A method of processing a nickel-cadmium scrap

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of production secondary non-ferrous metals nametallurgicheskie ways, in particular, from scrap metal, waste Nickel-cadmium batteries. Scrap before leaching is transferred in a uniform, loose mass of differing magnetic properties; separate the magnetic and nonmagnetic fractions and leached from the magnetic fraction of Nickel, and from non-magnetic - cadmium. The method allows to separate the scrap Nickel - and cadmium-containing fraction to leaching and almost completely remove both components in pure form, and received the insoluble residue consists mainly of iron oxide and is a marketable product. 1 Il.

The invention relates to the field of production secondary non-ferrous metals nametallurgicheskie ways, in particular, from scrap metal, waste Nickel-cadmium batteries.

There is a method of processing waste-iron batteries trademark ferronickel. (A. S. N 711137 IPC C 22 B 7/00. Method of processing waste-iron batteries trademark ferronickel. M. P. Rusakov and other Publ. BI N 3, 12.12.77). The disadvantage of this method is extracted is icaleo-iron (cadmium) batteries. (A. S. N 539087, C 22 B 23/02 Method for processing exhaust plates of Nickel-iron (cadmium) batteries. C. J. Koshkarov and other Publ. BI N 46, 15.12.76), which consists in melting plates with 1450-1575oC obtaining Nickel as an alloy with iron. The cadmium contained in the positive plates as an impurity, is sublimated and is expelled with the exhaust gases. The disadvantage of this method is that the Nickel is removed in the form of an alloy with iron, and also at these temperatures melting cadmium is sublimated and is entrained with the exhaust gases into the atmosphere, polluting the environment.

The closest to describing the way the technical essence is a method of extraction of Nickel and cadmium from scrap (Patent N 288179, FRG, MRK C 22 3/14 B, C 22 B 3/06. Verfahren zur Rueckgewilmung von Nickel and Cadmium aus Ni/Cd haltigem Schrott. /Ptrepper Gerd; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR - N 3330477 /ausg. am 21.03.91), including leaching, which is carried out in two stages. The first solutions of ammonium salts 1-6 mol/l for NH4+transferred to the liquid phase the main part of cadmium. At this stage there is an interaction of its compounds present in the scrap in the form of solid particles with a solution of ammonium salts with the formation of solutions of salts of cadmium and ammonia. In the second stage, the solution is partially, the iron. At this stage there is an interaction between the solid particles of the metal and the solution of mineral acid with the formation of solutions of compounds of these metals. From the first liquid phase cadmium is precipitated in the form of carbonate, and from the second loop ion-exchange resins, and the Nickel is precipitated as carbonate.

The disadvantages of this method are: low degree of extraction of cadmium and Nickel in the final product due to the fact that the scrap material, particularly of waste Nickel-cadmium batteries, open type, contains the compressed active mass comprising compounds of Nickel, cadmium, and iron in various oxidation States. This is connected with what is happening in batteries electrochemical processes of charge-discharge. This form of scrap, first, complicates the interaction of cadmium and its compounds, surrounded by compacted solid particles of iron and Nickel, with solutions of ammonium salts. Secondly, some of the cadmium found in the metallic form, does not interact with them. All this reduces the amount of cadmium in the first liquid phase. Thus, when the first leaching in the scrap remains from 10 to 25% of cadmium.

In the first liquid phase shifts and part of the Nickel, talami ammonium. The formation of soluble compounds of Nickel. Depending on the degree of wear of the batteries in the first liquid phase is transferred to 0.2 to 5.0% Nickel, which reduces the overall Nickel recovery.

The second liquid phase from the remaining scrap metal leaching in addition to Nickel pass the remains of cadmium and partly of iron, which requires allocation of additional Nickel technological operations.

The aim of the invention is the increase in the total extraction of Nickel and cadmium from scrap, and increase the degree of purification of cadmium on iron and Nickel, and Nickel-iron.

The objective is achieved by the fact that the scrap material before leaching is transferred in a uniform, loose mass of differing magnetic properties, separate the magnetic and nonmagnetic fractions and leached from the magnetic - Nickel, and non-magnetic - cadmium.

The essence of the invention is that the scrap material before leaching is heated and oxidized by atmospheric oxygen at a temperature 690-900oC, cooled and subjected to magnetic separation, and then leached from the magnetic fraction concentrated solutions of mineral acids, Nickel, and non-magnetic - saturated solutions of ammonium salts cadmium.< Simultaneous heating and oxidation of the scrap oxygen when 690-900oC allows you to transfer compressed active mass in bulk, different magnetic properties, and the active components in the oxide form of higher valences. The lower limit of the temperature range determines the transition of iron oxide in a form that is insoluble in concentrated mineral acids. The upper temperature limit possible sintering of scrap by melting oxides.

Magnetic separation of scrap allows you to split into factions: magnetic, which contains the oxides of Nickel and iron, and non-magnetic, which is concentrated oxide cadmium.

Leaching magnetic fractions concentrated solutions of mineral acids translates into a solution of compounds of Nickel, iron remains in the insoluble residue.

Leaching of non-magnetic fractions of saturated solutions of ammonium salts allows complete transfer of cadmium in solution. Upon completion of the leaching from the first liquid phase precipitated Nickel, and from the second - cadmium. The rest of the scrap after acid leaching and contains primarily iron oxide.

Thus, the proposed method of processing a Nickel-cadmium scrap allows you to split a scrap on Nickel and Khet be noted, what the insoluble residue consists mainly of iron oxide and is a marketable product.

A method of processing a Nickel-cadmium scrap, including leaching solutions of ammonium salts and mineral acids and deposition, characterized in that the scrap material before leaching is heated and oxidized by oxygen of air at 690 - 900oC, cooled and subjected to magnetic separation, and then leached from the magnetic fraction concentrated solutions of mineral acids Nickel, and non-magnetic saturated solutions of ammonium salts cadmium.

 

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