The method of preparing a liquid fuel for burning and device for its implementation
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to methods of preparing a water fuel emulsion to burn and can be used in fuel combustion installations, as well as for thermal disposal of liquid wastes containing organic impurities, it provides the minimum energy consumption for fuel preparation for combustion. In the present invention the fuel is mixed with water, the resulting mixture is heated, and then dispersed and mixed with the remaining part of the fuel, and then served on the injector into the combustion chamber. 2 S. p. f-crystals, 2 Il. The invention relates to methods of preparing a liquid fuel and liquid waste that contains organic matter, burning, and to a device for carrying out the method.There is a method of preparing a liquid fuel for combustion by mixing it with water and receiving water fuel emulsion.with. USSR N 214948, CL F 23 D 11/16, 1966 ). The drawback of this method is the low quality of mixing and high energy inputs for receiving water fuel emulsion.There is a method of preparing a liquid fuel for combustion by mixing it with water, which mix the entire volume of water at ratios is 73688, CL F 23 D 11/16, 1985) - the closest analogue. The disadvantage of this method is the high viscosity water fuel emulsion before submitting it to the atomization.A known heat exchanger pipe in pipe".with. USSR N 397737, CL F 28 d 7/10, F 28 f 1/36, 1971) for viscous liquids containing inner tube, provided with an outer spiral fins, the pipe is made with a varying cross-sectional area decreasing in the direction of movement of the heated medium in the annular space, and the ribs have a height that increases inversely proportional to the step edges in the direction of decreasing cross-section of the outer pipe. The disadvantage of this heat exchanger is not sufficiently high coefficients of heat transfer and efficiency, in addition, when the heating of the medium to high temperature design is not reliable.Known heater "pipe in pipe with the inner pipe, provided with spiral fins placed with a gap in the outer pipe with fittings for the heated medium, and the gap is made a constant value, 1-6 mm smaller step between the coils fins, along the axis of the inner tube with a gap in relation to it has the heater, and stula is not a high efficiency, as the heated fluid passing directly along the inner surface of the outer tube, is practically not exposed to heating.The task of the invention is to improve the quality of the formed mixture (emulsion) by reducing its viscosity by increasing the heating efficiency before dispersing.The problem is solved due to the fact that in the known method of preparation of a fuel for combustion, which consists in mixing a portion of the fuel with the entire volume of water at the ratio of excess K = 1,5 - 2,0, dispersion and connecting the resulting emulsion with the remaining fuel is added to the operation of heating after mixing the water with the fuel, and only after that, the resulting emulsion is served on the dispersant, as well as in the formation of a mixture involving a large percentage of water, the efficiency of heating of the mixture is increased by reducing thermal transmittance (see, for example, C. A. Adams. The combustion of fuel oil in boiler furnaces. - L.: Nauka, 1989), and therefore, the viscosity of the resulting emulsion before the dispersion is significantly reduced, which improves the effect of dispersion.For the implementation of heating the emulsion obtained by mixing water with the fuel,the second housing at a distance from its inner surface, the enclosure is equipped with a pipe for inlet and outlet of the coolant, the spiral fin heat exchanger is made from a material with longer tubes, the coefficient of linear expansion, and the spiral adjacent to the inner surface of the outer tube of the heat exchanger with a minimum gap, which disappears when heated due to the greater expansion of the material of the spiral, which leads to the decrease of thermal resistance and therefore increase the heat transfer from the pipe surface to the spiral and, ultimately, to improving the efficiency of the heat exchanger.Thus, the proposed device allows to realize the inventive method, when this is reducing the viscosity of the water fuel emulsion, which is pre-heated before serving disperser.From the above it follows that when implementing the proposed method and device for its implementation is achieved technical result consists in obtaining water fuel emulsion with low viscosity, which ultimately contributes to its finer atomization in the combustion chamber of the boiler.The claimed group of inventions to meet the requirement of unity of invention, since the application of the Rel the technical result is fundamentally the same way.Analysis of analogues and prototypes of the proposed method and device for its implementation showed that the proposed solution is new. The novelty of the proposed method is the use of additional heating operation water fuel emulsion prior to its dispersion. The novelty of the proposed device for the implementation of the proposed method lies in the use of the heat exchanger pipe in pipe", placed within a cylindrical housing and the use of helical fins of the heat exchanger is made of a material with greater than pipes, the coefficient of linear expansion and adjacent to the inner surface of the outer tube with a minimum clearance.Thus, the claimed technical solution is characterized by a new set of features that provide additional positive effect, and the inventive method and device characteristics match the criterion of "inventive step".In Fig. 1 is a diagram of the implementation of the proposed method of preparing a liquid fuel for burning. The schema contains the control valve 1, one output of which is connected by a pipeline with a serial circuit consisting of a mixer 2, a heat exchanger 3, dispergation way. The entire amount is added to the water fuel is mixed with part of the fuel flowing after dividing the entire flow fuel valve 1, in a ratio of from 1.5:1 to 2.0:1 in the mixer 2. Received-fuel mixture is heated in the heat exchanger 3, which decreases its viscosity and improves the subsequent dispersion using a dispersant 4. Next, a concentrated emulsion is mixed with the rest of the fuel mixer 5, providing better mixing and heating the whole mixture, and then the emulsion is fed to the nozzles (in the furnace) on combustion, thus providing a more efficient dispersion of the emulsion with minimum energy cost, because the direct intense heat is subjected to only a portion of the fuel.In Fig. 2 shows a device for implementing the proposed method. The device includes a heat exchanger type 1 "pipe in pipe", placed within a cylindrical housing 2 with a gap from the inner surface. The case is equipped with nozzles for supplying 3 and outlet 4 of the coolant. On the inner pipe 5 is wound helical fin 6 made of a material with a larger than the pipe, the coefficient of linear expansion, it is adjacent to the inner surface of unisource 9 and 10 feed exit of the heated fuel mixture (emulsion). As the heat can be used for steam, hot water, and does not exclude the application instead of thermal fluid heaters. (In this case, the cavity between the inner and outer tubes of the heat exchanger is filled with oil.)
