Gas turbine installation
(57) Abstract:Gas turbine plant comprises a located on the common shaft of the turbine and the compressor and the combustion chamber with the fuel injectors. The combustion chamber is communicated to the output turbine inlet directly, and the entrance - exit of the compressor through the jet device. The fuel injector is in communication with the fuel tank through pocketcache valve and pump delivery system. The jet device is made in the form of an injector provided with an external supply of high pressure air. Pump system is equipped with independent drive, made in the form of drive-variable speed or turbo drive. The invention allows to improve the performance properties by simplifying manufacturing operations start the installation. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il. The invention relates to the field of energy and can be used for thermal and chemical processing facilities, equipment and other objects of the national economy working fluid produced in the form of hot gas.Known and the closest technical solution is a gas turbine installation comprising a turbine and a compressor located on a common shaft is Okami, made to channel the flow of air in the form of the cone and channel the flow of fuel in the form of a cylindrical nozzle coaxially located in the front part of the cone, the fuel supply line with capacity, communicated with the atmosphere and connected to the nozzles of the combustion chamber. The capacity connected to the nozzle through the start-off valve with a spring-loaded sensing element, a spring-loaded cavity which is communicated with the atmosphere, the opposite - with the compressor outlet and the diffuser channel current of air is made with an angle of taper 6 - 12o(RF patent N 2107178 from 31.10.95, CL F 02 C 7/22 - prototype).The disadvantage described above installation and its variants is that it has no units, providing automatic control of the process start and manual start, as the experiments showed, reduce its operational efficiency and reliability, and requires well-trained staff.Object of the invention is the improvement of operational properties by simplifying manufacturing operations start the installation. This object is achieved due to the fact that gas turbine installation comprising a turbine and compresser combustion with the fuel injectors, made to channel the flow of air in the form of a cone with cone angle 6 - 12oand channel the flow of fuel in the form of a cylindrical nozzle coaxially located in the front part of the cone, the supply line to the fuel tank communicates with the atmosphere or with the compressor outlet and connected to the nozzles of the combustion chamber through the start-off valve with a spring-loaded sensing element, a spring-loaded cavity which is communicated with the atmosphere, the opposite - with the exit of the compressor according to the invention is equipped with the injection element and a pumping supply system and regulation of the fuel with the injection element is installed on the highway connecting the compressor outlet with the inlet of the combustion chamber, and communicated with an external source of air supply into the combustion chamber and pumping system and regulation of fuel is installed in the line connecting the fuel tank with pre-shut-off valve.Pumping system and regulation of fuels for gas turbine plant comprising a source of electricity, made in the form of a pump with electric variable speed.Pumping system and regulation of the fuel gas is waiting for a pump with turbo drive and flow regulator, when this cavity turbo drive communicated with an external source of air supply through the start-off valve and via a stop valve with a line connecting the exit of the compressor section from the compressor to the outlet of the combustion chamber, and the flow regulator is made in the form of the regulator, constant flow valve, equipped with a handle and a spring-loaded sensing element, a spring-loaded cavity which is communicated with the atmosphere, the opposite - with the cavity of the air entering the combustion chamber, one cavity after the dispenser is in communication with the fuel supply line into the combustion chamber, and the other with a cavity to pump.The proposed gas turbine engine shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2. In Fig. 1 shows an installation in which there is an electrical power source; Fig. 2 - installation, in which there is no source of power.The main elements of the gas turbine installation are:
1 - turbine;
2 - compressor;
3 - combustor;
4 - channel currents of air in the nozzle;
5 - channel flow fuel injector;
6 - start-up-shut-off valve;
7 is spring-loaded sensing element;
8 - fuel capacity;
9 - float;
10 - constipation is and the entrance to the combustion chamber;
15 - environment (atmosphere);
16 is a supply of fuel from an external source;
17 is a highway that connects the fuel tank with the pre-shutoff valve;
18 - diffuser nozzle;
19 - confuser nozzle;
20 - the glow;
21 - injection element;
22 - line with a check valve that tells the injection element with an external source of air supply into the combustion chamber;
23 - pumping system and regulation of fuel;
24 - pump with electric variable speed;
25 - pump with turbo drive;
26 - the constant flow regulator;
27 - dispenser;
28 - spring-loaded sensing element;
29 - spool;
30 - handle;
31, 32 - cavity after the dispenser;
33 shut - off body;
34 - starting-off valve;
35, 36, 37, 38 backbone;
A - cavity sensing element start-shut-off valve;
B - spring loaded cavity of the sensing element 7 start-shut-off valve;
In the cavity of the sensing element 28 of the distributor;
