A method of obtaining a flame-retardant liquid interfacial phosphorylation

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to organophosphorus compounds and can be used to produce fire-resistant fluids used in the technological high pozharoopastnost, for example, control systems and lubrication of steam turbines power plants. Describes how to obtain a fire-resistant fluid by the esterification of phosphorus oxychloride mixture of synthetic 3,5-Xylenol and phenol. The etherification is carried out in the interfacial conditions at the contact of liquid organic and aqueous-alkaline phase in two stages with consistent heating up to 50-60oC and cooling to 20-25oC the reaction mass, and the first step uses 50-60% of the total mass of phenols with 80-100% 3,5-Xylenol in the mixture, in the following ratio source of phenols, mol.%: 3,5-Xylenol 60-80, phenol 40-20. The technical result is an increase in technological process. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 2 tab.

The invention relates to the field of organophosphorus compounds and can be used to produce fire-resistant fluids used in the process object of high fire risk, such as control systems and lubrication of steam turbines ele is phosphorus oxychloride phenols [RF Patent 2016057, C 10 M 177/00, 1989] . At the same time as phenol, a mixture taken in a ratio of 3.5-Xylenol, phenol and faction xylenols coal tar with a final boiling point 216-224oC. the disadvantages of the method are the presence in the composition of the starting phenols certain narrow fractions of coal tar phenols, as well as the relatively low yield of the target product (above 60%). In addition, this method has high energy costs associated with the high temperature of the reaction (12-15 hours at 140oC) and high temperature (240-290oC) by distillation of the desired product in a vacuum, and the need for multiple washing the distillate with an alkaline solution and then with water.

A known method of producing triarylphosphite by the esterification of phenols with phosphorus oxychloride at 20-60oC at one stage in the interfacial conditions at the contact of liquid organic and aqueous-alkaline phase, where as a component of the organic phase is toluene, as well as alkali - 20% solution of caustic soda [Patent PRC 1049848, C 07 F 9/14, 1991]. However, this method is used only to obtain the symmetric triarylphosphite. Because almost all symmetric triarylphosphite - crystalline as intended and technical essence to the present invention is selected as a prototype method for producing fire-resistant fluids by catalytic esterification of phosphorus oxychloride mixture of synthetic 3,5-Xylenol and phenol as xylenols coal tar [RF Patent 2081877, C 07 F 9/42, 1994]. The disadvantages of this method, as in the case of analogue [RF Patent 2016057] are relatively low yield of the target product and the high energy costs associated with the high temperature of the reaction and the distillation of high temperature of the product in a vacuum, and a narrow interval of the ratios of the source of phenols, which are formed homogeneous (recrystallizes) fire resistant fluids. This significantly limits the possibility of obtaining fire-resistant fluids with specified performance characteristics and prevents the reduction in the cost of raw materials by increasing the content is relatively cheaper phenol.

The present invention is homogeneous (recrystallizes) fire resistant fluids using a wider interval of the ratios of the starting components is a synthetic 3,5-Xylenol and phenol (as xylenols coal tar) more technological way to obtain the target product.

The solution to this problem is achieved by the fact that when the esterification of phosphorus oxychloride mixture of synthetic 3,5-Xylenol and phenol according to the invention the etherification is carried out in the interfacial conditions at the contact of the LM is to 20-25 moC the reaction mass, and the first step uses 50-60% of the total mass of phenols with 80-100% 3,5-Xylenol in the mixture, in the following ratio source of phenols, mol.%: 3,5-Xylenol 60-80, phenol 40-20.

As components forming the organic and alkaline phase, according to the invention can be used accordingly toluene and an aqueous solution of caustic soda.

The specific implementation of the present invention is illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1.

As initial components take synthetic 3,5-Xylenol and phenol at a molar ratio of 60:40. In the first phase to the solution 90,7 g (0,742 mol) of 3,5-Xylenol (45% of the total molar amount of the mixture of phenols, 90% of the molar amount of phenol in the first stage reaction) and 7.8 g (0,082 mol) of phenol (5% of the total molar amount of phenol, 10% of the molar amount of phenol in the first stage reaction) in 300 ml of toluene are added during 20-25oC to 135.2 ml of 20% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (50% of the total estimated amount equivalent to the total number of phenols) and then within 20-25 minutes of 38.3 g (of 0.250 mol) of phosphorus oxychloride (50% of the total), dissolved in 75 ml of toluene. The resulting mixture was heated at 50-60oC is l) 3,5-Xylenol (15% of the total molar amount of phenol) and to 54.3 g (0,577 mol) phenol (35% of the total molar amount of phenol), dissolved in 300 ml of toluene, to 135.2 ml of 20% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (50% of the total quantity of alkali) and in the same conditions as in the first stage, to 38.3 g (of 0.250 mol) of phosphorus oxychloride (second half), dissolved in 75 ml of toluene. The mixture is again heated at 50-60oC for 1 hour and cooled to 20-25oC. Separating the upper (organic) layer of the reaction mass, washed with 3% sodium hydroxide solution (2 x 500 ml) and water (2 x 500 ml). Then the aqueous layer was extracted with 200 ml of toluene and the extract combined with the organic layer. From the obtained toluene solution at a temperature of 40-60oC and a residual pressure of 20 mm RT. tbsp. distilled toluene and dissolved water (in the form of an azeotrope with toluene) and the obtained crude at 85oWith (residual pressure of 2 mm RT. Art.) or 100oC (residual pressure of 10-15 mm RT. Art.) remove the remaining toluene, resulting in the 170,5 g of finished product (yield 82.3 per cent in the calculation of the original mixture of phenols or 90,5% in the calculation of the phosphorus oxychloride) in the form of a viscous, homogeneous, recrystallizes with a long standing liquid. In alkaline extracts and lavage mixture of phenols easy to return by neutralizing discharges to pH 6-7 using phenols released for sleduyushtchem (according to NMR data31R) are shown in table 2 (row 1).

