The way to obtain coherent radiation

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to laser technology and can be used to create gas sources of coherent radiation. In a method of producing coherent radiation, which consists in converting the energy of the two sources of electrical energy to the energy of the two electron beams of different intensity, the conversion of the energy of one of them in bremsstrahlung, the transfer of energy bremsstrahlung active medium located in the volume of the resonator, and the subsequent transfer its energy to another electron beam, converting the energy of the particles of the active medium in the form of electromagnetic radiation, its selection, amplification and the output generated coherent radiation impinges on additional ionizer in the form of a translucent grid, converting part of the emission of incoherent radiation, simultaneously affect the active medium is located outside the interelectrode gap, brake, incoherent, and the remaining part of the coherent radiation, Insua active environment brake and incoherent radiation and reinforcing the remaining part of the coherent radiation, and then send reinforced coherentists expansion of the spectrum of the radiation source in a pulsed, and frequency-periodic regimes with a simultaneous increase in the output power of the source of coherent radiation. 1 Il.

The invention relates to laser technology and can be used to create gas sources of coherent radiation.

The known method [1] for the generation of coherent radiation using three-electrode system in which the pre-ionization of the active medium is short diffuse discharge is generated directly in the working gap and excitation provides subsequent high volume discharge (with U=200 kV), and to create beams using two different power source. Using this method allows you to get generation limited spectral composition of radiation and with significant energy losses in the excitation of the active medium, due to the energy required for the formation of a shock and acoustic waves at the discharge, the impossibility of efficient use of the active medium located outside of the electrodes, and the impossibility of working in the frequency-periodic mode due to the lack of switching elements operating at such high voltage the data by the author for the prototype, is the method [2] to obtain coherent radiation pumped volume self-sustained discharge and pre-ionization soft x-ray radiation, comprising converting the energy of the two power sources in the energy of the two electron beams, one of which creates a pre-ionization using bremsstrahlung in the main channel of self-discharge. This method allows the use of low voltage power supplies, however, has a number of disadvantages that way [1].

Using the present invention the technical result consists in the extension of the spectrum of the radiation source as in the pulse and frequency-periodic regimes with a simultaneous increase in the output power of the source of coherent radiation.

In accordance with the invention the technical result is achieved in that in a method of producing coherent radiation, which consists in converting the energy of the two sources of electrical energy to the energy of the two electron beams of different intensity, the conversion of the energy of one of the beams in bremsstrahlung, the transfer of energy bremsstrahlung active medium located in the volume of resonat the second environment in electromagnetic radiation, his selection, amplification and the output generated coherent radiation impinges on the material environment, converting part of the emission of incoherent radiation, simultaneously affect the active medium is located outside the interelectrode gap, brake, incoherent, and the remaining part of the coherent radiation, Insua while this active medium brake and incoherent radiation and reinforcing the remaining part of the coherent radiation, and then send the amplified coherent radiation in alignment with the cavity of the source of coherent radiation.

The drawing shows a device that implements the proposed method, where:

1 - power supply control units;

2 - active medium in the electrode gap;

3 - active environment in coaxial volume;

4 - the distribution grid and the cathode of the pre-ionizer;

5 - foil with carrier design;

6 - the main discharge electrodes;

7 - deaf mirror resonator;

8 - broadband mirror or set of mirrors;

9 - vacuum system and inlet of active media;

10 is a system for mixing the active medium;

11 - optional ionizer;

12 - cuvette;

13 - blocks control is my 9 (for definiteness consider the environment CO2laser microsecond duration), to the cathode of the pre-ionizer 4 is pulse high voltage power source 1, generated by the control unit 13. As a consequence, is formed locally inhomogeneous electric field. In the area of n elements of the distribution grid, on the side opposite the cathode 4 is formed a non-uniform electric field determined by a superposition of homogeneous and local fields. The resultant field strength can be determined by the formula [3]:

- grad =E(r)=E0(1+R2/r2), (1)

where r is the distance from the mesh;

- potential electric field;

R is the radius of the wire mesh.

As a result, the electrons will have the same energy, defined in accordance with the electric field calculated by the formula (1).

When steady state plasma electric discharge, there is an equilibrium between the force retarding the electrons due to collisions, and power, accelerating them in an electric field. In this case, the equation of motion can be written in the form:

meeivt=Ee, (2)

where E is the intensity of the superposition of the electric field is determined is a;

eithe collision frequency of electron concentration n ions [4];

< / BR>
where Z is the ion charge (in units of the elementary charge);

ln is the Coulomb logarithm.

Analyzing the formula (2), we see that the friction force is inversely proportional to vt2and at sufficiently high velocities determined using the formula (1), the power of eE, it can be arbitrarily small and the electron will not be limited to accelerate.

A similar conclusion can be drawn for other electron beams, which have been separated due to the presence of the grid in front of the cathode. After the arrival of high-energy electrons in the foil 5 and the braking, it occurs bremsstrahlung radiation with a continuous spectrum and boundary wavelength [5]:

g= eUeff/h,

where e is the electron charge;

h is the Planck constant;

Ueff= dE0(1+R2)/r2, (4)

d is the distance between the electrodes.

Thus, there is no need to provide a high voltage on the pre-ionizer to accelerate all of the electrons in the channel of the pre-ionizer, but rather to highlight only a certain group and due to the redistribution of the field in the discharge gap to provide them with the environment in the main discharge. After turning on the main discharge in the laser resonator occurs coherent radiation.

