Catalytic distillation structure

 

(57) Abstract:

Group of inventions relates to the catalysts. Patented catalytic distillation structure (10) having multiple vertically corrugated containing the catalyst elements separated inert intermediate elements. Each containing the catalyst element has two layers of gas permeable material, such as wire mesh, connected at locations equally spaced from each other to form a single sheet having pockets located on the surface. The catalyst in the form of particles placed inside the pockets. The catalyst was placed in the pockets, provides the reaction zone, which can be carried out catalytic reactions, and gas-permeable sheets provide surface mass transfer to fractional distillation. Intermediate elements making it possible to vary the density of the catalyst and its load. Also patented containing the above-mentioned structure of the reactor for parallel conducting reactions and separation of the products and reactant. 2 C. and 18 h.p. f-crystals, 8 ill.

Description of the prior

The technical field of isoptin and surface mass transfer for distillation. More precisely, the invention relates to distillation fixed form, which contains particles of the solid catalyst.

Related area

Parallel conducting the reaction and the work of a mixture of reactive substances have been used in practice for some time, and in this area progress has been made. Examples of parallel application of the reaction and distillation was first described in the U.S. patents NN: (etherification) 4232177; 4307254; 4336407; 4504687; 4918243; 4978807; (dimerization) 4242530; (hydrogenation) 4982022; (decomposition) 4447668; (aromatic alkylation) 4950834 and 5019669.

We developed several different catalytic distillation structures. For example, in U.S. patents NN 4302356 and 4443559 describes a catalytic distillation structure in which the catalyst in the form of solid particles placed inside the pockets in a cloth belt, a retinue together with demisting wire, and in U.S. patent 4731229 first described nozzle corrugated ribbon-like elements and the catalytic element. Later highly efficient nozzle was modified to make it a catalyst as described in U.S. patent N 5073236. In the past each structure containing two computers directly next to the other pair of plates, containing the catalyst. In some cases, dense packing plates containing the catalyst, when placed in a column may play a role dense catalyst layer and, thus, increase the time beyond what is necessary for this reaction. The advantage of this invention is that some embodiments perform inside the column can be obtained high mobility of liquid or gas flows. Another advantage of this invention is that the catalytic distillation structure provides the best performance distillation separation compared with the characteristics of the previous structures. A feature of this invention consists also in the fact that the proposed structures can be used a smaller amount of catalytic material.

Brief description of the invention

This invention provides a more universal system of separation of at least one pair of adjacent elements containing the catalyst, with an intermediate element comprising an inert element. For example, the intermediate element may be a flat plate (gas-permeable or solid), the element containing such a catalyst element and zaderzhala intermediate elements in the column it is possible to provide the desired amount of catalyst when using a standard containing the catalyst element. In one embodiment of the catalytic elements can be placed separately in order to provide free space between some or all of the structures.

In the case when the cross-section of the column requires constant characteristics of the stream, the intermediate elements may be identical to those containing the catalyst elements, in which the catalytic material is substituted by an inert nozzle of the same size and shape. In addition, the catalyst or other filler can be simply removed to obtain alternative characteristics of the stream.

Brief description of drawings

Fig. 1 is a top view of part of the cross-sectional structure, which is shown containing the catalyst elements and the intermediate elements according to this invention.

Fig. 2 is a side view of one catalytic element, shown in Fig.1.

Fig. 3 is a cross-section of one batch element of the present invention.

Fig. 4 shows a batch element of this invention containing material in the form of particles.

In Fig. 5 shows the structure containing many catalytically the cops, of which only one pair of adjacent elements are separated from each other.

In Fig. 7 shows a lot of packages, each of which is connected to and is in contact with any adjacent batch unit.

Fig. 8 is a part side view of the reaction distillation column with the structure corresponding to this invention.

Description of the preferred execution of the invention

A catalytic structure according to this invention contains at least two catalytic element one or more configurations:

A. installed separately

B. United with the inert element selected from the group comprising the following list of items:

1. Parking

2. non-catalytic element

3. flat plate (gas-permeable or impermeable)

Preferably the catalytic structure will contain many of the catalytic elements in the configuration described above. For example, in one preferred embodiment, as shown in Fig. 6, the catalytic structure comprises two groups United catalytic elements separated by a space. In another preferred embodiment, as is not the United catalytic elements, and neighboring catalytic elements are not in contact with each other. These two configurations have the advantage in comparison with the structure described in U.S. patent 5073236, as they provide the opportunity for a more open space inside the catalytic structure. In many versions of the dense patterns, including the United catalytic elements, would be a barrier and, in fact, their action is more like the action of a dense layer of catalyst particles with higher pressure drops in the completed column.

