The way to obtain coherent radiation
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to laser technology and can be used to create gas sources of coherent radiation. In a method of producing coherent radiation, which consists in converting the energy of the two sources of electrical energy to the energy of the two electron beams of different intensity, the conversion of the energy of one of them in bremsstrahlung, the transfer of energy bremsstrahlung active medium located in the volume of the resonator, and the subsequent transfer its energy to another electron beam, converting the energy of the particles of the active medium in the form of electromagnetic radiation, its selection, amplification and the output generated coherent radiation impinges on additional ionizer in the form of a translucent grid, converting part of the emission of incoherent radiation, simultaneously affect the active medium is located outside the interelectrode gap, brake, incoherent, and the remaining part of the coherent radiation, Insua active environment brake and incoherent radiation and reinforcing the remaining part of the coherent radiation, and then send reinforced coherentists expansion of the spectrum of the radiation source in a pulsed, and frequency-periodic regimes with a simultaneous increase in the output power of the source of coherent radiation. 1 Il. The invention relates to laser technology and can be used to create gas sources of coherent radiation.The known method  for the generation of coherent radiation using three-electrode system in which the pre-ionization of the active medium is short diffuse discharge is generated directly in the working gap and excitation provides subsequent high volume discharge (with U=200 kV), and to create beams using two different power source. Using this method allows you to get generation limited spectral composition of radiation and with significant energy losses in the excitation of the active medium, due to the energy required for the formation of a shock and acoustic waves at the discharge, the impossibility of efficient use of the active medium located outside of the electrodes, and the impossibility of working in the frequency-periodic mode due to the lack of switching elements operating at such high voltage the data by the author for the prototype, is the method  to obtain coherent radiation pumped volume self-sustained discharge and pre-ionization soft x-ray radiation, comprising converting the energy of the two power sources in the energy of the two electron beams, one of which creates a pre-ionization using bremsstrahlung in the main channel of self-discharge. This method allows the use of low voltage power supplies, however, has a number of disadvantages that way .Using the present invention the technical result consists in the extension of the spectrum of the radiation source as in the pulse and frequency-periodic regimes with a simultaneous increase in the output power of the source of coherent radiation.In accordance with the invention the technical result is achieved in that in a method of producing coherent radiation, which consists in converting the energy of the two sources of electrical energy to the energy of the two electron beams of different intensity, the conversion of the energy of one of the beams in bremsstrahlung, the transfer of energy bremsstrahlung active medium located in the volume of resonat the second environment in electromagnetic radiation, his selection, amplification and the output generated coherent radiation impinges on the material environment, converting part of the emission of incoherent radiation, simultaneously affect the active medium is located outside the interelectrode gap, brake, incoherent, and the remaining part of the coherent radiation, Insua while this active medium brake and incoherent radiation and reinforcing the remaining part of the coherent radiation, and then send the amplified coherent radiation in alignment with the cavity of the source of coherent radiation.The drawing shows a device that implements the proposed method, where:
1 - power supply control units;
2 - active medium in the electrode gap;
3 - active environment in coaxial volume;
4 - the distribution grid and the cathode of the pre-ionizer;
5 - foil with carrier design;
6 - the main discharge electrodes;
7 - deaf mirror resonator;
8 - broadband mirror or set of mirrors;
9 - vacuum system and inlet of active media;
10 is a system for mixing the active medium;
11 - optional ionizer;
12 - cuvette;
13 - blocks control is my 9 (for definiteness consider the environment CO2laser microsecond duration), to the cathode of the pre-ionizer 4 is pulse high voltage power source 1, generated by the control unit 13. As a consequence, is formed locally inhomogeneous electric field. In the area of n elements of the distribution grid, on the side opposite the cathode 4 is formed a non-uniform electric field determined by a superposition of homogeneous and local fields. The resultant field strength can be determined by the formula :
- grad =E(r)=E0(1+R2/r2), (1)
where r is the distance from the mesh;
- potential electric field;
