothermal wells metered quantity of spent coolant, steam condensate and liquid radioactive waste, as well as the temperature of the coolant define and change according to the observation wells, the spent brine and steam condensate produced from production well by splitting water mixture to turbosupercharger, in which geothermal water is directed into the heat exchanger is filled with water, and then through a metering pump to the injection well, pairs of turbocharoer is directed to the turbine and then into the condenser pair, from which through the dosing pump the condensate is directed to the injection well.At the disposal of radioactive waste heat of water is in the well and due to residual radiation.The addition of cations and anions in natural solutions sorbirovaniya their Galiani colloidal solutions, clay minerals, followed by neutralization of the charge coagulation and relationem. At the final stage of this process is the deposition of hydroly with sorbirovaniya cations and anions on the geochemical and biochemical barriers.Geochemical and biochemical barriers are distributed mainly on the periphery of the flow in the zone of rapid temperature changes, by mixing the stream with the cold surrounding water or in the underground boiling.The most effective barrier, which is a massive loss of colloidal hydrothermal solution with sorbed cations and anions, is a zone of mixing of waters of hydrothermal flow of water, which is magnesium. This part of the high-temperature hydrothermal systems can be effective geological structure for the disposal of many millennia of radioactive waste, as here, the formation of the silica colloidal solution insoluble colloform quartz (chalcedony).The gel of silicic acid by condensation of cations not instantly coagulates, and migration continues and is deposited only at lower temperatures or in the case of mixing gsauda during the migration of hydrothermal flow. In this regard, and also by mixing with hydrothermal solutions, is decontamination of radioactive and other types of waste.Retention of radioisotopes and chemicals with unfilled outer electron shells, with condensation on silica oxide chains of the gel, silicic acid, is carried out by formation of a covalent bond, which creates a reliable connection of the sorbed ions with the structure of chalcedony (colloform quartz). The same process is performed on the uranium deposits of hydrothermal origin. Chalcedony veins almost not to be thrown away because of the complexity of the extraction of ore from colloform quartz (chalcedony). This is confirmed by studies of the structural provisions of the chalcedony veins of uranium minerals in areas of active tectonic and volcanic regimes in paleogeodynamic areas from Archean to Cenozoic (billions of years). Chalcedony veins with pitchblende repeatedly exposed to seismic disturbances and breakthroughs magmatic melts, however, the dissolution and migration of uranium outside the ore-forming systems has not occurred.The processes described above realizovy the different hot water.The invention is illustrated in the drawing, 1 is a production well, 2 - injection wells, 3 - surveillance, 4 - turbocharoer, 5 - generator turbocharoer, 6 - mesh separator, 7 - turbo-generator 8 generator 9 - capacitor pair, 10 - first metering pump (coolant), 11 - secondary coolant (water heating), 12 - heat exchanger 13 to the consumer (e.g. Central heating), 14 container with liquid radioactive waste, 15 - second dosing pump.The device operates as follows.Operational geothermal well 1 is located in geological formations of high-temperature hydrothermal systems with a temperature range from 100oC and above. Hydrothermal systems are composed of ultrabasic, basic and acidic aluminosilicate igneous rocks containing magnesium. From wells 1 steam and the steam-water mixture is coming to turbocharoer 4, in which there is a separation of the mixture of water and steam, and the generator 5 is already beginning to produce electricity. Separated vapor comes in a mesh separator 6, which completely dried is supplied to the turbine 7 (Jenster pair 9, whence the liquid flows through the first metering pump 10 to the injection well 2, ie, the reverse injection.At the same time, the separated liquid from the turbo-generator 4 is directed into the heat exchanger 12, through which pass the secondary carrier 11, in our case the water for the Central heating system, which is heated, is supplied to consumers 13. The presence of geothermal water and drainage structure in geological formations of high-temperature systems allows the use of an injection well 2 as for reinjection (reverse injection of thermal waters), and for the disposal of liquid radioactive waste. From the container 14 through the second metering pump 15 liquid radioactive waste is fed into the injection well 2. Management as a first metering pump 10 and second pump 15 is on the