G - cavity sensing element 28 of the distributor.In the proposed gas turbine installation turbine 1 and the compressor La pneumatic, where the working environment is used elastic medium is compressed air downstream of the compressor 2, and the injected medium is a liquid fuel, while compressed air is supplied through the channel 4, made in the form of a cone, and the fuel channel 5 in the form of a cylindrical nozzle coaxially located in the inlet portion of the diffuser 18. Thus the supply of air to the diffuser is made in the form of a confusor 19, and the angle of taper of the cone is equal to 6 - 12o.The fuel is fed through the start-off valve 6 with a sensor element made in the form of a membrane, which forms the control cavity a and B. the Cavity And communicated with the cavity (highway 14) after the compressor 2, and the cavity B - atmosphere 15.The entrance to the valve 6 is connected to the fuel tank 8 highway 17. The tank is provided with a float 9 and the locking body 10 located on the supply line of the fuel from an external source 16. At the outlet from the tank valve 13. The capacity can be communicated with the line 14 through the check valve 12 and with an external source of fuel supply 16 through the check valve 11 or with the atmosphere 15.Injection element 21 is an ink jet apparatus with line 22 for supplying air to a certain pressure on the start installation. So here start the installation will not occur with rotation of the rotor of the starter, as in conventional gas turbines, and by creating excessive pressure before the combustion chamber relative to the pressure after the compressor. The check valve in the line 22 is designed to eliminate emissions of air when disconnecting an external source.Pump system 23 of the delivery and regulation of fuel is intended to provide injection into the combustion chamber fuel consumption, is dependent upon the flow of air through the combustion chamber and may be executed in two variants, one of which requires electricity (see Fig. 1), and the other pressure energy of the air (see Fig. 2).The pump actuator 24 is a system in which the fuel consumption of the preset value is set by changing the frequency of rotation of the actuator in relation to, for example, or with the speed of the turbocharger, or with air pressure at the inlet into the combustion chamber, which registration will be made with appropriate sensors.Pump with turbo drive 25 is a system which provides for the fuel with a certain pressure. This set is ascoltami units, namely, the constant flow regulator 26 and valve 27. The constant flow regulator is designed to maintain the maximum amount of fuel required for the nominal or maximum mode of operation, when you change the pressure at its input or output. The valve 27 is designed to supply a given amount of fuel into the combustion chamber in conjunction with the pressure air inlet into the combustion chamber through the bypass portion of the fuel after the regulator on the intake side of the pump. The latter is achieved by the execution of the dispenser with a spring-loaded sensing element 28, for example in the form of a membrane, in which a spring-loaded cavity In communication with the atmosphere, and the opposite - G communicates with the cavity of the air entering the camera. The membrane is kinematically connected with the slide valve 29, which in its movement by increasing the pressure in the cavity G opens the throttle cross section of the cavity 31 after the distributor is connected to line 17 of the fuel in the combustion chamber and closes the throttle cross section of the cavity 32 after the distributor is connected with the cavity to the pump 25. In addition, the distributor has an arm 30, which can be used to move the slide valve 29 represame solution presented on Fig. 1, begins with the opening of the valve 13, the supply voltage to the ignition plug 20 and the air supply from an external source to erectionnow element 21 through line 22 with a check valve. The air passing through the injection element 21, entrain air after the compressor and enters the combustion chamber 3. At a certain pressure of air before combustion start-off valve 6 is opened and the fuel enters the chamber, where it is ignited by a spark. The fuel pump 24 with electric variable speed is served in the relationship or with the speed of the turbocharger or the amount of air pressure before combustion in all operating modes. The pump 24 to be bulky, which, as you know, there is a clear characteristic of the flow - speed. For a given pump requirements there are no pressure and it will consume the power of a few watts. This system does not require manual control of the output for a given mode of operation, it is the task of automatic control decides by electronic means. The shutdown is carried out by closing the valve 13. Fuel will not flow into the combustion chamber and the process will stop.Start installation by theodicy air from an external source to the injection element 21 through line 22 with a check valve and to the turbine pump 25 through the start-off valve 34. The air passing through the injection element 21, entrain air after the compressor and enters the combustion chamber 3. At a certain air pressure in front of the camera start-off valve 6 is opened and the fuel enters the chamber, where it is ignited by a spark. The air on highways 35 and 36 suitable to the turbine and spins the pump 25 to the specified speed (the maximum for this installation). It should be noted that for this option, install the pump may be a centrifugal and bulk. The fuel passing through the constant flow regulator 26, stabilizes the flow rate (the maximum value for this setting). The changes of external and internal factors will only lead to a change of the differential pressure regulator 26. After the regulator the fuel redistributed - part goes into the combustion chamber, and the part through line 38 to the input of the pump. The reclassification function performs the distributor 27 which its valve 29 in the downward direction (relative to the position shown in Fig. 2) the flow area of one of the cavity 32 covers, and the other with 31 