Example 2.

As source: components take 3,5-Xylenol and phenol at a molar ratio of 60: 40. Conducting the reaction in the temperature and time conditions similar to example 1, at the first stage take to 100.8 g (0,825 mol) of 3,5-Xylenol (50% of the total molar amount of phenol, 100% of the molar amount of phenol in the first stage reaction), dissolved in 300 ml of toluene, to 135.2 ml of 20% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (50% of the total quantity of alkali) and to 38.3 g (of 0.250 mol) of phosphorus oxychloride (50% of the total), dissolved in 75 ml of toluene; in the second phase of 20.1 g (0,165 mol) of 3,5-Xylenol (10% of the total molar amount of phenol) and 62.1 g (0,660 mol) of phenol, dissolved in 300 ml of toluene, to 135.2 ml of 20% sodium hydroxide solution and to 38.3 g (of 0.250 mol) of phosphorus oxychloride dissolved in 75 ml of toluene. The result is 170 g of product (yield 82% for the mixture of phenols or 90,2% phosphorus oxychloride) in the form of a viscous, homogeneous, recrystallizes fluid whose properties are presented in table 1 (column 4). The composition of the mixture of triarylphosphines (according to NMR data31P) are shown in table 2 (line 2).

Example 3.

As initial components take 3,5-Xylenol and phenol in a molar shall take of 80.6 g (0,660 mol) of 3,5-Xylenol (40% of the total molar amount of the mixture of phenols, 80% of the molar amount of phenol in the first stage reaction), dissolved in 300 ml of toluene, and 15.6 g (0,165 mol) of phenol (10% of the total molar amount of the mixture of phenols), dissolved in 300 ml of toluene, add to 135.2 ml of 20% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (50% of the total estimated number, equimolar total amount of phenols) and then half of the solution to 76.7 g (0,500 mol) of phosphorus oxychloride in 150 ml of toluene. In the second stage to the reaction mixture of 60.5 g (0,495 mol) of 3,5-Xylenol and 31,03 g (0,330 mol) of phenol (20% of total phenols), dissolved in 300 ml of toluene, to 135.2 ml of 20% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (50% of the total) and in the same conditions as in the first stage, the second half of a solution of phosphorus oxychloride. As a result, 173 g of the finished product (a yield of 81.6% in the calculation of the original mixture of phenols or 89.8% of the per phosphorus oxychloride) in the form of a viscous, homogeneous, recrystallizes at long distance fluid whose properties are presented in table 1, column 5. The composition of the mixture of triarylphosphines (according to NMR data31P) are shown in table 2 (line 3).

Example 4.

As initial components take 3,5-Xylenol and phenol in a molar ratio of 80:20. Conducting the reaction in the temperature and the CSOs the amount of the mixture of phenols, 100% of the molar amount of phenol in the first stage reaction), dissolved in 67 ml of toluene, add 39,0 ml of 20% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (50% of the total estimated number, equimolar total amount of phenols) and then 9.88 g (0,064 mol) of phosphorus oxychloride dissolved in 10 ml of toluene. In the second stage to the reaction mixture add 14,15 g (0,116 mol) of 3,5-Xylenol and 7,26 g (0,077 mol) of phenol (20% of total phenols) dissolved in 67 ml of toluene, 39 ml of 20% sodium hydroxide solution and under the same conditions as in the first stage, 9.88 g (0,064 mol) solution of phosphorus oxychloride in toluene. The result 45.6 g of product (yield 90% of a mixture of phenols and the same amount of phosphorus oxychloride) in the form of a homogeneous recrystallizes fluid whose properties are presented in table 1 (column 6). The composition of the mixture of triarylphosphines (according to NMR data31R) are shown in table 2 (line 4).

Beyond the scope of the claimed ratios source of phenols or when carrying out the synthesis in a single step the product is a mixture of liquid crystalline phase or fully crystallized mixture of triarylphosphines.

When using the method according to the invention achieves a much broader, pithecia target product, that allows a wide range to vary its viscosity and other operating characteristics. Even within the same molar ratio of initial phenol method allows you to change the composition of the resulting oils (see table, PP. 3 and 4) and, therefore, their properties. Furthermore, the method according to this invention can significantly increase the yield of the target product, reduce the cost of raw materials and reduce energy consumption, since the process is conducted at much lower temperatures, requires significantly less time to complete the reaction (3 hours instead of the 12-15) and is accompanied by the release of the much smaller (approximately) the number of contaminated wastewater.

1. The method of obtaining fire-resistant fluid by the esterification of phosphorus oxychloride mixture of synthetic 3,5-Xylenol and phenol, characterized in that the esterification is carried out in the interfacial conditions at the contact of liquid organic and aqueous-alkaline phase in two stages with consistent heating up to 50 - 60oC and cooled to 20 to 25oC the reaction mass, and in the first stage we use 50 - 60% of the total mass of phenols with 80 - 100% of 3,5-Xylenol in the mixture, in the following ratio source of phenols, mol.%: 3,5-Xylenol 60-the Yu and alkaline phase, using, respectively, the toluene and aqueous sodium hydroxide solution.

 

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3 ex, 3 tbl

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2 tbl, 1 ex

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2 tbl, 1 ex

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.

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2 tbl, 1 ex

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