The catalytic structure shown in Fig. 7, however, provides a tight package, but with an important difference from previous versions. Some of the depicted packages do not contain any material and/or contain particles of inert material. Available packing is less dense and provide excellent indicators distillation due to the presence of open space and surfaces. Inert elements represent a package filled with an inert material, the particles of which may be the same, larger or smaller dimensions as compared with particles of catalytic material. Inert elements provide all t is the quiet in the catalytic distillation also called reactive distillation (reactive distillation) (see U.S. patent 5019669), are often the reverse reactions. Therefore, a higher degree of catalytic distillation can be achieved by dilution (reduction) reaction elements while maintaining the number of distillation items. In other words, the introduction of inert elements between the catalytic elements, a structure with increased fractional separation, while in the system, including a column with multiple catalytic structures, in General, remains the driving force of the reaction.

The dilution volume of catalyst present in any given column, you may be slightly obtained dynamic natural catalytic distillation and improved distillation characteristics described above.

Catalytic and non-catalytic elements are combined to obtain a structure, usually of plastic or metal layers on the upper or lower ends of each group of elements. Where necessary, between the elements, which must be separated, put the gasket in the form of a frame.

The term "packet" in this description is used to seat the IC inert material. Corrugated sheets can be joined by welding or plexus, corrugating and bending. Corrugated leaves have parallel axes and leave open channels between the sheets for distribution and fractional distillation of streams of gas or liquid.

Corrugated folds and channels and pockets for particles of material on each sheet have inclined relative to the main axis, while they are in the opposite direction relative to the corrugated folds of the next sheet.

For a detailed description of the preferred embodiments are attached drawings, where for readability similar components are given in such rooms.

In Fig. 1 shows the number of top-catalytic structure 10 according to this invention, which contains a number of catalytic elements 12 arranged in a row along a common axis, each separated from another by a non-catalytic sheet 14, which may be permeable or impermeable. The elements are combined using a Hoop 16. In Fig. 2 shows the catalytic element comprising two layers 18 and 20 gas-permeable wire mesh junctions which are located on the same RA is used and empty, as described later. The connection can be the combination of the two layers at the points 13. The specific implementation method includes double weave, in which the hole woven double weave emitting packages netting. Optional packages weave diagonally relative to the surface of the element, as shown in Fig. 3. The elements have similar Gavrilovna the contour of the fish (see Fig. 3 and 4).

In Fig. 7 presents a view of several katalizatoriai elements 12, divided inert space 24. In this preferred embodiment of each of the catalytic element 12 is separated by necatoriasis distillation structure 24, which may either be an empty packet structure shown in Fig. 3, or may be filled with material in the form of particles 26 as shown in Fig. 4. Batch elements containing material in the form of particles, can contain either a catalytic material in the form of particles or inert material in the form of particles. Elements, as shown, are the same and differ only in the nature of the material in the form of particles. In Fig. 6 shows similar patterns, where all batch items are catalytic elements 12, where the group soparkar catalytic elements are not in contact.

In Fig. 5 shows the node catalytic distillation structure, ready for installation in the reactor type distillation column. The catalytic elements 10, as shown, separated by elements of open space in the whole United Hoop 16. All items, United Hoop 16, vertically placed inside the column.

In Fig. 8 shows the reactor in the form of a distillation column 100, containing the node catalytic distillation structure 10, the structure of which is shown in Fig. 7. Preferably the elements containing horizontally catalyst, come together in such a way that packets of the same element are at an angle of 90oit packages the next item, regardless of whether, absent any material in the form of particles, filled whether it is a catalytic material, or filled with inert material so that the liquid flow through the channels at an angle to the vertical axis of the column. This feature is shown in Fig. 8, where the slanted lines on the upper and lower parts of the meaning of the folds of the sheets.

