A method of creating ice crossing
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to letterlike and can be used when creating the ice terminal for cargo transportation on the waters without ice flow. The invention aims to increase the bearing capacity of the ice crossing. The technical result is achieved by numerazione under ice cover ice pillars in the form of water columns, prisoners in closed volumes. To do this in ice along and across the axis crossing drill a series of holes equally from each other distances. The holes vertically down the tube with welded bottom end, which rests in the bottom of the pool. The upper end of the pipe leaves above the ice cover. Pipes in series set apart at a distance sufficient to freezing between the layers of ice that freezes on the surfaces of pipes from entering the lungs (t < 0°C) atmospheric air. 1 Il. The invention relates to the field of hladotehnika and can be used when creating the ice terminal for cargo transportation on the waters without ice flow.Known technical solution (1. Kozin Century M RF Patent N 2135685 from 27.08.99) in which ways the basin via the through hole, formed in the ice cover at both ends of the crossing along its entire length, and the bottom end of the pipe is made welded, and its upper end is above the ice surface. Cold air is heavier, flows inside the tubes, causing freezing of ice along their entire outer surface. After a time sufficient for reliable primerzanie upper and lower pipes respectively to the bottom of the pool and ice cover and freezing on the surfaces of the pipes of the ice layer of the required thickness, ice crossing is ready for operation.The disadvantage of this method is the lack of strength icy crossing, because the ice cover at a known solution is based on columnar supports. Under the action of vertical load from the weight of transported goods it can cause destructive compression stress in the pipe connections with the bottom of the pool and ice cover. Therefore, the reliability of such terminal c ice cover will be low.The task of the claimed invention is to provide an ice crossing with a high degree of reliability.Technical result achieved when the task is to reduce deflections ice sosnicowice water columns, prisoners in closed volumes.The essential features characterizing the invention.Restrictive features: ice crossing create by means of steel pipes, lowered vertically on the bottom of the pool through the through-hole formed in the ice cover at both ends of the crossing along its entire length, and the bottom end of the tube is welded, and its upper end is above the ice surface.Distinguishing characteristics: pipes installed along and perpendicular to the axis of the terminal rows with equal from each other by distances and tube relative to each other is set at a distance sufficient to freezing between the layers of ice that freezes on the surfaces of the pipes.It is known (2. Loitsyansky L., Mechanics of liquid and gas. M.: Nauka, 1978 - 736 C.) that the distribution of small perturbations in the water, in which the speed of deformation is much less than the speed of sound, the latter can be considered incompressible. Obviously, the speed of deformation of the ice cover, respectively, and an elastic Foundation - water when transporting it cargoes can be considered small. Thus, to increase the bearing capacity of the ice terminal you can use the its supports in the form of water columns, prisoners in closed volumes. This reticence volumes will eliminate the flow of water in an infinite region and will allow the use of its property nsimemory. Thus, the water columns in closed volumes, placed under the ice cover, will behave under real loads transported on ice loads, as absolutely rigid.The method is as follows.In ice cover on both sides and perpendicular to the axis crossing drill through holes. To ensure ravnopravnosti terminal in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the distance between the longitudinal and transverse rows of holes to choose the same. Then through them under the ice vertically down the tube with welded bottom ends and rests them in the bottom of the pool, and the ends of the pipe in the direction of the axis of the terminal set apart at a distance sufficient to freezing between the layers of ice that freezes on the surfaces of the pipes. The length of the pipe should be long enough so that their upper end above the surface of the ice cover. To prevent the possible emergence of pipes temporarily fix. Then prepared in affect what goes into the pipe, causing namerzanie ice along their entire outer surface. Due to the distance between the pipes, providing regelation between freezes a layer of ice, under ice cover are formed of a monolithic ice pillars and closed volumes of water, which leads to more reliable fixing of the ice cover, increasing the stiffness of its resilient base and corresponding increase reliability of the ice crossing. After a time sufficient to freeze on the surfaces of the pipes of the ice layers of the required thickness and freezing between ice crossing is ready for operation. In the spring, when the operation of the terminal will be dangerous, pipes removed.The invention is illustrated