Lens for radiation control in the flow of neutral or charged particles, a method of manufacturing such lenses and containing such lenses analytical device, the device for radiation therapy and device for contact and projection lithography

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to means for fault detection and diagnosis in engineering and medicine, devices for radiation therapy and lithographs. The technical result is an increase in the degree of focusing of the radiation lens, enabling the use of particles of higher energies and increase depending on these factors the performance of devices that use lenses to control the radiation of high energy. The lens is made in the form of a set of sublines different degrees of integration. This sublease the lowest degree of integration represents a set of transport channels radiation resulting from the joint drawing and forming stacked in the bundle of capillaries when the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure inside the channels of the capillary and temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent capillaries. Subline each higher degree of integration represents a set of sublines previous degree of integration, which is the result of their joint drawing and forming at the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure of the CE sublease the highest degree of integration are arranged in a single structure, which is the result of their joint drawing and forming at the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure in the channels of sublines and temperature sufficient to soften their material and fusing the adjacent sublines. The ends of this single structure is cut and form the input and output ends of the lens. To obtain the lens vertically in the furnace is enclosed in a tubular sheath beam blanks in the form of capillaries (e.g., glass) or blanks obtained at the previous stage of the process, and carry out pulling the products from the furnace at a rate greater than the feed rate. The product is cut into pieces for the next stage and the final stage is formed by varying the rate of withdrawal, after which the separate parts formed with a barrel-shaped thickenings. 6 C. and 34 C.p. f-crystals, 30 ill.

The invention relates to a means for fault detection and diagnosis in engineering and medicine that uses radiation in the form of a stream of neutral or charged particles, in particular x-ray radiation, and the means in which this radiation is used for medical purposes or for contact or projection lithography in microelectronics. Overall for what preobrazovaniya specified radiation. The design of this lens and method of manufacturing such lenses are also the subject of the proposed group of inventions.

The use of different types of radiation - x-ray and gamma radiation, neutral and charged particles in various fields, such as engineering, medicine, microelectronics, etc. over the past 20 - 30 years has increased significantly. Increasingly powerful x-ray sources safe and powerful neutron sources. These sources solve fundamental and applied problems facing science and industry.

Unfortunately, these sources are very expensive. To build from sources such as the European synchrotron radiation center (Grenoble, France), need the joint efforts of several States.

Therefore, it is very important to the creation of optical devices, which could significantly increase the effective brightness of cheap and available sources, which would dispense with the use of unique sources, similar to the above.

In the late 80's-early 90-ies of the closing century were created lenses to control the x-ray and other high energy radiation parallel flow of divergent radiation, focus parallel rays or other conversion), was represented by a set of transport channels radiation in which the radiation undergoes multiple total external reflection. These lenses were made in the form of multiple capillaries or polycapillaries passing through the holes or slots of the support structure installed at a certain distance along the length of the lens (see: C. A. Arkad'ev, A. I. Kolomiytsev, M. A. Kumakhov and other Broadband x-ray optics with a large angular aperture. Advances in physical Sciences, 1989, T. 157, vol. 3, S. 529-537 [1]; U.S. patent N 5192869 (publ. 09.03.93) [2]). The lens generally has the shape of a barrel (i.e., narrowed to both ends), if it is intended for focusing divergent radiation, or polubochki (i.e., narrowed to only one of the ends), if it is intended to convert the divergent radiation in quasiparallel or focus of such radiation.

Further to refer to these two lenses types, including having non-constructive described implementation, spread, respectively, the terms "full lens and Paulina".

There may be other forms of lenses other than Klassicheskaya bend, when one or both ends of the parallel channels. Such lenses can be used as filters radiation (for cutting off the high-energy part of the spectrum of the source), to convert the size of the cross section of the input beam, etc.

The above lenses are attributable to the lenses of the first generation, assembled by hand and is quite bulky. They allow you to focus x-ray radiation with quantum energy up to 10 Kev and to obtain a focal spot diameter of about 0.5 mm

Also known monolithic lens, in which the walls of adjacent channels of the transport of radiation in contact with each other along the entire length, and the channels have a variable length cross-section, varying according to the same law, and that the full cross section of the lens (V. M. Andreevsky, M. V. Gubarev, P. I. Zhidkin, M. A. Kumakhov, A. V. Noskin, I. Yu. Ponomarev, Kh.Z.Ustok. X-ray waveguide system with a variable cross-section of the sections. The IV-th All-Union Conference on Interaction of Radiation with Solids. Book of Abstracts (May 15-19, 1990, Elbrus settement, Kabardino-Balkarian ASSR, USSR, p. 177-178) [3]: U.S. patent N 5570408 (publ. 29.10.96) [4]).

These lenses are able to focus radiation quanta with energies up to 20-25 Kev. The transverse size of the transport channel is about 10 microns, and in some cases it is possible to achieve size channel is NZ, called lenses of the second generation, are the most efficient hub x-ray radiation when used as radiation sources x-ray tubes.

The disadvantage of monolithic lens is a bad repetition of shapes and sizes. In addition, almost unable to create lenses are quite large (2-3 cm) diameter with submicron channels.

In international applications PCT/RU94/00189 and PCT/RU94/00146 (international publication WO 96/01991 [5] and WO 96/02058 [6] from 25.01.96) describes the complete lens and Paulina made in the form of a set of tightly Packed tiny lenses, each of which represents a monolithic lens. In this design manages to get correspondingly larger than in conventional monolithic lens, the transverse dimensions. By increasing the aperture increases the capture angle of the radiation of a point source. However, the size of the cross-section of the channels transporting the radiation and the focal spot in this lens are the same as in conventional monolithic lens, and laying tiny lenses to give the desired shape of the lens as a whole must be done manually.

The lens is made of tightly Packed miniature lenses relating to TResult, achieved in the lens, is to increase the degree of focusing of radiation by reducing the cross-section of the channels, the possibility of using particles of higher energies, and the simplification of manufacturing technology by eliminating the need for individual adjustment of miniature lenses when linking them into a single structure.

To achieve this result, the proposed lens for converting radiation, a flow of neutral or charged particles, as the closest to it is known, contains touching its walls of channels for transporting radiation with total external reflection of the focused input ends with the ability to capture the radiation source used.

In contrast to the specified known, the proposed lens made in the form of a set of sublines different degrees of integration. This sublease the lowest degree of integration represents a set of transport channels radiation resulting from the joint drawing and forming stacked in the bundle of capillaries when the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure inside the Cana the century Subline each higher degree of integration represents a set of sublines previous degree of integration, which is the result of their joint drawing and forming at the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure inside the channels of sublines and temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent sublines. All Coblenz the highest degree of integration are arranged in a single structure, which is the result of their joint drawing and forming at the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure inside the channels of sublines and temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent sublines. The ends of this single structure is cut and form the input and output ends of the lenses.

Specified single structure and lenses of each of the degrees of integration can have a shell made of the same material as the capillary, or close to it according to the value of the coefficient of thermal expansion.

Shell increase the rigidity and strength of the lens. However, the lens in which subline no shells, has more transparency.

Due to the described implementation of the proposed lens is as (106or more) channels of transportation of radiation (so in relation to sublingal used the concept of the degree of integration), has channels are much smaller cross-section than the monolithic lens is known from [3, 4], or a miniature lens composed of lenses known from [5, 6], because at each stage of stretching decreases the diameter of the channels. Consequently, this increases the degree of focusing of the radiation, i.e., decreases the size of the focal spot.

All Coblenz the high degree of integration can be enclosed in a common envelope. The latter in this case is the outer shell of the lens.

In some applications it is useful having on the inner side walls of the channels transporting the radiation coating of one or more layers of the same or different chemical elements. Coatings are applied before manufacture of integral lenses on the inner side of the tubes, which are capillaries. It is important that the coefficient of thermal expansion of the coating material was close to the coefficient of thermal expansion of the material from which made the capillaries. In this case, the process goes without complications. Multilayer periodic pokr is a preview image from surfaces, having such coatings. In particular, it is possible, monochromatization radiation transported through channels such coatings of the walls. Application of rough coating leads to the appearance of the diffuse component of the reflection and can create conditions for transportation of radiation at angles of incidence greater than the critical angle of total external reflection.

As known lenses of previous generations, the full integral lens is performed with the possibility of focusing divergent radiation; for this purpose, the input and output ends of the channels transporting the radiation is focused, respectively, in the first and second focal points. In the first one when using the lens place the radiation source; the second point is formed focal spot lens.

For transforming divergent radiation in quasi parallel, as when using lenses of previous generations, applied integral Pollensa, in which one ends of the channels transporting the radiation is focused at the first focal point, and the other ends are parallel to each other.