team Supervisory and control equipment located in the observation well 3. When joint injection in the subsurface hydrothermal systems of liquid radioactive waste and spent coolant is even greater dilution of radioactive waste, and most importantly - their acidification of the steam condensate from the discharged water, which reduces verojatnostnye water is pumped into injection well 2, where in the first stage are formed gels of silicic acid and partial precipitation of the sulphides of heavy metals. These processes are characteristic for the area of hydrothermal systems with the formation of acidic and slightly acidic SO4- Cl - Na and then neutral Cl - Na - K hydrothermal containing soluble salts of heavy metals type MeCl, MeSO4and Me+SiO2.In the second stage, is the deposition of heavy metals from aqueous oxides in colloidal state when coagulation in the form of amorphous silica (Me+SiO2). The number and status of radioactive waste is controlled devices monitoring wells 3. If necessary, include the first metering pump 10 or the second metering pump 15, or both simultaneously.At the third stage are formed and deposited oxides and carbonates of heavy metals (MeCO3, MeO2Me+SiO2, CaCO3). High concentration of magnesium in the groundwater of marine Genesis promotes the formation of insoluble silica.The experiments showed that the silica and silicates absorb 100% uranyl, 50-70% of the cesium and strontium.Injected into the reservoir solution, a mixture of discharged after separation of water, detainees in the reservoir, and minerals rocks that form insoluble compounds. This makes safe removal of produced water even near the site of injection wells 2. However, in order to guarantee safe removal of steam-water mixture from the production well 1 production well 1 and the injection well 2 offer in accordance with condition
where REN- the distance between injection wells and development wells;
RVLis the radius of the zone of influence of the wells,
and the observation well is located in the zone of influence of the injection well.Observation well 3 are placed in the zone of influence of the injection well 2. Current practice shows that the radius of influence of the wells is from 0.3 to 1.0 km, depending on the filtration properties of water enclosing rocks of the field.Controlling the metering pumps can be modified within wide limits the temperature of the injected mixture of waste water, condensed steam, and radioactive waste, as well as the concentration of the latter, which helps to ensure radiation safety.If necessary, in the discharge squag sploitation well 1. The method of disposal of liquid radioactive waste in injection wells in geological formations of high-temperature hydrothermal systems by injection of radioactive waste into the drainage system, composed of ultrabasic, basic and acidic aluminosilicate igneous rocks containing magnesium, and monitoring of disposal through observation wells, wherein the injection of radioactive waste produced in conjunction with the spent coolant and steam condensate from the steam-water mixture obtained from operating geothermal wells metered quantity of spent coolant, condensate and liquid radioactive waste, as well as the temperature of the coolant define and change according to the observation wells, the spent brine and steam condensate produced from geothermal wells by splitting water mixture to turbosupercharger, in which geothermal water is directed into the heat exchanger filled consumed water, and then through a metering pump to the injection well, pairs of turbocharoer is directed to the turbine generator, and then to the condenser steam from Kotor
FIELD: heat-power engineering; heating systems; water heating systems, public services, agricultural sector and transport facilities.
SUBSTANCE: steam from electric steam generator is delivered to jet apparatus nozzle where it is mixed with cold liquid flow for forming two-phase flow at acceleration to supersonic velocity. At mixing chamber outlet, this two-phase flow is decelerated for forming shock wave and converting the flow into liquid flow after shock wave. Then, flow is divided and one part is directed to heat exchanger of vortex tube where it is heated and directed for replenishment of electric steam generator. Other part is directed to nozzle apparatus where it is accelerated to supersonic velocity for forming two-phase flow, after which it is decelerated for converting it into liquid flow saturated with micro-bubble component. Nozzle apparatus outlet is connected with swirler inlet where vortex flow is formed; from swirler, flow is directed to vortex tube where heat is released and flow is divided into hot and cold components. From vortex tube, flow is directed to heat exchanger for transfer of heat to second loop; cooled liquid flow is directed to ejector inlet.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of plant.