The method of converting thermal energy into mechanical energy (electric)

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention is intended for use in energy, transport, aviation and space, where a major role is played by the increase in the efficiency of heat engines. The method of converting thermal energy into mechanical energy is done by using two dissimilar bodies in the gas phase, their separate compression, separate supply of heat to the working bodies, mixing, adiabatic expansion of the mixture to produce mechanical work, heat recovery, cooling and separation of mixtures. The invention improves the cycle efficiency and use low-grade heat. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The invention is intended for use in energy, transport, aviation and space, where a major role is played by the increase in the efficiency of heat engines.

There is a method of converting thermal energy into mechanical energy, which is compressed in the compressor, the air supplied to the combustion chamber, where down warmth in a loop fuel combustion and resulting in products of combustion serves on the steam ejector, in which when mixed with superheated steam generated in the steam generator supplying the water heat and is, increases the speed of combustion products through the transfer of kinetic energy of the pair, with the consequent increase of pressure of the combustion products in the composition of the gas mixture, which expands in the turbine, and through the regenerative heat the water after separation from the gas-vapor mixture of combustion products, they should be removed from the unit (see RF patent N 2076929, IPC F 01 To 21/04, 1997).

The disadvantage of this method are the high cost of heat for receiving superheated steam, the use of cumbersome system of regenerative heating of water and a significant loss when mixed in the ejector.

There is a method of converting thermal energy into mechanical energy in a closed process with a supply of heat from the combustion of solid, liquid or gaseous fuel or from another source, in which an inert gas such as xenon or CO2is compressed in the compressor, heated in hasanaginica and is then expanded in the first turbine stage. Spent, but still have energy, gases get into the mixer where they are mixed with the working environment, such as water or freon, or steam in this environment. The working medium evaporates or is overheating. The mixture flows into the second gas turbine of shadara condensation at the same time again is the separation of substances. The gas enters the compressor, and working the mixture in a collection of fluid through the pump in the heater or evaporator (see application DE N 3605466, IPC F 01 K 21/04, 1987).

The disadvantage of this method is the large heat loss and bulkiness of the equipment.

Known way of converting thermal energy into mechanical energy (electric) the closest is a method of converting thermal energy into mechanical energy through the use of two different working fluids, their separate compression, the sum of the heat of mixing, adiabatic expansion of the mixture to produce mechanical work, cooling and separation of the mixture into the working of the body (see patent US, N 5444981, IPC F 01 K 21/04, 1995).

In this way conversion turbine extracts useful energy at a lower pressure drop than would be required if only a single working body. However, this method is applicable only for the use of high-grade heat of combustion in the boiler and is not a high cycle efficiency. Using the boiler as a heat source and a joint heated mixed working fluids predetermine the choice of working bodies of water vapor and helium, which are respectively the com method is the lack of process heat recovery.

The present invention is to increase the efficiency of the cycle and the possibility of using low-grade heat, such as heat of the sun, heat, environment, etc.

The problem is solved in that in the method of converting thermal energy into mechanical energy through the use of two different working fluids, their separate compression, the sum of the heat of mixing, adiabatic expansion of the mixture to produce mechanical work, cooling and separation of the mixture into the working of the body, according to the invention as a working substance use heterogeneous body in the gas phase (He - CO2, He - N2, Ar - CO2H2- N2or mixtures thereof), heat to a working phone down separately, and after the expansion of the mixture produces heat recovery to the original working bodies.

The problem is solved in that the mixture of working fluids is carried out in a gas ejector supersonic diffuser or pulsating gas ejector.

The drawing shows the T-S diagram of the compression, heating, mixing, expansion of the mixture, heat recovery from the mixture at the entrance to the original gases, cooling and separation of gases.

The adiabatic processes separate sati start from the same point with parameters P0and T0and end at the points 1 and 1' due to the differences in the properties of the used gases. Gases are compressed respectively to pressure P1and P'1and further processes separate Isobaric heat 1-2 and 1'-2' from an external source to a temperature of2. After applying heat, the gases are mixed in the gas ejector - process 2 - Pcm- 2' at a temperature Tcm= T2. Perhaps re-mixing of the gaseous mixture after the ejector with one of the working bodies for the optimal working parameters of the mixture before the extension. The mixture of gases of the jet expands in the process of Pcm- P'cmto a temperature T'smto produce mechanical (electrical) energy. In the process P'cm- Pcmthe regeneration heat (Isobaric heat from the mixture to the original work of the bodies). The temperature of the mixture is reduced to T1. Process P"cmP0- adiabatic causes thermodynamic cycle, and the mixture acquires the initial parameters of the P0and T0. At the point 0 is cooling and separation of the mixture of the initial components using the energy of the primary cycle.

The method of converting thermal energy to mechanical the 2, He - N2, Ar - CO2H2- N2or a mixture of the separately compressed to a pressure P1and P'1and to them separately supplied heat, for example heat of the sun, the environmental heat or other low-grade heat (process 1-2 and 1'-2'). Then the heated working body are mixed, for example, in the gas ejector (Pcm). Most preferred is a mixture of working fluids in the gas ejector supersonic diffuser.

The mixture of working fluids and o adiabatically expanded to the pressure P'cmto produce mechanical or electrical energy). In the process P'cm- Pcmthe regeneration heat. The heat from the mixture isobarically is allocated and passed to the original work tel. Process P"cm- P0adiabatic causes thermodynamic cycle, and the mixture acquires the initial parameters of the P0and T0. At the point 0 is cooling and separation of the mixture of the initial components using the energy of the primary cycle.

Thus, in the proposed method of converting thermal energy into mechanical energy (electric) contour is a closed thermodynamic cycle, in which razored is after the expansion of the mixture in the turbine.

The positive effect from the use of such a cycle is explained by the sharp distinction of thermophysical properties of the gases used as the working fluids and the optimal parameters and properties of the mixtures obtained by mixing these gases in the ejector. All this helps to increase thermal efficiency of a heat engine and to use as the heating of the working bodies of low-grade heat from the surrounding environment (or solar heating).

1. The method of converting thermal energy into mechanical energy through the use of two different working fluids, their separate compression, the sum of the heat of mixing, adiabatic expansion of the mixture to produce mechanical work, cooling and separation of the mixture into the working of the body, characterized in that as a working substance use heterogeneous body in the gas phase (He - CO2, He - N2, Ar - CO2H2- N2or mixtures thereof), heat to a working phone down separately, and after the expansion of the mixture produces heat recovery to the original working bodies.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the mixing of the working fluids is carried out in a gas jet with a supersonic diffuser.

 

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