Full integral lens for focusing divergent radiation is not always advisable to do is symmetric. If the end of the lens to do great, and focal length from the output end face is smaller, so that the focal spot was small. For this purpose, the radius of curvature of the channels adjacent to the input end of the half lens must be larger than the radius of curvature of the channels in half of the lens adjacent to the output end, i.e., the lens must be asymmetric relative to the average length of the cross-section.

Integral lens can be performed also in the form of a body of rotation with a generatrix having a bend, and different diameters from the entrance and exit, in particular to change the cross-sectional dimension of the transported beam. In this case it has a "bottle-shaped" form.

When creating lenses is the traditional requirement that all transport channels lenses were filled with radiation completely. This requires that the fill factor = Rkr)2/2d was greater than or equal to 1 (here R is the radius of curvature of the channel, d is the diameter of the channel,krcritical angle of total external reflection).

Not always, however, this condition is appropriate.

In case 1, the size of the focal spot of the lens is d+2fokrwhere fo- focal length lingxia from requirements 1, it will take place only partially filling the channels of radiation. When this x-ray photons or neutrons "pressed" to the peripheral with respect to the optical axis of the lens side walls of the transport channels. If the factor << 1, then the effective size of the channels may be much smaller than the size of d channels. The total transmission of the lens decreases. But proportionally reduced and the size of the focal spot, and the area of the focal spot decreases even more sharply, making increases the density of radiation in the focal spot.

Lenses are considered destinations have aberration, namely, that the position of the focal spot in the longitudinal direction is quite blurry. The characteristic size of the blur, as a rule, exceeds ten times or more the size of the focal spot in the transverse direction. A very large contribution to this blurring provide channels for transporting radiation adjacent to the optical axis of the lens. The involvement of these channels in the formation of the focal spot increases and transverse dimensions, as these channels have a lower (or even zero) curvature and it is impossible for them to fulfill the condition << 1 and even the condition of < 1.

In one of the private SL is the situation and increase its cross sectional dimensions can be excluded closing adjacent to the optical axis part of the lens on the input side or output screens or making this part impervious to radiation in any other way. For example, you can perform continuous (no channels) the part where could be Coblenz for channel 1.

Feature another special case of the proposed lens is that the channels of one or more sublines located near the longitudinal axis of the lenses made with the possibility of transportation of radiation in them in a single total external reflection or without him. To do this, they can be performed, for example, less length than the channels sublines, more remote from the longitudinal axis of the lens. This helps to reduce the radiation loss in the channels specified sublines, and the total transmission coefficient of the lens increases. The same result is achieved (however, in combination with the increasing blurring of the focal spot) when performing a Central channel with a larger diameter.

The operations performed at different stages of the technological process of manufacturing, we offer integral lenses are similar and do not depend on what degree of integration is used at each stage of sublines. Most approaches is the materials, for example, ceramics, metals, alloys.

The proposed method for the manufacturing of integrated lens includes two or more stages to produce blanks. At each of these stages form the beam from a previously made preparations, filling their tubular shell.

As the blanks in the first stage using capillaries, and on each of the subsequent stages of the workpiece resulting from the implementation of the previous stage. Then carry out the extrusion of a tubular shell with filling her pieces in the kiln feed rate in the furnace is lower than the rate of release of the products from the furnace, at a constant ratio between these speeds, then receive a billet, which is the result of this stage, by cutting discharged from the kiln product in length.

At the end of the last stage, and fill the billets produced at this stage, the tubular shell, filling it with pieces pulled into the kiln feed rate in the furnace is lower than the rate of release of the product from the furnace periodically changing the ratio between these speeds for education on leaving the oven the product is barrel-shaped thickenings, then e is the crustacean leaves thickening.

At all stages of implementation of the method using a tubular shell made of the same material as that of the capillaries, or close to it on the coefficient of thermal expansion, and the processes of extrusion of tubular shells with filling their preparations carried out at a pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure inside the channels of the workpieces and at a temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the walls of the adjacent blanks.

Depending on how you cut (in sections situated symmetrically or asymmetrically on both sides of the maximum barrel-shaped thickenings, or in cross-section, corresponding to the maximum thickening, and on either side of it), get a symmetrical or asymmetrical full lens or Pawlenty.

The speed of extrusion (the ratio between the feed rate into the furnace of tubular shell blanks and speed of the output products from the furnace) determines the shape of the lens. In particular, the change of this ratio in the process of forming a barrel-shaped thickenings leads to the production of lenses with different radii of curvature of its channels on opposite sides of the maximum barrel-shaped thickenings.

The lens in vukobratovi" lens) receive, separating section extending from the furnace products, made between the maximum barrel-shaped thickenings and section located on the other side of the inflection point forming on the segment of the product, where its diameter is constant.

To obtain lenses that do not have shells, covering Coblenz, each of the stages receiving the blanks to complete the drain membranes. Similarly, if you want to get a lens without an external shell, perform the etching of this shell.

The proposed method is similar to the method according to U.S. patent N 5812631 (publ. 22.09.98) [10]. In this way too, carry out several stages of extrusion billets, representing placed in a common envelope blanks obtained in the previous phase. The stretching mode of the furnace product that serves as the source for receiving the lens by cutting the section of this product, this method allows to directly get paulesu, and for a complete lenses are repeated pulling in the furnace of the specified items supplied in the oven the other end. This complicates the process.

However, much more significant is another disadvantage of this method. He does not respect the conditions, what Tokami. Without compliance with the conditions of thin-walled capillaries, usually used for the manufacture of lenses of the considered destination, pulling plushevaya, i.e. receiving suitable for practical use lenses impossible. Therefore, the method according to specified U.S. patent feasible (i.e., allows to obtain a fundamentally healthy lens) only when using capillaries obtained from thick-walled (having a diameter comparable to the wall thickness) tubing. The same ratio is maintained in the finished lens, in consequence, it has very low transparency. For example, if the diameter of the capillary channel is approximately equal to the wall thickness, the transparency is reduced considerably. It further reduced due to the fact that this known method provides for the production of such lenses, in which there are inner shell, as it does not contain operations for their removal from the surface of the workpiece.

The proposed method is free from the mentioned disadvantages of the known.

Described in the same U.S. patent lens is characterized as a lens obtained by protected by this patent the method. Due to all these features of the method and the resulting nelisi, described in international applications PCT/RU94/00189 and PCT/RU94/00146 (international publication WO 96/01991 [5] and WO 96/02058 [6] from 25.01.96).

One of the applications of the proposed integrated lens is an analytical device is a tool to analyze the structure (density distribution) of the objects (including medical and other biological objects), the elemental composition of products and materials. The use of radiation, in particular x-ray, has long been known (see, for example: production automation and industrial electronics. M: Soviet encyclopedia, 1964, T. 32, S. 277, T. 1, S. 209 [7]; the Physics of image visualization in medicine. Ed. by S. Webb, T. 1. M.: Mir, 1991 [8]; R. Woldseth. Applied spectrometry x-ray radiation. M: Atomizdat, 1977 [9]).

A qualitatively new stage in the development of such devices began with the use of lenses used to control radiation. Closest to the present invention is an analytical device according to U.S. patent N 5497008 (publ. 05.03.96) [11].

Part of this analytical device includes a radiation source, a flow of neutral or charged particles, and means positioning the studied object, located on a warrior or more radiation detectors, located with the possibility of exposure to radiation passed through the object under examination or excited in it, one or more lenses for converting radiation, a flow of neutral or charged particles located in the path of the radiation from the source to the object under investigation and (or) on the way from the latter to one or more of these radiation detectors containing touching its walls of channels for transporting radiation with total external reflection.

This is known analytical device according to U.S. patent N5497008 provides for the use of it known at the time of its development teams (i.e., first generation) or monolithic (i.e. second generation) polycapillary lenses. As mentioned above, these lenses do not provide the opportunity to work in the field of sufficiently high energy, and does not give the possibility of creating small focal spots, which limits the accuracy and resolution of the analysis.

The technical result achieved in the proposed analytical device, is to improve the accuracy and resolution of the analysis, as well as the empowerment of analysis through the use of radiated is inzy.

The proposed analytical device, as is known, contains a radiation source, a flow of neutral or charged particles, means positioning the investigated object is located with the opportunity to influence the last radiation source, one or more radiation detectors located with the possibility of exposure to radiation passed through the object under examination or excited in it, one or more lenses to convert radiation of a specified source or excited in the object of investigation of radiation located in the path of the radiation from the source to the object under investigation and (or) on the way from the latter to one or more of these radiation detectors containing touching its walls of channels for transporting radiation with total external reflection of the focused input ends with the ability to capture the transported radiation.