R is the radius of the wire mesh.As a result, the electrons will have the same energy, defined in accordance with the electric field calculated by the formula (1).When steady state plasma electric discharge, there is an equilibrium between the force retarding the electrons due to collisions, and power, accelerating them in an electric field. In this case, the equation of motion can be written in the form:
where E is the intensity of the superposition of the electric field is determined is a;
eithe collision frequency of electron concentration n ions ;
< / BR>where Z is the ion charge (in units of the elementary charge);
ln is the Coulomb logarithm.Analyzing the formula (2), we see that the friction force is inversely proportional to vt2and at sufficiently high velocities determined using the formula (1), the power of eE, it can be arbitrarily small and the electron will not be limited to accelerate.A similar conclusion can be drawn for other electron beams, which have been separated due to the presence of the grid in front of the cathode. After the arrival of high-energy electrons in the foil 5 and the braking, it occurs bremsstrahlung radiation with a continuous spectrum and boundary wavelength :
where e is the electron charge;
h is the Planck constant;
Ueff= dE0(1+R2)/r2, (4)
d is the distance between the electrodes.Thus, there is no need to provide a high voltage on the pre-ionizer to accelerate all of the electrons in the channel of the pre-ionizer, but rather to highlight only a certain group and due to the redistribution of the field in the discharge gap to provide them with the environment in the main discharge. After turning on the main discharge in the laser resonator occurs coherent radiation.After amplification in the volume of the active medium 2 (between the main discharge electrodes 6 and the simultaneous selection in the cavity, formed in a hollow mirror 7 and a broadband (or mirror included) 8, part of the radiation is output from the resonator, and the other part affects additional ionizer 11 made in the form of a translucent grid. When reaching a certain threshold of intensity J~106-107W/cm2laser radiation with a pulse of microsecond duration with a view of the leading beam with subsequent long "tail" near the ionizer 11, there are two types of plasma formations torch vapour and optical discharge (laser spark) . Typical concentration of electrons in the plasma formations is ~ 1018cm-3.Significant concentrations of electrons were found for the moments from 30 NS after the beginning of the occurrence of breakdown and existed up to 100 NS after the start of the breakdown . Since the time of the initiation of the plasma depends on the rate of intensity change in time, i.e. the duration of the leading edge , and the beginning of PLA is, come on a single platform for time t3then the rest of the pulse without substantial contribution to the formation of plasma will pass through the region with significant electronic gradients. According to the results of experimental studies [6,7] the dimensions in the longitudinal and transverse directions are approximately the same and amount to ~ 5 mm during 10 NS.An additional source of electrons in coaxial volume 3 created by the braking action of x-rays generated in the electrode gap. At low accelerating voltages (up to 50 kV) x-ray bremsstrahlung is spherically symmetric . For a typical laser mixture of CO2laser (P=1 ATM), the average concentrations of electron preionization mode is ~109cm3at a distance of 40 cm from the surface of the foil .Thus in the result of joint action of incoherent radiation and plasma bremsstrahlung in coaxial volume is created, the initial concentration of electrons, obviously exceeding the threshold concentration of 105cm-3 required for ignition discharge volume.Let's calculate the energy of the electrons, Navie inhomogeneity of the electric field between the main discharge electrodes (marginal effects) interelectrode capacitance is increased by the amount :
< / BR>where C is the capacitance in farads;
L - the width of the electrodes;
d is the distance between the electrodes;
S - the area of the electrodes.In the dipole approximation, we consider that the charge q is localized at the edges of electrodes located in close proximity to the coaxial volume (because the geometry of the electrodes has the greatest curvature of the surface). Then, the electric field at some distance from the electrodes is determined by the formula :
< / BR>where q = CU - full overcharging;
U is the voltage on the electrodes;
r is the distance from the edge of the electrodes;
= 1/2 - coefficient taking into account the presence of two equivalent edges of the electrodes.Given (6), we get:
< / BR>where L = 310-2m;
l = 1.3 to 10-1m - the length of the electrodes;
d = 310-2m;
S =410-3m2.And, finally:
< / BR>Due to the force acting from the side of the field on the electron, he reported energy on the length of the free path:
W = eE, (10)
the average speed of thermal motion (for the case of Maxwell distribution of speeds);
K - Boltzmann constant;
T is the temperature of the mixture;
m is the electron mass;