lifts. At the beginning of the action (operation) of the distributor is due to the impact on the spool 29 of the diaphragm 28, Palast is. the same process will occur prior to the installation mode "small gas", while receiving air from an external source to the injection device 21. After the installation is disconnected from the external air source further increase will be carried out manually, by moving the valve handle 30. When disconnecting the external air source to the turbine pump 25 will act upon the highways 37 and 36 working fluid is air from line 14 (after the compressor). However, the latter is not regulated, it is possible to make the selection of air towards the nozzle chamber (slightly warmed) or even to take part of the products after combustion.The shutdown is carried out by closing the valve 13. Fuel will not flow into the combustion chamber, and the process will stop.It should be noted that the pump 25 is selected with a small amount of power sufficient only to compensate for the pressure drop on the regulator and the distributor (1.0 to 1.5 MPa).It should be noted that the proposed technical solution acceptable for both variants of installation of the prototype.From the foregoing it is clear that the proposed technical solutions in comparison with the known significant is agnosti.Thus, the proposed technical solutions extend the scope and improve the basic characteristics of the installation, designed for heat treatment of various objects and other purposes. 1. Gas turbine installation comprising a turbine and a compressor located on a common shaft, indicated by the output turbine inlet directly, and entrance and exit from the compressor through jet apparatus, a combustion chamber with the fuel injectors, which are communicated with the fuel tank through mushotzky valve, and the pump delivery system, wherein the jet apparatus it is made in the form of an injector provided with an external supply of high pressure air, and the pumping system is equipped with independent drive.2. Gas turbine installation according to p. 1, characterized in that it is Autonomous drive pump system made in the form of drive-variable speed.3. Gas turbine installation according to p. 1, characterized in that it is Autonomous drive pump system made in the form of turbo drive, while the cavity of the turbo drive reported an external supply of high pressure air through mushotzky valve and via a stop valve with mA the sa has been consistently found the constant flow regulator and dispenser, equipped with a handle and a spring-loaded sensing element, a spring-loaded cavity which is communicated with the atmosphere, opposite to the main entrance of air into the combustion chamber, one cavity after the dispenser is in communication with the fuel supply line into the combustion chamber, the other with a cavity to pump.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas-turbine engines.
SUBSTANCE: system is designed for utilization of fuel leaks in drain systems of gas-turbine engines. Proposed system contains drain tank divided into upper and lower spaces by spring-loaded flexible partition. Upper space is connected through check valve and drain valve with nozzle manifolds, through other check valve, with atmosphere, and through third check valve, with fuel pump input. Lower space is connected with high-pressure source through pressure selector. Fuel-air medium sensor is installed under check valve communicating with atmosphere. Selector is made in form of electromagnetic valve with spool device. Check valve connected with fuel pump is located lower than minimum permissible fuel level in tank, level being set by program. Such design of drain system precludes getting of air to fuel pump input and meets ecological requirements as to effective combustion of fuel owing to return of fuel from drain tank into fuel tank at steady state operating conditions of engine.
EFFECT: provision of pollution-free engine.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; engines.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for draining fuel leaks from manifold and returning fuel into engine fuel system. Proposed device contain drain tank connected with drain fuel source, ejector with working nozzle, outlet and receiving chamber, drain tank shutoff valve, float installed in drain tank and connected with shutoff valve. Constant pressure valve connected with ejector outlet is installed at inlet of ejector working nozzle. Throttling needle with spring and piston is installed in working nozzle of ejector. One space of piston being connected with drain space and the other, with ejector outlet.
EFFECT: prevention of cavitation in ejector and getting of air into fuel system.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices and methods of combustion of fuel-air mixture in air-jet engines, small-size gas-turbine engines and gas-turbine plants. Proposed low-pressure nozzle contains annular atomizing edges, body accommodating central air swirler, channel to feed fuel with auger swirler, and outer air swirler arranged on nozzle body. Channel to supply swirled high-pressure air is arranged around fuel feed channel. Two-tier jet outer air swirler is provided with outer and inner inclined holes, air vortex stabilizer and annular outer and inner atomizing edges. Method of fuel atomizing by low-pressure nozzle comes to delivery of fuel and pressure feeding of air through central swirler and outer swirler. Fuel is fed between two swirler air flows formed by central swirler and channel to supply swirler high-pressure air. Flows of air and fuel getting to annular atomizing edges of nozzle form finely dispersed fuel air-mixture. Drops of mixture are atomized by air jets of outer swirler first on its inner annular atomizing edge, and then on outer edge. Said peculiarities of proposed invention increase payload capacity of aircraft, reduce exhaust of harmful substances.