Unlike well-known, at least one of these lenses is made in the form of a set of sublines different degrees of integration, and sublease the lowest degree of integration represents a set of transport channels radiation, is prostranstve between them is less than the pressure inside the channels of the capillary and the temperature, sufficient to soften the material and fusing the walls of the neighboring capillaries. Subline each higher degree of integration represents a set of sublines previous degree of integration, which is the result of their joint drawing and forming at the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure inside the channels of sublines and temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent sublines. All Coblenz the highest degree of integration are arranged in a single structure, which is the result of their joint drawing and forming at the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure inside the channels of sublines and temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent sublines. The ends of the mentioned common patterns cut and form the input and output ends of the lenses.

Possible a number of characteristic geometries location of integral lenses in the analytical device in combination with some other design features.

Thus, the analytical device can be configured to scan across the surface or volume of the investigated object combined tricks choru. In this geometry the possible three-dimensional local analysis, if the object is scanned in three dimensions. The sensitivity of the method is very high, as the detector gets radiation, mainly from the field, where both lenses have a common focus.

In this geometry possible special case when the integral lens located in the path of the radiation from the test object to the detector, generates a quasiparallel beam, and between it and the detector is installed crystal monochromator or a multilayer diffractive structure with the possibility of varying their position and angle of incidence on them specified quasiparallel beam to ensure that the Bragg conditions for different wavelengths of radiation excited in the object under study. Using the lens significantly reduces losses compared to collimation method of obtaining parallel beam incident on the monochromator.

In other geometry as the source used synchrotron or other source, giving a parallel beam, and the lens located in the path of this radiation source to the object under investigation, made with the possibility of focusing this beam.

Another geometer what about the radiation, transported simultaneously by two lenses made with the possibility of forming a quasiparallel beam. Between the output of each of these lenses and means for positioning the studied object is a crystal-monochromator, when this one is installed with the possibility of allocating radiation having a wavelength below and the other above the line absorption element, which is checked in the object under study. The device has two detector, each of which is positioned after the means for positioning the studied object, therefore, to accept passed through the object under examination radiation, formed one of crystal monochromators. The difference of the output signals of the detectors is proportional to the concentration of the scanned item.

Similar indicators have two other described below geometry.

One analytical device contains along with the specified source, another source of x-ray radiation, with the radiation one source has a wavelength below, and another source is higher than the absorption line of the element which is checked in the object under study. Between each of the source the th formation of quasiparallel beam. The device has two detector, each of which is positioned after the means for positioning the studied object, therefore, to accept passed through the object under examination, the radiation is only one of the sources. The difference of the output signals of the detectors, as in the previous case, is proportional to the concentration of the scanned item.

In other geometry specified source is an x-ray source with the anode, providing radiation with two characteristic wavelengths below and above the absorption line of the element which is checked in the object under study. Between this source and means for positioning the studied object is a lens which has a capability of forming a quasi parallel beam. Before this lens, or after it has rotating screen with alternating Windows closed filters, transparent and one opaque to the other of these wavelengths. The difference of the output signals from the detector corresponding to the two adjacent boxes is proportional to the concentration of the scanned item.

Another type of geometry is characterized by the use of radiation secondary mission is made with the possibility of focusing the radiation source on the secondary target. This allows to irradiate the object under examination monochromatic radiation of the secondary target, which increases the sensitivity of the assay when tested for the presence of the object elements have absorption lines close to the line of radiation of the secondary target. The presence of a lens, concentrating the radiation source to the target, allows to compensate the drawback of this method, due to the low intensity of the secondary radiation.

The sensitivity of the method can be further enhanced in geometry with a secondary target, which is characterized by the presence between the secondary target and a means for positioning the investigated object, the second lens.

The advantages of using polarized radiation for irradiation of the investigated object, in this case, such as described below with geometry, in which the path of the radiation from the source to the object under investigation are installed sequentially lens and crystal monochromator or a multilayer diffractive structure. When this lens is made and oriented with the possibility of forming a quasiparallel beam impinging at an angle of 45oon the crystal-monochromator or a multilayer diffraction the implementation of distribution specified polarized radiation. In this geometry due to the polarization selection falls sharply background due to Compton scattered radiation.

The following geometry implements the method of phase contrast. In this geometry the analytical device in the path of the radiation from the source to the object under investigation are installed sequentially lens and crystal monochromator. When this lens is made and oriented with the ability to form quasi parallel beam incident on the crystal-monochromator angle Bragg, and on the path of the radiation from the test object to the detector lips-" lished as specified crystal parallel or with a slight deviation from parallelism. This enables fixing the detector phase-contrast areas of the investigated object having a different density and causing uneven refraction of the incident radiation.

Typical medical applications geometry involves the use of x-ray source and execution means for positioning the investigated object with the possibility of carrying out research parts or organs of the human body.

In particular, for use ANO for positioning the investigated object is configured to research breast cancer.

When this integral lens located in the path of radiation from the x-ray source with a molybdenum anode to the object under investigation and has a capability of forming a quasi parallel beam with a cross-section sufficient for simultaneous impact on all of the study area and the location of the detector is selected from a condition of maintenance of the distance between him and the object under study at least 30 see the Use of parallel beam and the choice of distances allow a good contrast of the output image without using special tools reduce the influence of scattered radiation arising in the examined object.

One of the possible applications of the proposed analytical devices in medical diagnosis is CT.

In the already described geometry, involving the use of x-ray source and execution means for positioning the investigated object with the opportunity to research parts or organs of the human body, the possibility of rotational movement relative to each other, on the one hand, this means DL is itinerary studied object, and detector, the output of which is connected to the computer processing means of the detection results. When this integral lens configured to focus the radiation generated by the source, inside the test object. The point of focus plays the role of a virtual radiation source is placed inside the studied object, which makes a fundamental difference from conventional scanning computed tomography, where the detector is perceived passed through the object under examination radiation source located outside of the object. This can be significantly simplified the procedure for obtaining images of small areas of the object.

Known devices for radiation therapy, containing one or more radiation sources, representing the flow of neutral or charged particles (in particular, x-ray flux of protons), the optical system for callmerobbie beams of each of the sources and the means for positioning the patient's body or part thereof, subject to irradiation (see: Sandro Rossi and Ugo Amaldi. The TERA Programme: Status and Prospects. In: Advances in Neutron Capture Therapy. Volume I, Medicine and Physics. Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Neutron Capture Therapy such a device healthy tissue, in the path of the radiation to the tumor, located in the depths, are exposed to intense radiation.

The present invention related to a device for radiation therapy, aimed at obtaining a technical result, which consists in reducing the radiation dose received by the tissues surrounding the tumour. This result is achieved by focusing the radiation on the tumor, allowing at the same dose received by the tumor, the concentration of radiation to healthy tissues, particularly the skin of the patient is greatly reduced.

To obtain the specified result of the proposed device, as is known, contains one or more radiation sources, representing the flow of neutral or charged particles, and means for positioning the patient's body or part thereof, subject to irradiation.

In contrast to the known, in the proposed device for radiation therapy between each of these sources and the means for positioning is set lens to focus the radiation on the patient's tumor containing touching its walls of channels for transporting radiation with total external reflection centered I the tee sublines different degrees of integration. This sublease the lowest degree of integration represents a set of transport channels radiation resulting from the joint drawing and forming tuft of capillaries when the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure inside the channels of the capillary and temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the walls of the neighboring capillaries. Subline each higher degree of integration represents a set of sublines previous degree of integration, which is the result of their joint drawing and forming at the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure inside the channels of sublines and temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent sublines. All Coblenz the highest degree of integration are arranged in a single structure, which is the result of their joint drawing and forming at the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure inside the channels of sublines and temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent sublines. The ends of the mentioned common patterns cut and form the input and output ends of the lenses.

As mentioned East quasiparallel beams of heat or nadalovih neutrons.

Used integrated lens can be made with a curvilinear longitudinal axis of rotation of the neutron beam.

One of the areas of application of the integral lens is microelectronics, specifically x-ray lithography.

A device for contact x-ray lithography containing a source of soft x-ray radiation, a lens for converting a divergent radiation source in quasiparallel containing touching its walls of channels for transporting radiation with total external reflection, and means for placing the mask and the substrate coated with the resist (U.S. patent N 5175755, publ. 29.12.92 [13]).

In this patent it is proposed to use for lithography lenses of the first and second generations. However, none of these types of lenses does not provide the solution of problems of lithography in microelectronics. No teams lenses (lenses of the first generation), or in the monolithic lens (lenses of the second generation) is technologically impossible to realize the size of the channel at the entrance of the order of 1 micron and at the output of the order of 0.1 micron at an output aperture of 10 cm2and more than that required for lithography in microa the raffia, is receiving suitable for use in microelectronics funds.

