Method of removing, sorting, and recycling of solid waste

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: deleting, sorting and recycling of solid domestic waste (SDW). Effect: improve the efficiency of production operations for solid waste recycling. The inventive solid waste from residential and non-residential sectors of the city are removed separately. Waste from non-residential sector in the city are sorted, and the waste from the residential sector - the seal together with the tails of the sort. Manual sorting of solid waste is carried out at the speed of the conveyor from 0.05 to 0.5 m/s, and mechanized - when the speed of the conveyor from 0.8 to 1.2 m/s Joint seal tails sorting and solid waste from the residential sector is carried out at the content of the tailings sort in a mixture of waste from 50 to 95 %. Removal of solid waste from the residential sector is performed by the garbage truck with the body volume from 3.5 to 10 m3and removal of solid waste from non-residential sector - garbage trucks with the body volume from 10 to 20 m3. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 3 tab., 2 Il.

The invention relates to the field of removal, sorting and processing of solid domestic waste (SDW) and can be used in installations for complex processing and enrichment in the cities of the Russian Federation.

Currently in Russia, about 99% of the image is m distance from the city. To reduce costs to remove practiced a two-stage removal of solid waste: from accumulation of solid waste removed and collecting garbage on musoroperegruzochnaya station (MPs), where they undergo compaction (compaction, pressing), loaded into a means for removal to places of burial. In some cases, on the IPU apply sorting to extract waste components.

There is a method of sorting of solid waste (A. S. Sailors. Waste management. Publishing house "Gardariki", M, 1999, S. 121,123), including manual selection of those or other valuable components from the low-speed tape conveyor, which "divided and pre-extracted part of ferrous scrap metal (especially lumpy), and also removes textile components and large fragments of plastic film overlying waste on the conveyor and complicating their manual selection". To improve the efficiency of manual pre-sorting the waste is separated into several fractions by size.

The disadvantages of this method: the complexity of its implementation (MSW artificially divided by size into multiple streams, each of which requires its own equipment) and low reliability (due to the presence of in MSW textc a consequence a small yield of useful products is only 12-14% of the original.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result to the invention is a method remove (removal), sorting and recycling of solid waste, including the removal of solid waste from places of education and collecting garbage trucks, manual and mechanical sorting of waste with the recovery of waste elements and their seal (L. G. Fedorov. Trends musoroperegruzochnyh stations in the Moscow region. Scientific-technical journal "Clean city", 1998, No. 2, S. 8-9).

The disadvantages of this method include low removal efficiency of solid waste collection trucks without differentiation of sources of education and the extremely low efficiency of the subsequent extraction of solid waste on the IPU waste elements, since a substantial part of the solid waste from households (they accounted for 60% of all generated waste is removed in a packaged form (packages, boxes, etc.,), and therefore the manual sorting of certain components of the MSW stream is difficult. In addition, the solid waste from the residential sector contain 30-45% food residues contaminating other components and reporting MSW specific unpleasant smell. Hand contact is their differentiation is low.

An object of the invention is to increase the efficiency of removal, sorting and recycling of solid waste.

The technical problem is solved in such a way that in the method of removing, sorting and recycling of solid waste, including the removal of solid waste from places of education for garbage trucks, manual and mechanical sorting of waste and processing method of compaction, removal of solid waste carried out separately from residential and non-residential sector of the city, subjected to sorting waste from non-residential sector, and the seal - waste from the residential sector of the city together with the tails of waste sorting non-residential sector of the city. In addition, manual sorting of solid waste is carried out on the low-speed tape conveyor speeds from 0.05 to 0.5 m/s, and mechanized - on the conveyor belt moving at a speed of from 0.8 to 1.2 m/s, and the joint tail packing, sorting and solid waste from the residential sector is carried out at the content of the tailings in a mixture of waste from 50 to 95%. With the removal of solid waste from the residential sector is performed by the garbage truck with the body volume from 3.5 to 10 m3and removal of solid waste from non-residential sector - garbage trucks with the body volume from 10 to 20 m3.

The invention consists in the following.

In razerblade MSW-based organization immiscible waste streams at the time of their removal from the residential (households) and non-residential (commercial and trading enterprises, administrative and educational institutions, and other) sector of the city, separate delivery on processing complex, which creates favorable conditions for sorting waste from non-residential sector of the city (waste-enriched waste and are characterized by low content of food and plant residues) and joint seals tails sorting and waste from the residential sector of the city. With the removal of solid waste from the residential sector is small-tonnage trucks (body volume is from 3.5 to 10 m3), and removal of solid waste from non-residential sector - garbage trucks with the body volume from 10 to 20 m3and sorting of solid waste is carried out in a Multispeed mode (manual - when the speed of the conveyor of 0.05-0.5 m/s, mechanized - when the speed of the conveyor 0,8-1,2 m/s), and the joint tail packing, sorting and solid waste from the residential sector is carried out at the content of the tailings sorting in the waste mixture is not less than 50%.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where:

Fig. 1 shows a flow chart of sorting and compaction of solid waste;

Fig. 2 - the effect of waste composition on their seal.

An example of a specific implementation of the described invention.