Structure 10 operates as structured packings for fractional distillation of liquid or gas flows and at the same time provides a catalytic interaction otokodate carrier structure. Each vertical row of structures set so that its leaves 18 and 20 parallel to other sheets in the same row are arranged at an angle of 90orelative to the plane of the sheets in a vertically adjacent row. This relative orientation of the three vertically mounted rows of sheets shown in Fig. 8. The structure 10 is particularly applicable for liquid-phase reactions, the products of which can be separated by distillation, when the gas comes into contact with the liquid during their movement flow in the liquid-phase catalytic systems. In the process one or more threads are loaded into the column 100 with the fluid flowing through the structure 10, and the vapor flows pass up through the structure 10. The liquid stream flows through the channels 32 along the surface of the sheets 18 and 20 and through the catalyst bed 30 and the inert layer in the element 24. At the top of the structure 10 can be applied to the liquid distributors to the preferred direction of fluid flow, as described, or in the channels 32, or on the catalyst layer 30.

The catalyst layer 30 forms a catalytic reaction zone for the catalytic interaction of the descending liquid streams. Simultaneously vapor phase formed by fractional distillation of liquid is with mass transfer between the liquid and vapor phases is carried out, mainly on the surface of the sheets 18 and 20, as well as on the catalyst.

The mixture of the liquid and vapor phases occurs in the channels 32 at the contact of the steam rising from the descending liquid. The liquid phase passes through the permeable elements 18 and 20 of the channel to the catalyst layer 22 for catalytic reaction or in an inert layer element 24 for further separation. The reaction product similarly passes from the catalyst layer in the channels where flows the main fractional distillation.

Note that, if necessary, in a column, you can put more number of nodes at different altitudes. Additionally, the node or nodes you can strengthen any of the most effective ways. For example, nodes can be strengthened, and divided inert nozzle for distillation, such as rings process, or similar.

1. Catalytic distillation structure for placement in a reactor of the type distillation column, filled with many catalysts in the form of particles and embedded along the axis of the catalytic elements, each of which includes first and second layers of gas permeable material joined together to form a sheet, characterized in that the sheet you the first element, placed between at least two adjacent from the specified set of catalytic elements.

2. Catalytic distillation structure under item 1, in which the specified inert intermediate element includes an open space.

3. Catalytic distillation structure under item 1, in which the specified inert intermediate element includes a flat structural element.

4. Catalytic distillation structure on p. 3, which specified a flat structural member is gas-permeable.

5. Catalytic distillation structure on p. 3, which specified a flat structural member is gas-tight.

6. Catalytic distillation structure under item 1, in which the specified inert intermediate element includes a corrugated sheet comprising third and fourth layer of gas permeable material connected together at intervals to form the set of empty pockets located on the specified sheet.

7. Catalytic distillation structure on p. 6, in which the specified permeable material comprises a wire mesh.

8. Catalytic distillation structure on p. 1, 9. Catalytic distillation structure under item 1, in which these pockets are located on the diagonal of the specified list.

10. Catalytic distillation structure under item 1, in which the specified gas-permeable material is a woven wire mesh.

11. Catalytic distillation structure under item 1, in which the mentioned inert intermediate elements include a single sheet of wire mesh.

12. Catalytic distillation structure under item 1, in which the specified inert intermediate element located between each of the specified multiple catalytic elements.

13. The catalytic distillation structure according to p. 12, in which the specified inert intermediate element includes an open space.

14. The catalytic distillation structure according to p. 12, in which the specified inert intermediate element includes a flat structural element.

15. The catalytic distillation structure according to p. 14, in which the specified flat design element is gas-permeable.

16. The catalytic distillation structure according to p. 14, in which the specified flat design element is the lawn is an interstitial element includes sheet, including third and fourth layer of gas permeable material connected together at intervals to form the set of pockets located on the specified sheet.

18. Catalytic distillation structure on p. 18, in which some of these pockets are empty.

19. Catalytic distillation structure on p. 17, in which some of these pockets contain an inert material in the form of particles placed in them.

20. The reactor in the form of distillation columns for parallel conducting reactions and separation of the products and reactive substances, including vertically positioned container placed therein a catalytic distillation structure with many filled with a catalyst in the form of particles and arranged along the common axis of the catalytic elements each of which includes first and second layers of gas permeable material joined together to form a sheet, wherein the sheet is made multipockets, which is located inside the catalyst, and the structure contains an inert intermediate element disposed between at least two adjacent from the specified set of catalytic elements.

 

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