These options are feasible in the proposed device with the integral lens.

The proposed device, as known device for contact x-ray lithography, contains a source of soft x-ray radiation, a lens for converting a divergent radiation source in quasiparallel containing touching its walls of channels for transporting radiation with total external reflection, and means for placing the mask and the substrate coated with the resist.

In contrast to the specified well-known, in the proposed device the specified lens made in the form of a set of sublines different degrees of integration. This sublease the lowest degree of integration represents a set of transport channels radiation resulting from the joint drawing and forming tuft of capillaries when the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure inside the channels of the capillary and temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the walls of the neighboring capillaries. Subline each more than you is the result of their joint drawing and forming at the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure inside the channels of sublines and temperature, sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent sublines. All Coblenz the highest degree of integration are arranged in a single structure, which is the result of their joint drawing and forming at the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure inside the channels of sublines and temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent sublines. The ends of the mentioned common patterns cut and form the input and output ends of the lenses.

From the already mentioned U.S. patent 5175755 [13] it is also known a device for projection x-ray lithography.

This device contains a source of soft x-ray radiation, a lens for converting a divergent radiation source in quasiparallel designed for irradiation of the mask, means for placing the mask lens for transmission x-ray image of the mask with the reduction of its size to resist, means for placing the substrate coated with the resist. Both these lenses have contact with their walls of channels for transporting radiation with total external reflection.

This device when using it known moleville for contact lithography, unsuitable for use in microelectronics due to the impossibility to obtain these lenses diameters of the channels providing the desired fidelity of the mask image on the resist.

The technical result of the invention relating to a device for projection lithography, is receiving suitable for use in microelectronics funds. This result is possible thanks to the use of the device proposed integral lenses.

The proposed device for projection x-ray lithography, as specified known, contains a source of soft x-ray radiation, a lens for converting a divergent radiation source in quasiparallel designed for irradiation of the mask, means for placing the mask lens for transmission x-ray image of the mask with the reduction of its size to resist, means for placing the substrate coated with the resist. Both these lenses have contact with their walls of channels for transporting radiation with total external reflection.

In contrast to the specified well-known, in the proposed device for proekti is largely integration. This sublease the lowest degree of integration represents a set of transport channels radiation resulting from the joint drawing and forming tuft of capillaries when the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure inside the channels of the capillary and temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the walls of the neighboring capillaries. Subline each higher degree of integration represents a set of sublines previous degree of integration, which is the result of their joint drawing and forming at the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure inside the channels of sublines and temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent sublines. All Coblenz the highest degree of integration are arranged in a single structure, which is the result of their joint drawing and forming at the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure inside the channels of sublines and temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent sublines; all referred to a single structure, the cut and form the input and output ends of the lenses.

To reduce the size and forming, having the crest and parallel to the longitudinal axis of the input lens and output ends of the channels, and input the diameter of the lens more output. The same ratio between the diameters of the individual channels of transportation of radiation on the entrance and exit lenses.

The ratio of these diameters, which in practice should be significantly greater than 1, determines the degree of reduction of the mask image transferred on the resist, and therefore, the degree of miniaturization of manufacturing microelectronic devices.

The present invention is illustrated by drawings, showing:

in Fig. 1,8,9 - schematic image, so all lenses, loisy and lenses in the form of a body of rotation with a generatrix having break;

in Fig. 2 - the process of multiple reflections of radiation propagating his channel transport;

in Fig. 3 - the formation of focal spot;

in Fig. 4, 5 - processes multiple reflection of radiation propagating it to the transport channel and the formation of focal spot when the effect of "compression" of radiation to the outer side wall of the channel;

in Fig. 6 - full lens with a Central part, not with the channels on the input side and output side;

in Fig. 10 is a schematic cross-section of the proposed lens;

in Fig. 11 is a schematic illustration of one of sublines;

in Fig. 12 diagram of the operation of the extrusion in the manufacture of blanks in the proposed method;

in Fig. 13 is a diagram of the operation of the extrusion and molding in the final step of the proposed method;

in Fig. 14 is a schematic representation of a product obtained by extrusion and molding in the final step of the proposed method, showing the location of cross-sections cut to obtain different types of lenses;

in Fig. 15-24 - different variants of the geometry of the arrangement of component parts of the proposed analytical device used mainly for technical purposes;

in Fig. 25 - use of integral lenses in the analytical device intended for medical diagnosis;

in Fig. 26 - the use of an integral lens in the analytical device used in computer tomography scanning;

in Fig. 27, 28 - the use of integral lenses in radiotherapy;

in Fig. 29, 30 - the geometry of the component parts of the devices offered for the th 3 tricks, located on the optical axis 4 at the point of intersection of extensions of the centerlines of the channels of transportation of radiation. One such channel 5 shown in Fig. 2. Captured by the input end of the channel, the particle moves in the channel sweep 6 reflected from the walls 7 of the channel at angles less than the critical valuekrangle of total external reflection. The value ofkris of the order of several milliradians. Channels in cross section have dimensions of the order of fractions of a micron, and the number of them, as already noted, is of the order of a million. For this reason, the conventional image and the scale of the drawings are very far from real.

It is evident from Fig. 3, illustrating the formation of a focal spot of the radiation emerging from the channels 5, it is seen that the focal spot in the longitudinal direction blurry and may have a size 9, far exceeding the size 8 in the transverse direction. This phenomenon is one of the types of aberrations in optical systems. To reduce such aberrations may be recommended in the manufacture of integral lenses come not from the traditional conditions of radiation filling the entire cross-section of the transport channel ( 1), and from the opposite conditions ( < 1) or even from the condition of agenie when this happens each time from the same side wall 7 of the channel 5, and radiation as "pressed" to it, occupying a small part of the cross section of the channel. As a result, the focal spot size is determined by the size of this part of the cross-section of the channel, and this achieves the same effect as decreasing the specified section. As to reduce the degree of filling of the radiation cross section of the channel, ceteris paribus, decrease the radius of curvature of the channels, the continuation of their output ends meet in the focus area at large angles. This reduces the blurring of the focal spot in the longitudinal direction, which helps to eliminate the above-mentioned aberration. The described phenomena are illustrated in Fig. 5, in which the blackened part of the 10 channels 5, involved in the transport of radiation. It is seen that the size of the focal spot 11 in both directions is smaller than in Fig. 3.

For the Central (adjacent to the optical axis of the lens) channels having a smaller curvature than peripheral, conditions << 1 or <1 may not be possible. To prevent their negative influence of the Central part of the lens can be executed does not contain channels transporting the radiation (see Fig. 6, which is shown by hatching solid is its length lens cross-sectional) full lens each channel has a constant radius of curvature, which is the less (i.e., the curvature of the channel is greater) than the more removed the channel from the optical axis 4 of the lens (see Fig. 1, figs. 6). Full lens can be made asymmetric with respect to the specified cross section, as shown in Fig. 7. In the asymmetric lens curvature of each channel is changeable in its length. It

more for the ends of all channels adjacent to one of the ends, and less to opposite ends of the same channel adjacent to the other end. In Fig. 7 a smaller curvature (larger radius of curvature) are channels adjacent to the left end. The center of curvature may take a different position (Fig. 7 items 13 and 14) for different sections of the channels ends.

Integral Pollensa 14 (Fig. 8A) has only one focus 2 on the smaller side (left in Fig. 8A) end. The ends of the channels adjacent to this end, oriented in the direction of focus 2. The ends of the channels adjacent to the larger (right in Fig. 8A) face parallel to the optical axis 4 Pawlenty 14. If the focus 2 is combined with a point source, the radiation 15 at the output of Pawlenty 14 quasiparallel. Upon filing of such radiation 16 from the side of the larger end face (Fig. 8b) output become the ends of the channels adjacent to the lower (right in Fig. 8b) day 1 and Pawlenty 14, facing the tricks that can be processed to give them the shape of a sphere centered at the respective focus, as shown in Fig. 1, figs. 7 and Fig. 8A, b. In this case, are provided with equal opportunities capture the radiation of a point source for all channels.

"Bottle-shaped" lens 17 (Fig. 9) has the ends of the channels from both ends, parallel to the optical axis of the lens. This lens has the shape of a body of rotation with a bend forming. Input quasiparallel beam 16 is supplied to the lower left in Fig. 9) end converts it to the output of quasiparallel beam 16' gauge. When the input radiation to a greater (right in Fig. 9) the end face, on the contrary, there is a reduction of the lateral dimension of the beam output compared to input. If the input beam is a carrier of images, such as x-ray, and the distribution of the radiation intensity in the cross section of the beam has the character corresponding to the image, the image scale at the output of the lens changes accordingly. The integral lens zoom can reach two orders of magnitude, and the small diameter channels, combined with the lack of shading influence membranes sublines (in case the of image details.