EFFECT: reduced energy losses and expenses.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: rocketry and aeronautical engineering; fuel systems of flying vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: device proposed for realization of this method includes fuel tanks connected in succession by means of pipe lines; sequence of fuel utilization is estimated by intensity of heating of fuel contained in them.
EFFECT: reduction of temperature at engine plant inlet.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: metered delivery of fluid medium from supply source to users.
SUBSTANCE: proposed meter includes metering valve sliding in body at working stroke C; this valve has inlet hole for receiving fluid medium from supply source and outlet for discharge of fluid medium to user. Meter is provided with passage for fluid medium for performing washing motion of fluid medium over contact surfaces of valve and body. Passage is formed by helical groove at width L and screw pitch P. Besides that injector is proposed which is fitted with this meter.
EFFECT: avoidance of accumulation of contaminants during flow of fluid medium through meter.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; turbomachines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed fuel injection system contains high-pressure pump for delivering fuel at high pressure from fuel tank, fuel nozzles arranged in combustion chamber of turbomachine and metering device located between said high-pressure pump and fuel nozzles to control rate of fuel getting into fuel nozzles from high-pressure pump. Metering device contains delivery valve operated in accordance with two delivery levels by metering valve to which fuel is delivered from said high-pressure pump. Electrically controlled shutoff valve is provided additionally to cut off fuel delivery to said fuel nozzles.
EFFECT: possibility of limiting heating of fuel and setting optimum dimensions of system components.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: devices for mixing of fuel components including gaseous and liquid fuel, water vapor and air before their supply to the combustion chamber.
SUBSTANCE: the mixer of fuel components has a fuel supply manifold and a system for preparation of the fuel-containing mixture including a device of multi-point fuel injection. The system for preparation of the fuel-containing mixture is made in the form of a single Venturi tube, the device of multi-point fuel injection installed in the Venturi tube up to its critical section is made in the form of a tore-shaped stream-lined manifold with openings on the outer and inner surfaces. The tore-shaped manifold of multi-point injection is tear-shaped.
EFFECT: simplified and lightened construction of the mixer, reduced friction loss.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: gas-turbine plants.
SUBSTANCE: system comprises nozzle provided with internal axial space that is terminated by the outlet port for fuel-air mixture at one of its ends. The nozzle has first stage for supplying fuel provided with several first fuel supply openings that enter the internal space, are arranged around the axis of the nozzle, and are connected with the inlet fuel zone through fuel supply passages, and at least one passage for air supply that enters the internal axial space and is connected with the inlet air zone. The nozzle is additionally provided with at least second stage for fuel supply provided with several second fuel supply openings that enter the internal space, are arranged around the axis of the nozzle, and are connected with the inlet fuel zone of the nozzle through the fuel supply passages. The fuel supply passages are in part in coincidence with the fuel supply passages of the first stage.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of fuel-air mixture.
18 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; turbomachines.
SUBSTANCE: fuel system of turbomachine combustion chamber has fuel-feed nozzle providing spraying of fuel in combustion chamber, and mixing-and-deflecting unit arranged symmetrically relative to axis of fuel-feed nozzle and designed to form mixture of fuel oxidizer with fuel and its atomizing in said combustion chamber. Mixing-and-deflecting unit has first swirler and, at least, second swirler arranged with relative displacement along said axis and separated by venture device arranged coaxially relative to fuel-feed nozzle. First swirler is rigidly fastened to said fuel-feed nozzle and is arranged at constant distance from nozzle in radial direction. Distance is chosen so that fuel atomized by fuel-feed nozzle cannot get onto said first swirler.
EFFECT: provision of good atomizing of fuel under all conditions.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises injecting compressed air into the system for supplying fuel to the nozzle. The compressed air is injected directly to the fuel injection head downstream of the valves. The injecting is controlled by the signal characteristic for a given stage of operation of the turbine machine. The compressed air is taken at the exit of the compressor, is collected in a tank, and then is injected to the head through the internal pipeline.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
12 cl, 8 dwg