graphically, where the drawing shows a scheme for the creation of the ice crossing.In ice cover 1 on both sides of and perpendicular to the intended axis of the terminal 2 are drilled a series of holes 3. Thus the distance between the longitudinal rows 4 and 5 cross holes choose the same, i.e., l1= l2. Through them under the ice vertically lower pipe 6 with welded bottom ends and rests in the bottom of the pool, and pipe set from each other at a distance of l3sufficient to shift the Yu in them cold (t<0C) air. After a time sufficient to freeze on the surface of the pipes 6 of the ice layer of the required thickness h and the area of freezing 7 under ice cover, are formed of a monolithic ice supports 9, water columns 10 and ice crossing after installing transitions 11 covering the protruding ends of the tubes transverse rows of 5 for the smooth transportation of goods and not restrict the flow of cold air in the tubes, ready for use. A method of creating ice crossing through steel pipes, lowered vertically on the bottom of the pool through the through-hole formed in the ice cover at both ends of the crossing along its entire length, and the bottom end of the pipe is made welded, and the upper end is above the ice surface, characterized in that the pipes installed along and perpendicular to the axis of the terminal rows with equal from each other by distances and tube relative to each other is set at a distance sufficient to freezing between the layers of ice that freezes on the surfaces of the pipes.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in designing ramp and propulsion and steering gear and their hydraulic systems. Novelty in proposed water craft is that it is furnished with streamlined carrying frame for fastening devices of propulsion and steering complex installed in hull aft part and formed by two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams hinge secured by inner ends of aft sheet of hull in zone located under loading side coupled by flexible cross beams in each pair and support bar between pairs. Hydraulic heads of propulsors are hinge-mounted on outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams, being secured on said beams to form additional cross tie between beams. Carrying frame is furnished with power hydraulic cylinders connected with hydraulic system and installed to control position of heads and loading side by turning carrying frame in aft sheet hinge joints. Body of each is provided with upper roller support, being rolling support for each hinged loading side at its opening, and lower platform being rigid base interacting with ground at resting of hinged loading side on head body in loading position of loading side. Novelty in hydraulic system of watercraft is that it is furnished, in additional to propulsor control hydraulic cylinders, with hydraulic cylinders for setting ramps, changing thrust vector, fixing loading side and locking carrying frame. Each hydraulic cylinder, including propulsor position control hydraulic cylinders, are supplied through parallel hydraulic lines connected with main line, with electric control in each line. Invention contains description of design peculiarities of each line providing required modes of operation of watercraft.
EFFECT: improved performance of watercraft and creating of hydraulic system providing required mode of operation of watercraft.
9 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to construct temporary roads across lakes and other water obstacles.
SUBSTANCE: ice bridge includes cooling plant, pipelines connected to cooling plant. Pipelines are submersed in water and suspended by wire ropes. Cooling plant has reducers for pressure reduction, 10 MPa gaseous nitrogen cylinders and liquid nitrogen cylinders adapted to fill pipelines with liquid and gaseous nitrogen mixture. The pipelines include several coiled sections or formed as straight and finned pipes. The pipelines are arranged in several rows and extend in vertical or horizontal directions. The pipelines are submersed for 0.1-5 m depth and are connected by wire ropes to balloons floating at water surface or to finned pipes driven in ground of river bottom and connected one to another by diaphragms. The cooling plant provides water freezing within 3-5 km range and obtains ice having thickness of 3 m or more.
EFFECT: increased water freezing rate.
FIELD: movable or portable bridges, floating bridges adapted to convey loads over ice cover.
SUBSTANCE: method to transport vehicle having weight exceeding load-carrying ability of ice cover over ice involves moving vehicle having weight not exceeding load-carrying ability of ice cover at resonance speed; moving vehicle having weight exceeding load-carrying capacity to ice cover line when above vehicle having lesser weight has moved away from ice cover line for distance equal to 2/3 of resonance bending-gravity wave length; initiating above vehicle having larger weight movement with above resonance speed. Resonance bending-gravity wave length is determined from where D is cylindrical stiffness of ice plate, ρ and h - ice density and thickness, g - gravity, H - water body depth.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity of ice cover.