Common to all types of integral lenses picture of the cross section (taking into account the above comments on the conventions of an image and its scale) is shown in Fig. 10. This drawing shows the case in which the lens in General, and Coblenz have a shell. Channels 5 transportation of radiation within the shell 18 sublines the lowest (first) level of integration. Groups such sublines, forming sublease the next (second) level of integration, which are enclosed in a sheath 19. The totality of such sublines forms the lens as a whole with the shell 20.

Form a peripheral (remote from the optical axis of the lens) sublines 18,19 shown in Fig. 11.

You should pay attention to the fact that the construction of the integral lens is not simply the result of the Assembly in direct sequence first channel capillaries in the lenses of the first degree of integration, then the grouping in the last lens of the second degree of integration, and so on, This design is inextricably linked with the proposed method of manufacture, which explains the presence of its characteristic traits of this method. Sublease any degree of integration and the integral lens appear not as the comfort of several stages of drawing. Before the molding is still no lenses in General, nor its member of sublines, and there are only blanks with straight channels. Present in the characteristic of the integral lens molding" as a sign of sublines different degrees of integration and lenses in General is the above-mentioned molding carried out at the final stage of the way. Only after such forming part of the integral lens, called sublissime the high degree of integration and of these sublines called sublissime lower degrees of integration, get the properties of lenses, distinguishing them from the set of parallel channels. However, made integral lens can no longer be disassembled into Coblenz and separate channels. So subline shown in Fig. 11, does not exist outside the integral lenses in General (similar to the way of integrated circuits may not be physically separate electronic components). Not existing independently, each subline has a subordinate role in the composition of the lens as a whole, which is reflected by the prefix "sub" in its name. This reason leads to the use of the term "sublease" (and not "lens") to denote constituent elements of the integrated lens.

As noted above in describing the present invention, related to the integral lens membrane sublines, the presence of which is due to the manufacturing technology and for elimination of which is necessary to Supplement the method of manufacturing operations etching of these membranes, and play a positive role in increasing the rigidity of the structure. For them it is necessary to use the same material as capillaries, or close to it according to the value of the coefficient of thermal expansion. Shell, the removal of which complicates the technological process, only slightly impair the transparency of the lens. More significantly negative effect on the uniformity of transmission of the radiation intensity in the cross section of the beam. Therefore, the use of lenses without shells, covering Coblenz, it is necessary not so much the cross section of the beam, that may be important in some applications.

For the manufacture of the described lenses on the proposed method the tubular casing 21 (Fig. 12), for example, glass-filled billets produced at the previous step of the way, serves vertically in the furnace 22 through the top of the actuator 23 and the exercise of pulling it from the oven at a rate greater than the feed speed, using the bottom of the actuator 24. In the drawing receive the product 25 is substantially smaller diameter than the diameter of the shell 21 at the entrance to the oven. The temperature in the furnace should be sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent blanks, filling the tubular casing 21. In the first stage as blanks, which fill the tubular shell, use the capillaries, in particular, glass obtained from a glass of the same brand as the shell. Yourself a glass capillaries can be obtained by similar technologies by pulling glass tubes, followed by cutting them to the capillaries of the desired length.

When pulling in the furnace to create an axisymmetric temperature field shown in Fig. 12 temperature distribution T the height L of the furnace, having a narrow maximum of 27. The transition region of the original is the IR 27 of the temperature distribution along the height of the furnace.

To prevent flattening ("collapse") of the capillaries in the drawing process, accompanied by compression of the workpieces placed in the tubular sheath, the pressure in the space between support lower than inside the channels of the blanks (ultimately, it is important to maintain higher than in the specified space, the pressure in the capillary channels of sublines the lowest degree of integration). For this purpose the upper ends of the channels of the workpieces prior to placement of material in the shell is closed (for example, upravlyaut the upper ends of the blanks), and in the process of pulling exercise the exhaust gas from the upper end of the shell is placed in her blanks (the suction is shown schematically position 28 in Fig. 12). Sealing the lower ends of the channels blanks and sheath placed in her blanks are not required as close to the sealing effect is achieved thanks to a significant reduction of diameter are discharged from the kiln product compared to the original diameter of the shell with workpieces which are fed into the furnace from above.

The resulting extrusion product after cooling, cut, receiving the workpiece to the next stage. They again fill the tubular shell and perform the latter is mi tubular shell, designed for use in the next stage, is subjected to acid pickling to remove material shells, if you want to get the lens, Coblenz which do not have shells.

The above stages have several (usually 3 to 5), and then move to the final stage of the method. At this stage (Fig. 13) pulling the products from the furnace periodically slow down and accelerate again, and can result in thickening 28, United narrowing 29. Part of the thickening adjacent to the maximum, are barrel-shaped. Regulation of variable speed extrusion, i.e. the ratio of the speeds of the upper and lower actuators to achieve the desired curvature of the barrel-shaped form, which are channels, including possibly obtaining asymmetric with respect to the maximum thickening. At this stage, as in the previous phases to produce blanks, carry out closing the upper ends of the channels blanks before placing them in the tubular casing and the exhaust gas from the upper end of the shell is placed in her preparations (Fig. 13 suction not shown).

Obtained at this stage the product with periodic thickening (Fig. 14) cut glenluce, accordingly, the lens, paulesu or "bottle-shaped" lens.

When using an integral lens in analytical devices when testing, elemental analysis, the analysis of the internal structure of objects and diagnosis in engineering and medicine, there's still a huge number of geometries relative position of the radiation source, the object of analysis, means of a radiation detector, lenses and other items. Below are only some of them in combination with some of the design features of the analytical device associated with the respective geometries.

One of the structural elements of the analytical device is a means for positioning the studied object, hereinafter sometimes also called a sample. Because the analytical device is the interaction of the radiation with the sample, hereinafter generally referred to directly investigated object (sample), rather than a means for positioning, although it (not a sample) is a constructive element of the analytical device.

High efficacy analysis due to the focus of the radiation source at a single point on the surface of Isla concentration detector is achieved by the geometry it is shown in Fig. 15. Here full of lenses 1 and 1' have a combined focus 34, which can be scanned surface or the inner region of the sample 33. The detector 35 perceives focused by the second lens 1' radiation. The use of lens 1 and the focusing on the object of analysis of the radiation from a point source 2, and the above-mentioned lens 1 allows analysis in a low-power source 2.

Similar geometry (without the second lenses 1') is used in energy dispersive method, when using a semiconductor detector. When the lens 1 focuses the radiation on the object (sample), the detector 35 comes close to the sample 33 and registers as fluorescent and scattered by the sample radiation. In such geometry, the integral lens 1 increases the photon flux on the sample, and the approach of the detector to the sample gives the opportunity to collect more photons. Lens 1 clears spectrum of the source from high-energy photons, which give the sample a large background of scattered radiation. By focusing radiation on a small area of the sample 33 is provided localization analysis.

An important special case of the construction of the analytical device is the use of x-rays is over, in which when you factor << 1 an effect of "compression" of radiation to the outer side of the transport channels), then the lens can come to move back to the "through" the anode. The dimensions of the lens can be made small, while retaining a large capture angle. Especially effective this combination (tube with "through" anode plus integral lens) if anode is microfocus (0.1 to 100 microns). Since the solid angle of radiation "through" anode great (close to a hemisphere), tube with "through" anode can be used effectively with several lenses, each of which captures radiation from a portion of the specified solid angle.

With regard to the described schemes and themes that will be considered in the future, it should be noted that they contain the minimum elements necessary to perform a device function analysis - get some information about the studied object. In order to provide the information that is most convenient for immediate use, to increase the efficiency of information in the most understandable form, and other purposes analytical devices are complemented connected to the output det is x signals from the detector, carry out their visualization synchronously with the mechanical movements of the elements of the analytical device, etc. Mentioned synchronization requires communication processing and presentation of information, with means for performing the move. Means for processing and presentation of information, used in conjunction with analytical devices, are well known (see, for example, the tools described in [8] , [9] ), and their function and structure do not depend on how the received signals carrying information about the object of analysis. Therefore, in the output of an analytical device can be considered the output of the detector element sensitive to radiation resulting from interaction of the radiation source with the object of analysis and therefore carrying information about the properties of the latter. This approach to the description of the analytical devices adopted in the patent literature (see, for example,, [4], [5], [6]).