After amplification in the volume of the active medium 2 (between the main discharge electrodes 6 and the simultaneous selection in the cavity, formed in a hollow mirror 7 and a broadband (or mirror included) 8, part of the radiation is output from the resonator, and the other part affects additional ionizer 11 made in the form of a translucent grid. When reaching a certain threshold of intensity J~106-107W/cm2laser radiation with a pulse of microsecond duration with a view of the leading beam with subsequent long "tail" near the ionizer 11, there are two types of plasma formations torch vapour and optical discharge (laser spark) [6]. Typical concentration of electrons in the plasma formations is ~ 1018cm-3.

Significant concentrations of electrons were found for the moments from 30 NS after the beginning of the occurrence of breakdown and existed up to 100 NS after the start of the breakdown [7]. Since the time of the initiation of the plasma depends on the rate of intensity change in time, i.e. the duration of the leading edge [6], and the beginning of PLA is, come on a single platform for time t3then the rest of the pulse without substantial contribution to the formation of plasma will pass through the region with significant electronic gradients. According to the results of experimental studies [6,7] the dimensions in the longitudinal and transverse directions are approximately the same and amount to ~ 5 mm during 10 NS.

An additional source of electrons in coaxial volume 3 created by the braking action of x-rays generated in the electrode gap. At low accelerating voltages (up to 50 kV) x-ray bremsstrahlung is spherically symmetric [5]. For a typical laser mixture of CO2laser (P=1 ATM), the average concentrations of electron preionization mode is ~109cm3at a distance of 40 cm from the surface of the foil [8].

Thus in the result of joint action of incoherent radiation and plasma bremsstrahlung in coaxial volume is created, the initial concentration of electrons, obviously exceeding the threshold concentration of 105cm-3[9] required for ignition discharge volume.

Let's calculate the energy of the electrons, Navie inhomogeneity of the electric field between the main discharge electrodes (marginal effects) interelectrode capacitance is increased by the amount [3]:

< / BR>
where C is the capacitance in farads;

L - the width of the electrodes;

d is the distance between the electrodes;

S - the area of the electrodes.

In the dipole approximation, we consider that the charge q is localized at the edges of electrodes located in close proximity to the coaxial volume (because the geometry of the electrodes has the greatest curvature of the surface). Then, the electric field at some distance from the electrodes is determined by the formula [10]:

< / BR>
where q = CU - full overcharging;

U is the voltage on the electrodes;

r is the distance from the edge of the electrodes;

= 1/2 - coefficient taking into account the presence of two equivalent edges of the electrodes.

Given (6), we get:

< / BR>
where L = 310-2m;

l = 1.3 to 10-1m - the length of the electrodes;

d = 310-2m;

S =410-3m2.

And, finally:

< / BR>
Due to the force acting from the side of the field on the electron, he reported energy on the length of the free path:

W = eE, (10)

where

the average speed of thermal motion (for the case of Maxwell distribution of speeds);

K - Boltzmann constant;

T is the temperature of the mixture;

m is the electron mass;

ei- 1,410
< / BR>
< / BR>
From (12) it is clear that the electron energy is sufficient for the excitation of vibrational levels of molecules of CO2N2[11]. Thus the active medium located in the coaxial electrodes of length y~10 cm, is reinforcing for part of the pulse CO2-laser. This increases the output energy source of incoherent radiation.

Additionally it should be noted that the emission spectrum may be different from the spectrum of the CO2-Laura, as the pre-ionization x-rays in conjunction with pumped electric discharge is a universal method of lasing at different active media.

Using a rearrangement of the electron beam energy in the pre-ionizer allows you to increase the level of energy output (in case of small tabs in the discharge), which also increases the efficiency of the source of coherent radiation, while avoiding the cost of funds for biological protection device.

Sources of information taken into account:

1. C. F. Basmanov, C. S. Josamycin in. A. Gorokhov and others, ZH, 1982, T. 52, No. 1, S. 128.

2. A., Gordeychik, A., Maslennikov, A. A. Kuchinsky, and others, Quantum electronics., S. 31, 36.

4. L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz "Physical kinetics", M, "Science", S. 218.

5. F. N. Harada "General course rechentechnik", M, "Energy", 1966, S. 34, 47.

6. "The results of science and technology", Radiotekhnika, T. 31, M, 1983, S. 5, 36-37, 125.

7. G. C. Ostrovskaya, A. N. Seidel, Phys, 1973, I. 111, vol. 4, S. 594-595.

8. A. C. Kozyrev, Y. D. Korolev and others, "Quantum electronics", 1984, T. 11, S. 524.

9. C. N. Carnosin, R. N. Soloukhin, DAN SSSR, 236, S. 347 (1977).

10. L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz, "Theory of fields", M., "Nauka", 1967, S. 132.

11. K. Patel, Phys, 1969, I. 97, vol. 4, S. 697.

The way to obtain coherent radiation, which consists in converting the energy of the two sources of electrical energy to the energy of the two electron beams of different intensity, the conversion of the energy of one of the beams in bremsstrahlung, the transfer of energy bremsstrahlung active medium located in the volume of the resonator, and the subsequent transfer its energy to another electron beam, converting the energy of the particles of the active medium in the form of electromagnetic radiation, its selection, amplification and output, characterized in that the generated coherent radiation impinges on additional ionizer made in W on the active medium, outside the interelectrode gap, brake, incoherent, and the remaining part of the coherent radiation, Insua active environment brake and incoherent radiation and reinforcing the remaining part of the coherent radiation, and then send the amplified coherent radiation in alignment with the cavity of the source of coherent radiation.

 

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