The device for realization of the proposed method works as follows. The heated mixture (emulsion) is supplied through the pipe 9, which is moved along the channel formed by the coil 6 and the walls of the pipes 1 and 5. The heated mixture is discharged through pipe 10 at disperser 4 (Fig. 1), significantly increasing the dispersion. Heat pipes 5 is the flow of coolant through the pipe 7 and the exhaust through the pipe 8 into the condensate collector (Fig. 1 and 2 is not shown). Heat exchanger placed in the housing 2, is produced by the flow of fluid through the pipe 3 and the outlet through the pipe 4 in the same collection of condensate.The inventive method and device are capable of industrial application, as include the type (and.with. USSR N 1273688), supplemented feasible operation pre-heating of the emulsion before dispersing, and used the device on and.with. With the device operating principle, provide a new set of essential features that allow for the highest quality education water fuel emulsion, which ultimately allows us to provide the best burning with minimal energy costs. 1. The method of preparing a liquid fuel for combustion by mixing with water and receiving water fuel emulsion, in which mix the entire volume of water at the ratio of excess K = 1,5-2,0 with part of the fuel, the mixture (emulsion) served on the disperser and then to the second mixer, which also served the remaining fuel, characterized in that after mixing the water with the fuel mixture (emulsion) is heated, and then served on the dispersant.2. The device for implementing the method according to p. 1 containing the heat exchanger pipe, wherein the heat exchanger is placed in a cylindrical housing with a gap from the inner surfaces of the housing is equipped with nozzles for inlet and outlet of the coolant, the spiral fins made of a material with a larger than the pipe, the coefficient of linear expansion, and the spiral adjacent to the inner surface of the outer tube of the heat exchanger with a minimum clearance.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to procedure of spraying of liquids, including viscous ones and containing abrasive inclusions, and may be used in different fields of production activity, in particular in different fuel-burning devices. Nozzle for spraying of liquids contains body with central channel of fuel supply and coaxial annular channel of spraying agent supply, connected to displacement chamber, and also annular row of radial nozzles of primary sprayer and annular row of radial nozzles of secondary sprayer, which are connected at the inlet to coaxial annular channel of spraying agent supply, and at the outlet - to mixing chamber. Mixing chamber is arranged of conic shape, outlet cuts of radial nozzles of primary sprayer are located from horizontal axis of body at the distance that exceeds their diametre 4-10 times, and are directed at angle α to the point of crossing of horizontal and vertical axes of nozzle body at cut of mixing chamber, longitudinal axes of nozzles are located from outlet cut of central channel for liquid supply at the distance that exceeds their diametre 4-15 times, along circumference at the outlet of mixing chamber there are nozzles of secondary sprayer installed, besides nozzles of secondary sprayer are installed at the angle of δ≥15° relative to vertical axis of nozzle and at the angle of φ≥15° relative to its plane.
EFFECT: makes it possible to increase efficiency of pneumatic spraying nozzles by reduction of spraying agent flow, elimination of abrasive wear of working mixing chamber, improved sawing property relative to viscous liquids and control of spraying geometry in wide range of sawed liquid flow.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: nozzle for spraying of water-coal fuel comprises a hollow cylindrical body with a jet device and a fuel swirler and a radiator representing hollow bodies of revolution with flat ends installed inside the body with an annular gap. In the fuel swirler at the end facing the jet device, there is an annular ledge along the inner diameter, and in the radiator at the end facing the jet device there is also a circular ledge along the inner diameter, and the front part of the jet device is made in the form of a truncated cone.