In the following of the considered geometries (Fig. 16) applied the tool monochromatization of radiation excited in the sample 33 - crystal monochromator 36. Radiation monochromatized due to the fact that the conditions of reflection from a parallel beam are performed in a very narrowly the CSOs studied object, use Pollensa 14. Her focus combined with full focus lens 1, a focusing radiation from a point source 2 at the point 34, belonging to the object of analysis. The variation of the energy of the particles entering the detector 35, by changing the angular position of the crystal-monochromator allows a more detailed investigation of the properties of the sample, in particular to examine it for the presence of certain chemical elements.

The geometry of Fig. 17 differs from the previous one by the fact that instead of a point source provides a source of quasiparallel radiation 17, which may be, for example, synchrotron source. Pollensa 14' focuses the radiation from this source at point 34, which is also the focus of Pawlenty 1, creating a quasiparallel beam monochromator 36.

A common feature of these two geometries (Fig. 18 and Fig. 19) is that the investigated simultaneously passing through the sample and brought it to radiation when exposed to a pattern of monochromatic radiation of two close wavelengths.

In the geometry of Fig. 18 such receive radiation from one broadband point source 2 with two crystals, which coincides with the source 2. To prevent direct exposure to the radiation source 2 to the sample 33 between them can be installed absorbing screen (not shown). The output signals of the detectors 35 and 35' differ in the extent to which different reaction of the object in the irradiated particle streams with different, but similar energies. The difference of these signals carries information only about this distinction. Therefore, if one of the mentioned energies above and the other below the absorption line of the element, which is required to identify in the sample, with the exception of the impact on the difference of the output signals of the detectors 35 and 35' of all other factors the sensitivity of the device is very high. This geometry is applicable, for example, in angiography, when the patient's blood is injected iodine, and can increase the sensitivity by about two orders of magnitude compared with the case where in the absence of lens to ensure the parallelism of the radiation incident on the monochromators, it is necessary to increase the distance between them and the source.

In the geometry of Fig. 19 implementing the same principle, to obtain particles with different, but similar energies, there are two different point source 2 and 2', the radiation which has a item. The radiation of each of these sources is converted into a quasi parallel rays impinging directly on the sample 33, prolintane 14 and 14'.

Another variant implementation of the same principle shown in Fig. 20. In this geometry radiation with two energies acting on the sample 33, are formed alternately in the transmittance of radiation of the same broadband point source 2 through a rolling window filters rotating screen 37. These Windows are interleaved in such a way that is transparent to one and not transparent to other wavelengths of radiation, which should influence the object of analysis. Rotating screen 37 with Windows can be installed after Pawlenty 14, transforming divergent radiation source in quasiparallel (this case is shown in Fig. 20) and in front of her. The difference of the output signals of the detector 35, corresponding to the two adjacent positions of the rotating screen 37 may be used in the same way as in the geometries in Fig. 18 and Fig. 19.

In the geometry of Fig. 21 provided by the use of secondary targets 38, allowing to obtain monochromatic radiation with a wavelength determined by the properties of the target. The disadvantage of the use in the described geometry of the lens 1 the impact of this disadvantage is eliminated. Lens 1 focuses the radiation source to the target in a small area 34 of the focal spot. The radiation from the secondary target 38 hits the investigated object 33, which occurs fluorescent radiation falling on the detector 35. This geometry allows to irradiate the object under investigation is sufficiently intense monochromatic radiation of the secondary target.

In the geometry of Fig. 22 the sample 35 is also irradiated with monochromatic radiation, but the source is not a secondary target, and the crystal-monochromator 36. Parallel beam required for the formation of monochromatic radiation, is formed from divergent radiation from a broadband source 2 Pawlenty 14. By varying the angular position of the crystal-monochromator, you can change the wavelength (energy particles) of the radiation impinging on the examined object.

In the geometry of Fig. 23 also used crystal monochromator 36 irradiated quasiparallel beam generated by Pawlenty 14. In this geometry uses a property of the crystal-monochromator to generate polarized radiation. The said quasiparallel beam is directed at the crystal-monochromator 36 angle = 45o. Domainowner 33 - the detector 35, mounted at an angle of 90 to the direction of propagation of polarized radiation of the crystal-monochromator 36. Thanks this is the polarization selection, and the detector 35 is free from the influence of the background generated by Compton scattered radiation arising in the sample when exposed to radiation from the crystal-monochromator 36.

Instead of a crystal monochromator in this geometry it is possible to use a target made of a light metal, such as beryllium.

The geometry of Fig. 24 is used to implement the method of phase contrast. In this method, the sample is irradiated with monochromatic radiation generated by the first crystal of the monochromator 36, parallel beam which is formed from divergent radiation source 2 Pawlenty 14. Radiation falls on the crystal-monochromator 36 at an angle BraggBr.After sample has a second crystal monochromator 36', identical to the first, with the possibility of variation in the small limits of its angular position relative to the position parallel to the first. If the sample inhomogeneities having other neighbouring areas, the density, the radiation passing through such heterogeneous the ode detector 35 at a certain position of the second crystal of the monochromator. The sensitivity of the method of phase contrast is much higher compared to the direct fixation of the differences of densities, for example, the difference of the intensities of the radiation transmitted through the neighboring area of the object with different, but similar densities. The use of lenses can operate at increased absolute intensity values of quasiparallel radiation incident on the crystal-monochromator, and the radiation falling on the detector, without increasing the power source capacity.

Above, for example, use in angiography, already mentioned about the use of analytical devices for medical diagnostic purposes.

In Fig. 25 also illustrates the use of the integral Pawlenty in the analytical device, the decisive task of medical diagnosis. The investigated object is a part or organ of the human body 39 is irradiated quasiparallel radiation generated by Pawlenty 14 of the divergent radiation source 2, which is the focus of this Pawlenty. The detector 35 perceives a two-dimensional intensity distribution of radiation transmitted through the object 39, which is interpreted as the density distribution of the object in the corresponding projection. A feature of the data is less than 30 cm Due to the fact that the object is irradiated quasiparallel beam, delete, detector practically no effect on the level of the useful signal, which carries information about the distribution of density of the object. However, significantly attenuated the effects of scattered radiation produced in the object, which increases the contrast of the image.

Integral Pollensa in this case is with the ability to create field exposure size of about 20 x 20 cm2. If the detector is located at a specified distance from an object, in this geometry there is no need to use any means to suppress scattered radiation. This solves both problems - the problems of spatial resolution and dose. For example, the detector is at a distance of 50 cm from the object. When the divergence of the beam in 10-4the radian will have a resolution equal to 10-4X50=h-3cm = 50 μm. At the same time at a distance of 50 cm from the object scattered in the object omnidirectional radiation reaches the detector with a significant (more than 30 times) by weakening. So you can do without anti-scattering of ages, the use of which is to enhance the contrast of izobrajenii early diagnosis of cancer due to the achieved resolution of the order of 50 - 100 microns. In mammography studies it is advisable to use as the source of the x-ray tube with molybdenum anode (E=of 17.5 Kev).

Another promising area is the use of analytical devices with integral lenses in medical diagnosis is the scanning computed tomography. In modern scanners get a picture of the density distribution of human tissues by registering the intensity of the transmitted from the source to the radiation detector. In order to obtain the calculated information on the density distribution in a particular slice with good resolution, it is necessary to do a large number (typically more than a hundred exposures that cut at different angles. If this dose is usually high, of the order of 1 x-ray.

The use of integral lenses with a high degree of focus of radiation can dramatically change the situation. As shown in Fig. 26, full lens 1 is located between the source 2 and the patient 39 so that the second target was located within the study area. The detector 35, as usual, is on the other side of the patient in the direction of the output radiation. The point at which the focus of IZLUChENIYa with extremely small dimensions of such a source is significantly reduced geometric blur from the source. The blur from the source U is expressed by the formula:

U=bd/l,

where b is the size of the source,

d - the distance from the object to the source,

l is the distance from the object to a detector.

When the source is outside the object, d and l are in the same order, and the blur U one order with b, i.e., the size of the source. If the source is inside the object and closely approximated to identify the defect (in this case the tumor), d << 1, which explains the blur reduction from source. Thanks to the small size of the focal spot of the integral lens blur further reduced, which ultimately should lead to a smaller number of exposures to obtain sufficient accuracy of the reconstruction image.

By combining focus to any desired point within the study area can be greatly simplified the procedure of obtaining images in the study of small objects. For example, if you want to explore the area size of about 1 cm2in the area of the light output lens focus can be directly placed in the vicinity of this selection. The focus can be moved to this area with an accuracy equal to the size of the focal spot Lin is kusne spot has a size of about 0.1 mm

In the form shown in Fig. 26 geometry element 40 is conventionally depicts the presence of a rigid connection between the source 2, the integral full lens 2 and the detector 35. When conducting tomographic studies of these three objects should participate in rotation relative to the means for positioning the patient 39 as a whole (it is possible that rotation of the positioning means together with the patient at a stationary source 2, the lens 1 and the detector 35).

