A method of processing solid waste

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: recycling of solid waste with the purpose of extraction of valuable components, reducing the cost of removal of solid waste. Technical result - increasing the efficiency of production operations for solid waste recycling. The invention consists in that the solid waste is sent to the sorting their subsequent compaction compaction method. When this joint tail packing, sorting and solid waste is carried out at the content of the tailings sort in a mixture of waste from 25 to 75%, and the seal may be passed through the tails of the sort when the depth sorting of the original MSW, adjustable output of useful products within 4-25%. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il.

The invention relates to the field of processing of municipal solid waste (MSW) and can be used in installations for complex processing and enrichment in the cities of the Russian Federation.

Currently in Russia, about 99% of the resulting mass of solid waste removed by the garbage trucks to the burial grounds, located generally at a considerable distance from the city. To reduce costs to remove practiced a two-stage removal of solid waste: from accumulation of solid waste to odarovany, pressing), loaded into a means for removal to places of burial. In some cases, on the IPU apply sorting to extract waste components.

There is a method of sorting of solid waste (A. S. Sailors. Waste management. Publishing house "Gardariki", M , 1999, S. 121, 123), including manual selection of those or other valuable components from the low-speed tape conveyor, which "divided and pre-extracted part of ferrous scrap metal (especially lumpy), and also removes textile components and large fragments of plastic film overlying waste on the conveyor and complicating their manual selection". To improve the efficiency of manual pre-sorting the waste is separated into several fractions by size.

The disadvantages of this method: provides for the allocation of hazardous and ballast components not provided by mechanized sorting and does not solve the problem of optimal control tails of the sort.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result to the invention is a method of processing solid waste, including sorting with the production of useful products and tailings their seal by pressing (the "Clean city", 1998, No. 2, S. 8-9).

The disadvantages of this method include low efficiency of compaction of solid waste compaction method (batching), after sorting them due to the artificial increase in the tails of the sort of food waste. So, when packaging waste with a binding wire is not provided, the strength of the packs, and the latest fall apart during transport (the content of food waste exceeds 50%).

An object of the invention is to improve the efficiency of processing solid waste sorting method and seals.

The technical problem is solved in such a way that in the method of processing solid waste, including sorting with the production of useful products and tails with their subsequent compaction compaction method, the seal is subjected to the tails of the sort together with part of the original MSW when the content of the tailings sort in a mixture of waste from 25 to 75%. However, the seal can be subjected to the tails of the sort under controlled within 4-25% (output) depth sorting of the original MSW.

The invention consists in the following.

As a result of the research was the possibility of optimizing perevodom pressing, that creates favorable conditions for joint seals tails sorting and solid waste. When this joint tail packing, sorting and solid waste is carried out at the content of the tailings sort in a mixture of waste from 25 to 75%, and the seal can be subjected tails sorting out useful products within 4-25% of the original MSW.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where:

Fig. 1 shows a flow chart of sorting and compaction of solid waste;

Fig. 2 - the effect of waste composition on their seal.

An example of a specific implementation of the described invention.

Studies were conducted on samples of MSW.

The source material is delivered to the sorting of solid waste (Fig. 1). Using the methods of manual and mechanical sorting of MSW transported on belt conveyors, produce useful products (paper, glass, plastics, wood, textiles, metals). The yield of useful products 5-40% of sorted MSW (depending on their composition; higher extraction component corresponds to the preferential sorting of solid waste from non-residential sector in the city is the commercial and trading enterprises, administrative and educational institutions, and others). Tails sort podoben MSW provides, when a certain ratio of waste, better compaction of the material at a constant force pushing plate of the sealing device. Thus, when the content of the tailings in a mixture of compacted waste from 25 to 75%, the mass of compacted waste increases by 10% compared with the seal unsorted MSW, removed from the city. At the same time strengthened the packages to be sealed waste, tied with wire.

When the direction of sorting all the original solid waste and the extraction of more than 25% of useful components tails sorting poorly packaged (harness wire does not provide the strength of packages) due to the increasing content of food fraction more than 50%. Therefore, the depth sorting shall be governed by the yield of useful products within 4-25% (at the output of useful products less than 4% sorting apply impractical for economic reasons).

Increasing the degree of compaction due to the fact that when the joint seal waste reduces the volume occupied by the air due to changes in the composition and size subjected to compaction of waste, in particular, significantly reduced the contents in the sealed waste PET bottles, glass and tin containers, bulky predmeta the

The described method is implemented in the design, construction and operation of facilities for sorting and compaction of solid waste, is of great importance for economic and social development of the Russian cities: minimized costs for the removal of solid waste, increases the turnover of collecting garbage, get a commercial profit from the sale of products, minimizing the amount of waste, i.e., critical urban problems.

1. A method of processing municipal solid waste (MSW), including sorting with the production of useful products and tails with their subsequent compaction compaction method, characterized in that the seal is subjected to the tails of the sort together with part of the original MSW when the content of the tailings sort in a mixture of waste from 25 to 75%.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the seal is subjected tails sorting out useful products within 4 - 25% of sorted MSW.

 

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