1. C. F. Basmanov, C. S. Josamycin in. A. Gorokhov and others, ZH, 1982, T. 52, No. 1, S. 128.2. A., Gordeychik, A., Maslennikov, A. A. Kuchinsky, and others, Quantum electronics., S. 31, 36.4. L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz "Physical kinetics", M, "Science", S. 218.5. F. N. Harada "General course rechentechnik", M, "Energy", 1966, S. 34, 47.6. "The results of science and technology", Radiotekhnika, T. 31, M, 1983, S. 5, 36-37, 125.7. G. C. Ostrovskaya, A. N. Seidel, Phys, 1973, I. 111, vol. 4, S. 594-595.8. A. C. Kozyrev, Y. D. Korolev and others, "Quantum electronics", 1984, T. 11, S. 524.9. C. N. Carnosin, R. N. Soloukhin, DAN SSSR, 236, S. 347 (1977).10. L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz, "Theory of fields", M., "Nauka", 1967, S. 132.11. K. Patel, Phys, 1969, I. 97, vol. 4, S. 697. The way to obtain coherent radiation, which consists in converting the energy of the two sources of electrical energy to the energy of the two electron beams of different intensity, the conversion of the energy of one of the beams in bremsstrahlung, the transfer of energy bremsstrahlung active medium located in the volume of the resonator, and the subsequent transfer its energy to another electron beam, converting the energy of the particles of the active medium in the form of electromagnetic radiation, its selection, amplification and output, characterized in that the generated coherent radiation impinges on additional ionizer made in W on the active medium, outside the interelectrode gap, brake, incoherent, and the remaining part of the coherent radiation, Insua active environment brake and incoherent radiation and reinforcing the remaining part of the coherent radiation, and then send the amplified coherent radiation in alignment with the cavity of the source of coherent radiation.
FIELD: quantum electronics, spectrometry, and plasma chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for firing sparkless discharge in solid gases includes ignition of main charge between first and second electrodes by applying high-voltage pulse minus across first electrode and its plus, across second one, gas being pre-ionized with aid of low-energy electron beam, photons, and plasma electrons produced directly within main-discharge space; low-energy electron beam is produced by means of open barrier discharge with high-voltage pulse applied between first electrode made in the form of grid disposed on insulator surface and additional electrode disposed on opposite side of insulator; main charge is fired not earlier than ignition of open barrier discharge; the latter and main discharge are ignited within one gas-filled chamber. Device implementing proposed method has first and second electrodes forming main discharge gap, and high-voltage pulsed power supply; first electrode is made in the form of grid disposed on insulator surface whose opposite side mounts additional electrode; high-voltage pulsed power supply is connected through minus terminal to first grid electrode and through plus one, to second electrode; it functions to ignite main discharge; additional high-voltage pulsed power supply for open barrier discharge is connected through plus terminal to first grid electrode and through minus one, to additional electrode; first grid electrode, second electrode, additional electrode, and insulator are mounted in same gas-filled chamber.
EFFECT: enhanced main-charge stability due to enhanced efficiency of gas pre-ionization in main discharge gap from pre-ionization source disposed within main discharge space.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering, physics.
SUBSTANCE: laser incorporates elongated solid main electrodes, each furnished with, at least, one UV-preionisation device. The gas flow zone is formed by gas flow dielectric guides and the main discharge electrode working surfaces. The said preionisation devices are arranged outside the gas flow zone to enlighten the gap between the main discharge through the gap between the main discharge electrodes and the flow dielectric guides.
EFFECT: laser efficient operation under the conditions of high pulse rate.
11 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to quantum electronics, particularly to electrode systems of gaseous TE-lasers. In the electrode system of TE-laser with corona preoinisation, the inner conductors of the corona preionisation devices are only connected between themselves. The outer conductors of the corona preionisation devices are connected to the main discharge electrodes.
EFFECT: provision for effective preionisation of the discharge gap, which does not require a high voltage lead through the case to the electrodes of the preionisation device.
5 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: laser has a gas pumping loop in which there are series-arranged discharge gap formed by two extended electrodes, diffuser, heat exchanger, cross flow fan with an impeller and an extra channel. The inlet opening of the extra channel lies on the pressure side of the fan. The distance between the electrodes is between 0.05 and 0.25 times the external diametre of the impeller. The extra channel is in form of a convergent tube with an outlet hole directed towards the impeller of the fan on the suction side of the fan.