When using an integral lens in radiation therapy, illustrated in Fig. 27 and Fig. 28, achieved results due to their higher rates, which are the focal spot size and the magnitude of the focal length, in which, ceteris paribus, provided the size of the focal spot. In Fig. 27 shows a device for radiation therapy, which uses a point source 2, and Fig. 28 - source parallel radiation 16, for example, the output of the nuclear reactor or accelerator, forming quasi parallel beams of heat or nadalovih neutrons. The radiation is directed toward the patient's 39 and focused inside the tumor 41. The rotation of the neutron beam, the output from the reactor, to give it direction, the part integral with a curved longitudinal axis.

In radiotherapy serious problem is the provision of high-intensity irradiation of the tumor in combination with a small irradiation of surrounding tissues and skin. This requires that the beams intersect at the tumor at large angles. The more these angles, the large surface area of skin greater volume surrounding the tumor tissue is distributed radiation before reaching the tumor.

Integral lens as a means of focusing the radiation, in particular above the lens, which has the effect of "compression" of radiation to the outer sides of the walls of the channels, has precisely the properties that are needed to resolve these problems - it can provide high quality focus with great respect to the output aperture to the focal length (the last property ensures that the rays converging at the focus, crossed at large angles).

To create large gradients of dose to the tumor, the proposed device can contain multiple lenses deliver radiation to the tumor from different angles. To further reduce the dose received by the skin, the lens system can be made to move with preservation Pareto even at low energies - 25-30 Kev at depths of up to 5 cm dose to the tumor can exceed the dose on the surface. In the experiment used water phantom thickness from 1 to 5, see

Device for lithography, which can also be used, we offer integral lens, schematically shown in Fig. 29 and Fig. 30.

In the first of them, intended for contact lithography tool 43 for placing the substrate with the resist is located in close proximity to the means 42 for placement of the mask. The latter is located opposite the output end of the integrated Pawlenty 14, forming a quasiparallel beam from diverging beam source 2. In this case, a particularly important uniformity of quasiparallel beam, i.e., the uniformity of the radiation intensity over its cross section. Therefore, x-ray lithography is an area where you want to use the integrated lens, in which subline no shells.

Device for projection lithography differs from the one considered the fact that between the means 42 for placement of the mask, and means for placing the substrate with the resist installed "bottle-shaped" lens 16, is facing a lower face side through the lens 14. The presence of a "bottle-shaped" lens 16, oriented in this way, ensures the transfer of the mask image on the resist with the reduction. The degree of zoom is determined by the ratio of input and output diameters of the lens. The same value is the ratio of the diameters of the individual channels (capillaries) at the entrance and lenses. Since this ratio can be much greater than 1, when using the device for projection lithography can be obtained from the elements of microelectronics with small sizes. For "bottle-shaped" lens 16, used in the device for projection lithography, even more than for Pawlenty 14, will be sublines without shells.

Summarizing the above, it is necessary to underline that the transition from monolithic lens [4] and lenses, made in the form of an ensemble of miniature lenses [5], [6], the integral lens as a new generation of tools for managing high energy radiation not only ensures the growth of precision performance of funds with the use of such lenses, respectively the indices of the lenses. In some cases it allows to create acceptable for practical use of the device (portable, suitable for eating which in the past were either bulky, cost, etc. the performance of the lenses, and the inability to use, simple and cheap sources of radiation.

Sources of information

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2. U.S. patent N 5192869 (publ. 09.03.93).

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4. U.S. patent N5570408 (publ. 29.10.96).

5. International application PCT/RU94/00189 (international publication WO 96/01991 from 25.01.96).

6. International application PCT/RU94/00146 (international publication WO 96/02058 from 25.01.96).

7. Production automation and industrial electronics. M: Soviet encyclopedia, 1964, T. 32, S. 277, T. 1, S. 209.

8. Physics of image visualization in medicine. Ed. by S. Webb. M.: Mir, 1991.

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12. Sandro Rossi and Ugo Amaldi. The TERA Programme: S -7 September 1996. ELSEVIER, Amsterdamm Lausanne - New York - Oxford - Shannon - Singapore - Tokyo, 1997.

13. U.S. patent N5175755 (publ. 29.12.92).

1. Lens for converting radiation, a flow of neutral or charged particles, containing touching its walls of channels for transporting radiation with total external reflection of the focused input ends with the ability to capture the radiation source used, characterized in that it is made in the form of a set of sublines different degrees of integration, and sublease the lowest degree of integration represents a set of transport channels radiation resulting from the joint drawing and forming tuft of capillaries when the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure in the capillary channels and a temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent capillaries, subline each higher degree of integration represents a set of sublines previous degree of integration, which is the result of their joint drawing and forming at the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure in the channels of sublines and temperature sufficient for the size of the in a single structure, which is the result of their joint drawing and forming at the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure in the channels of sublines and temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent sublines, all referred to a single structure, the cut and form the input and output ends of the lenses.

2. Lens p. 1, characterized in that the walls of the channels of transportation of radiation have on the inner side of the coating of one or more layers made of the same or different chemical elements.

3. Lens under item 1 or 2, characterized in that all Coblenz the highest degree of integration are enclosed in a common envelope, which is the outer shell of the lens.

4. Lens according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 3, characterized in that it is made with the possibility of focusing divergent radiation, for which the input and output ends of the channels of transportation of radiation are oriented respectively in the first and second focal points.

5. The lens on p. 4, characterized in that the ratio of the lateral dimension and the radius of curvature of at least a peripheral with respect to the optical axis of the transport channels of the radiation is selected from the condition otlichayushiesya fact, that it is adjacent to the optical axis of the part is made impervious to the specified radiation.

7. Lens according to any one of paragraphs.4 to 6, characterized in that it is made with various side entry and exit radii of curvature of the channels of transportation of radiation.

8. The lens on p. 4, characterized in that the channels of one or more sublines located near the longitudinal axis of the lenses made with the possibility of transportation of radiation in them in a single total external reflection or without it.

9. Lens according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 3, characterized in that it is made with the possibility of transforming divergent radiation in quasi parallel or Vice versa, to which one ends of the channels transporting the radiation is focused at the focal point, and the other parallel to each other.

10. Lens according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 3, characterized in that it is made with the possibility of changing the transverse size of the beam at the output compared to the input, for which it has the shape of a body of rotation with a generatrix having a bend, and parallel to the longitudinal axis of the ends of the channels, and the diameters of the lenses from the input and output are different.

11. Lens according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 10, characterized in that Coblenz vig on the coefficient of thermal expansion.

12. Lens according to any one of paragraphs.1 - 11, characterized in that the walls of the channels of transportation of radiation, the outer shell of the lens and the shell sublines made of glass, ceramics or metal.

13. A method of manufacturing a lens for converting radiation, a flow of neutral or charged particles, containing the channels transporting the radiation with the use of total external reflection, comprising two or more stages to produce blanks, each of which fill the tubular shell previously manufactured workpieces, in which the first stage is used capillaries, and on each of the subsequent stages of the workpiece resulting from the implementation of the previous stage, then carry out the extrusion of a tubular shell with filling her pieces in the kiln feed rate in the furnace is lower than the rate of release of the products from the furnace, at a constant ratio between these speeds, then receive a billet, which is the result of this stage, by cutting discharged from the kiln product length, at the end of the last stage, and fill the billets produced at this stage, the tubular shell, which together with japanaustralia from the furnace, and periodically changing the ratio between these speeds for education on leaving the kiln product thickening, then this product by cutting it along the length of the receiving lens in the form of plots articles containing only one thickening, and at all stages of implementation of the method using a tubular shell made of the same material as that of the capillaries, or close to it on the coefficient of thermal expansion, and the processes of extrusion of tubular shells with filling their preparations carried out at a pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure inside the channels of the billet at a temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent blanks.

14. The method according to p. 13, characterized in that each of the stages receiving the blanks to complete the drain shells blanks.

15. The method according to p. 13 or 14, characterized in that for obtaining the desired shape of the longitudinal section of the lens regulate the rate of extrusion in the process of forming thickening.

16. The method according to any of paragraphs.13 to 15, characterized in that for a complete lens cutting stretch of the furnace product is carried out on both sides of the maximum cross the Method according to any one of paragraphs.13 - 15, characterized in that to obtain paulins the cutting stretch of the furnace product is carried out in place of the maximum cross-sectional thickening and on either side of him in the distance, the smaller the distance to the inflection point forming.