Studies were conducted on samples of solid waste from residential and ned on the MSW sorting (Fig. 1). Using the methods of manual and mechanical sorting of MSW transported on belt conveyors, allocate valuable components (paper, glass, plastics, wood, textiles, metals). The yield of useful products - 40% of the original solid waste from non-residential sector, the output tails - 60%.

Developed the mode of selection of useful products from the solid waste non-residential sector of the city (manual sorting on the low - speed tape conveyor at a speed of transported waste stream of 0.05-0.5 m/s, mechanized sorting on the conveyor belt at a speed of 0.8-1.2 m/s) facilitates the efficient enrichment of solid waste with high technological performance. In table. 1 shows the data, confirming the validity of the described technical solutions in terms of sorting of solid waste.

Analysis of the results shows that only under optimum conditions of sorted MSW is achieved high recovery of components into useful products (see tab. 2): paper - 90, glass - 80, PET-bottles - 80, the polymer film 50, wood - 50, black metal - 90, non-ferrous metal - 80, textiles - 80. When you exit the upper and lower limits speed limits, increased loss components in the tails. This is due to the fact that this offered the sort of low-speed tape conveyor (0.05 to 0.5 m/s) on tape, moving with greater speed (0.8-1.2 m/s) material is loosened, disconnected and decreases the thickness of the transported waste layer. In the end, is monoclona flow of waste in the process of sorting metals, which in turn provides improved recovery of metals in the product with the least contamination by impurities. At the stage of manual sorting maximum extraction of components is achieved at a line speed of 0.05-0.1 m/s

Tails sort are fairly homogeneous in size (mostly 200 mm) material that does not contain oversized and prepared to seal without crushing.

Experiments have shown (Fig. 2) that seal the tails of the sort together with the solid waste from the residential sector provides, at a certain ratio of waste, better compaction of the material at a constant force pushing plate of the sealing device. Thus, when the content of the tailings in a mixture of compacted waste is not less than 50%, the mass of compacted waste in the container increases by almost 20% compared with the seal of mixed solid waste removed from the city without the organization of separate streams from residential and non-residential sectors.

Improving the ear due to changes in the composition and size subjected to compaction of waste (table. 3), in particular significantly reduced the content in the sealed waste PET bottles, glass and tin containers, bulky items, etc.

When you implement a way to separate waste from residential and non-residential sector with a view to their subsequent selective-collective processing is optimized system for disposal of solid waste: removal of solid waste from the residential sector are used garbage trucks with the body volume from 3.5 to 10 m3to remove waste from non-residential sector - with the body volume from 10 to 20 m3. The use of light-duty trucks for the removal of solid waste from the residential sector of the city greatly facilitates maintenance of the container space for collection of solid waste and improves sealing composition of waste (low-tonnage trucks are hardly KGM - large-and crease-resistant materials, which increases the efficiency of subsequent compaction). Remove the sorting of waste from non-residential sector heavy trucks optimizes the preparation of waste to be sorted (with a relatively small number of incoming garbage created the best conditions for inspection of the waste stream and portions of the submission process).

Thus, the essential otlichnyh operations and techniques: separate collection and organization of immiscible flow of solid waste from residential and non-residential sector with the direction of waste from non-residential sector to be sorted, and solid waste from the residential sector on the seal together with tails sorting provides a higher positive effect compared to the prototype (result - increase efficiency of the sorting equipment while simplifying technology, increase the degree of compaction of waste at a constant pressing force). In the end minimizes the cost of removal of solid waste, increases the turnover of collecting garbage, get a commercial profit from the sale of products, minimizing the amount of waste, i.e., critical urban problems.

The described method is implemented in the design, construction and operation of facilities for sorting and compaction of solid waste, is of great importance for economic and social development of the Russian cities.

It is very important that the bundling briquetting of finished products, which is part of the complex, may accept for processing of the waste from the points of reception of recyclable materials (paper, aluminum) and of compact sources (waste), and the plot sort of MSW can take on the refinement of waste selectively collected in containers in the population.

When performance sets the million residents, the seal is subjected to 60 thousand tons of solid waste removed mainly by a low-tonnage trucks, sorting goes 90 thousand tons of solid waste removed from the non-residential sector in the city by heavy trucks; tails sort compacted together with solid waste from the residential sector (tails content in the mixture is about 50%). The yield of useful products is about 40% of the sorted waste (about 25% of the original). Reduce by 25% the amount of solid waste sent to landfill and incineration, does not require large capital investments, and practical solutions to the most pressing ecological and economic problems of Russian cities (primarily in the region of Moscow).

1. Method of removing, sorting, and recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW), including the removal of waste from their places of education, manual and mechanical sorting of waste and processing method of sealing, characterized in that the removal of solid waste carried out separately from residential and non-residential sector of the city, subjected to sorting waste from non-residential sector, and the processing method of seal - waste from the residential sector of the city together with the tails of waste sorting non-residential sector.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that manual sorting of solid waste carried the gosia speeds from 0.8 - 1.2 m/s

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the joint seal tails sorting and solid waste from the residential sector is carried out at the content of the tailings sort in a mixture of waste from 50 to 95%.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the removal of solid waste from the residential sector is performed by the garbage truck with the body volume from 3.5 to 10 m3and removal of solid waste from non-residential sector - garbage trucks with the body volume from 10 to 20 m3.

 

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