EFFECT: design of a compact TE-type gas laser with efficient laser gas pumping, stable operation and high pulse repetition rate.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: laser includes gas-filled chamber with the main discharge electrodes installed in it, charging circuit and discharging circuit. Charging circuit includes pulse voltage source and peaking capacitors. Discharging circuit includes peaking capacitors and the main discharge electrodes, at least one corona pre-ioniser in the form of dielectric tube with inner and outer electrodes. Outer electrode of pre-ioniser covers part of surface of dielectric tube and is connected to the main discharge electrode. At that, outer electrode of corona pre-ioniser is current lead of charging circuit.
EFFECT: improving efficiency of pre-ionisation and stability of operation.
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser engineering. The discharge system of a high-efficiency gas laser includes, arranged in the housing of the laser, extended first and second electrodes which define a discharge area in between. On the side of one of the electrodes there is a UV preioniser, which is in the form of a system for igniting a uniform creeping discharge between the extended ignitor electrode and an additional electrode, placed on the surface of a dielectric layer which covers an extended metal substrate connected to the additional electrode. The dielectric layer is in the form of a straight thin-wall dielectric tube with a longitudinal section. The ignitor electrode and the additional electrode are placed on the outer surface of the dielectric tube along the tube, and the metal substrate is placed inside the dielectric tube such that at least part of the surface of the metal substrate is superimposed with the extended part of the inner surface of the dielectric tube. The additional electrode is connected to the metal substrate through the longitudinal section of the dielectric tube.
EFFECT: increasing generation energy and average radiation power of the gas laser and simple design of the gas laser.
5 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a gas molecule and atom excitation device in gas laser pumping systems. The device represents a tray in the form of an elongated parallelepiped or cylinder having an outer casing made of an insulation material. Parallel mesh electrodes - anode and cathode - are integrated into the casing along the tray walls. The space between the electrodes represents a discharge chamber for glow burning. Between each electrode mesh and the inner face of the tray, there are chambers used as a gas flow conditioner. Gas is individually supplied into each of the chambers. One of the side walls of the gas tray is slotted to release an excited gas molecule or atom flow from the discharge chamber into a resonant chamber generating a radiation flow.
EFFECT: downsizing and reducing power of the device and maintaining energy deposition.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser engineering. The discharge system of an excimer laser includes a space discharge area (4) in a laser chamber (1) between first and second electrodes (2), (3), the longitudinal axes of which are parallel to each other; each preionisation unit (5) comprises a system for generating uniform complete creeping discharge on the surface of an extended dielectric plate (6), having an arched shape in the cross-section. The arched dielectric plate (6) can be in the form of a dielectric tube.
EFFECT: enabling laser energy and power increase.
21 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser engineering. The laser includes a gas-filled housing which is fitted with a ceramic discharge chamber with an extended high-voltage flange, a high-voltage electrode and a grounded electrode, both placed extended and placed in the discharge chamber, and at least one preionisation unit. Each preionisation unit comprises a system for generating creeping discharge, which includes an extended dielectric plate having an arched shape in the cross-section. In another version of the invention, the high-voltage electrode is placed on the inner side of the high-voltage flange and is partially transparent. The preionisation unit is placed on the back side of the partially transparent high-voltage electrode. The extended walls of the ceramic discharge chamber are preferably inclined towards the high-voltage electrode, and capacitors are inclined towards the high-voltage electrode.
EFFECT: high generation energy and power of the laser.
24 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser engineering. The gas laser discharge system contains the extended first and second laser electrodes, located in the laser housing, UF pre-ionizer located aside from one of laser electrodes and designed as the system of ignition of sliding discharge between extended igniting electrode and additional electrode located on the surface of the dielectric layer coating an extended metal substrate. The dielectric layer is designed as a part of direct thin-walled cylindrical tube enclosed between two planes of the tube cuts made along its length parallel to the axis. The igniting electrode is placed on the internal surface of the part of the dielectric tube along it and connected to the laser electrode, and the surface of the extended metal substrate is made concave and superposed with the part of external cylindrical surface of the dielectric layer.
EFFECT: possibility of increase of generation energy and simplification of the laser design.
4 cl, 4 dwg