18. The method according to any of paragraphs.13 to 15, characterized in that to get a lens in the form of a body of rotation with a generatrix having a bend, and the ends of the channels parallel to the longitudinal axis of the lens, cutting discharged from the kiln product is carried out in sections corresponding to the maximum thickening, and on either side of him in the sections located on the other side of the bend points on segments forming products, where its diameter is constant.

19. Analytical device containing a radiation source, a flow of neutral or charged particles, means positioning the investigated object is located with the opportunity to influence the last radiation source, one or more radiation detectors located with the possibility of exposure to radiation passed through the object under examination or excited in it, one or more lenses to convert radiation of a specified source or vodoemov object and (or) on the way from the latter to one or more of these radiation detectors containing touching its walls of channels for transporting radiation with total external reflection, oriented input ends with the ability to capture the transported radiation, characterized in that at least one of these lenses is made in the form of a set of sublines different degrees of integration, and sublease the lowest degree of integration represents a set of transport channels radiation resulting from the joint drawing and forming tuft of capillaries when the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure in the capillary channels and a temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the walls of adjacent capillaries, subline each higher degree of integration represents a set of sublines previous degree of integration, which is the result of their joint drawing and forming at the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure in the channels of sublines and temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent sublines, all Coblenz the highest degree of integration are arranged in a single structure, which is the result of their joint drawing and forming at the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure in the channels of sublines and century cut and form the input and output ends of the lenses.

20. The analytical device according to p. 19, characterized in that it is configured to scan over a surface or volume of the investigated object combined foci of the lens located in the path of the radiation from the specified source to the object under investigation and from the latter to the detector.

21. The analytical device according to p. 20, characterized in that the lens located in the path of the radiation from the test object to the detector which has a capability of forming a quasi parallel beam, between it and the detector is installed crystal monochromator or a multilayer diffractive structure with the possibility of varying their position and angle of incidence on them specified quasiparallel beam to ensure that the Bragg conditions for different wavelengths of radiation excited in the examined object.

22. The analytical device according to p. 19, characterized in that as the source used synchrotron or other source, giving a parallel beam, and the lens located in the path of this radiation source to the object under investigation, made with the possibility of focusing this beam.

23. The analytical device according to p. 19, characterized in that the Analytical device according to p. 19, characterized in that said source is a source of broadband x-ray radiation that can be transported simultaneously by two lenses made with the possibility of forming a quasiparallel beam between the output of each of these lenses and means for positioning the studied object is a crystal-monochromator, when this one is installed with the possibility of allocating radiation having a wavelength below and the other above the line absorption element, which is checked in the test object, the device has two detector, each of which is positioned after the means for positioning the investigated object so to accept passed through the object under examination radiation, formed one of crystal monochromators.

25. The analytical device according to p. 19, characterized in that, along with the specified source and it provides another source, both sources are x-ray sources, with one radiation source has a wavelength below, and another source is higher than the absorption line of the element which is checked in the object under study, between each of the sources is Mirovaya quasiparallel beam, the device has two detector, each of which is positioned after the means for positioning the studied object, therefore, to accept passed through the object under examination radiation, formed one of the lenses.

26. The analytical device according to p. 19, characterized in that the source is an x-ray source with the anode, providing radiation with two characteristic wavelengths below and above the absorption line of the element which is checked in the test object between the source and the means for positioning the studied object is a lens which has a capability of forming a quasi parallel beam before the lens or after it has rotating screen with alternating Windows closed filters, transparent and one opaque to the other of these wavelengths.

27. The analytical device according to p. 19, characterized in that the path of the radiation from the specified source to the object under investigation is installed lens and the secondary target, the lens configured to focus the radiation source on the secondary target.

28. Analytical eliminate the project installed a second lens, made with the possibility of the formation of quasi parallel radiation.

29. The analytical device according to p. 27 or 28, characterized in that the secondary target is made of beryllium or other light metal.

30. The analytical device according to p. 19, characterized in that the path of the radiation from the specified source to the object under investigation are installed sequentially lens and crystal monochromator or a multilayer diffractive structure, and the lens is made and oriented with the possibility of forming a quasiparallel beam impinging at an angle of 45oon the crystal-monochromator or a multilayer diffractive structure for forming them of polarized radiation, and the detector is located at an angle of 90oto the direction of propagation of the specified polarized radiation.

31. The analytical device according to p. 19, characterized in that the path of the radiation from the specified source to the object under investigation are installed sequentially lens and crystal monochromator, and the lens is made and oriented with the ability to form quasi parallel beam incident on the crystal-monochromator angle Bragg, and on the way isleconcierge deviation from parallelism to enable fixing of the detector phase-contrast areas of the investigated object, having different density and causing uneven refraction of the incident radiation.

32. The analytical device according to p. 19, characterized in that, as specified source used source of x-ray radiation, and a means for positioning the investigated object is done with the opportunity of conducting parts or organs of the human body.

33. The analytical device according to p. 32, characterized in that the x-ray source has a molybdenum anode, and means for positioning the investigated object is made with the possibility of mammographic studies.

34. The analytical device according to p. 33, characterized in that the lens located in the path of radiation from the x-ray source with a molybdenum anode to the object under investigation, made with the possibility of forming a quasiparallel beam with a cross-section sufficient for simultaneous impact on all of the study area and the location of the detector is selected from a condition of maintenance of the distance between him and the object under study is not less than 30 cm

35. The analytical device according to p. 32, characterized in that it made the deposits of the investigated object, and, on the other hand, a radiation source, a lens installed between him and a means of positioning the examined object and the detector, the output of which is connected to the computer processing means of the detection results, and the lens is configured to focus the radiation generated by the source, inside the test object.

36. Device for radiation therapy, containing one or more radiation sources, representing the flow of neutral or charged particles, and means for positioning the patient's body or part thereof, subject to irradiation, characterized in that between each of these sources and the means for positioning is set lens to focus the radiation on the patient's tumor containing touching its walls of channels for transporting radiation with total external reflection of the focused input ends with the ability to capture the transported radiation, made in the form of a set of sublines different degrees of integration, and sublease the lowest degree of integration represents a set of transport channels radiation, resulting from the joint vytjagivanii capillary and temperature, sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent capillaries, subline each higher degree of integration represents a set of sublines previous degree of integration, which is the result of their joint drawing and forming at the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure in the channels of sublines and temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent sublines, all Coblenz the highest degree of integration are arranged in a single structure, which is the result of their joint drawing and forming at the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure in the channels of sublines and temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent sublines, the ends of the mentioned common patterns cut and form the input and output ends of the lenses.

37. Device for radiation therapy according to p. 36, characterized in that the quality of these sources used the outputs of the nuclear reactor or accelerator, forming quasi parallel beams of heat or nadalovih neutrons.

38. Device for radiation therapy for p. 37, characterized in that the lenses are made with the possibility of rotation N. the who x-ray radiation, lens for converting a divergent radiation source in quasiparallel containing touching its walls of channels for transporting radiation with total external reflection, and means for placing the mask and the substrate coated with the resist, characterized in that the lens is made in the form of a set of sublines different degrees of integration, and sublease the lowest degree of integration represents enclosed in a common envelope of the set of transport channels radiation resulting from the joint drawing and forming tuft of capillaries when the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure in the capillary channels and a temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent capillaries, subline each higher degree of integration represents a set of sublines previous degree of integration, which is the result of their joint drawing and forming at the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure in the channels of sublines and temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent sublines, all Coblenz the high degree of integration CompoWay environment in the space between them is less than the pressure in the channels of sublines and temperature, sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent sublines, all referred to a single structure, the cut and form the input and output ends of the lenses.

40. Device for projection x-ray lithography containing a source of soft x-ray radiation, a lens for converting a divergent radiation source in quasiparallel designed for irradiation of the mask, means for placing the mask lens for transmission x-ray image of the mask with the reduction of its size to resist, means for placing the substrate coated with the resist her, with both of these lenses have contact with their walls of channels for transporting radiation with total external reflection, characterized in that at least one of these lenses is made in the form of a set of sublines different degrees of integration, this sublease the lowest degree of integration represents a set of transport channels radiation resulting from the joint drawing and forming tuft of capillaries when the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure in the capillary channels and a temperature sufficient to soften mothersbasement of sublines previous degree of integration, which is the result of their joint drawing and forming at the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure in the channels of sublines and temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent sublines, all Coblenz the highest degree of integration are arranged in a single structure, which is the result of their joint drawing and forming at the pressure of the gaseous medium in the space between them is less than the pressure in the channels of sublines and temperature sufficient to soften the material and fusing the adjacent sublines, all referred to a single structure, the cut and form the input and output ends of the lens, when this input, the diameters of the channels transporting the radiation of the second of these lenses exceed weekend diameters.

 

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