EFFECT: invention provides for high extent of fuel preparation in the inner cavity of a nozzle due to increased time of fuel stay in the area of its reaction with a sprayer, intense grinding of fuel drops with supersonic sprayer jets, which are flowing from channels.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: system for injection of emulsion from the first fluid medium and from the second fluid medium into the burner flame contains the central gas channel, the external gas channel, the fluid medium channel and the mixing device for formation of emulsion from the first fluid medium and from the second fluid medium and for release of emulsion into the narrowed circular fluid medium channel and for injection of emulsion from the named circular channel of the fluid medium into flame. The central gas channel passes along the longitudinal central axis from the end, from the upstream end towards the downstream end. The external gas channel is arranged coaxially with the gas channel. The fluid medium channel is located coaxially between the gas channel and the external gas channel with formation of the circular fluid medium channel which is narrowed downstream. The central gas channel and the fluid medium channel are divided by means of the first wall in the form of truncated cone on its downstream end, ended by the circular internal ledge. The fluid medium channel and the external gas channel are divided by means of the second wall in the form of the truncated cone on its the downstream end, ended by the circular external ledge. The system is installed with concentric enclosing of the heating source supplying hot gases directed to the burner flame through the gas channel.
EFFECT: invention reduces NOx emission from burning of the main flame.
9 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: machine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: fuel injector for an axial flow gas turbine includes annular channels for delivery to the combustion products. An annular air passage 62 for receiving the compressor discharge air. Adjacent to the axial end of the annular channel 62 of the air swirl vane channels 64 are disposed. The next first annular channel 66 is located radially within the annular air channel 62 and has a first opening 68 is disposed adjacent the first axial end of the annular channel 66 and downstream of the swirl blade 64 channels. The next second annular channel 70 is disposed radially inwardly of the first annular channel 66 and has a second opening 72 is disposed adjacent the second axial end of the annular channel 70 and downstream of the first holes 68.
EFFECT: provision of simple design with a more efficient spraying of liquid fuel in the pre-mixing channel for reducing emissions along with optimal use of the air curtain.
18 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: according to proposed method, inner pipe is fitted into outer pipe after shape-treatment of at least outer surface of inner pipe or inner surface of outer pipe, and after fitting inner pipe outer pipe, inner pipe is expanded to bring outer surface of inner pipe in tight contact with inner surface of outer pipe, and shape-treatment of surface forms at least one channel to reveal leakage between two pipes. Before fitting in pipes at least outer surface of inner pipe or inner surface of outer pipe is coated with layer of solder, for instance, tin, and inner pipe is expanded so that outer pipe also expands, and solder layer between inner and outer pipes is melted. Outer pipe is expanded so that melted layer of solder is forced out from space between inner and outer pipe at least intone channel to reveal leakage. Such heat exchange pipe contains assembly unit consisting of outer pipe and inner pipe fitted at tight contact in between and at least one channel to reveal leakage passing in contact surface and near the surface between inner and outer pipes. Thin film-like layer of solar material, such as tin, is provided in place of contact between inner and outer pipes which, owing to melting, connects with inner pipe and outer pipe, inner and outer pipes adjoining with displacement. Invention makes it possible to increase heat transfer to value equal to or practically equal to that of solid heat exchange pipe and channel to reveal leakage remains free from filling medium, thus providing accurate and reliable revealing of leakage.
EFFECT: improved reliability.
15 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: baking industry.
SUBSTANCE: proposed plant includes trap hood and heat exchange cooling unit connected with it and mounted under it; cooling unit includes jacket with pipe line located over its center. Heat exchange cooling unit is used for forced circulation of cold air between jacket and pipe line inside it directing the flow in required direction: in cold season outside air is delivered and at hot season air from floor areas is delivered.
EFFECT: simplified construction; enhanced ecology; saving of water.
FIELD: heat-exchange apparatus.
SUBSTANCE: air cooler comprises vortex heat exchangers, pipes of the vortex heat exchangers for flowing air to be cooled flows, swirlers, and actuator of purifying mechanisms. The actuator has hollow driving shaft mounted in the pipes and provided with a longitudinal groove throughout its length. The groove receives unmovable screw with a nut coupled with the bushing freely mounted on the shaft through a key. The brush holder with brushes are secured to the bushing. The outer side of the pipes of the vortex heat exchangers are provided with chutes for circulating a coolant. The vortex heat exchangers has a fining with a coefficient that varies according to the relationship where D is the diameter of the pipe, n is the number of chutes, and l is the chute width. The parameters vary in the following range: D = 50-800 mm and l = 20-50 mm. The chute height l1 =3-40 mm, the thickness of the pipe wall and the thickness of the chute wall
EFFECT: simplified structure and enhanced reliability.
5 cl, 7 dwg