Rear view mirror for vehicles

 

(57) Abstract:

Rear view mirror includes a reflective convex surface, the mean curvature gradually increases from top to bottom in the vertical direction and the horizontal direction when removed from the vehicle body. The increase in the average curvature in the vertical direction and/or in the horizontal direction can be homogeneous or heterogeneous. Moreover, in the case of a nonuniform increase in the rate of change of the values of the average curvature gradually increases from top to bottom in a vertical direction, and when removed from the vehicle body in a horizontal direction. The values of the average curvature lying in the range of 5.0 to 10-4- 50,0 10-4mm-1and the average rate of change of the average curvature in the range from 0.01 to 10-4- 0,15 10-4mm-2. In the case of two mirrors - the closer to the driver's seat is a plot of the reflective surface, the less the value of the mean curvature and the average rate of change of curvature. Provides a wide field of view without blind spots, and image distortion caused by changing the values of the average krivizny">

The present invention relates to the creation of mirrors, including mirrors for vehicles.

Previously known mirrors for vehicles were flat or spherical in shape, had a narrow field-of-view and had blind spots. As a result, they did not contribute to driving safety.

To improve the known mirrors in Chinese patent application for utility model N 90206894.6 dated 26 may 1990 offers a rearview mirror for vehicles, in which the reflecting mirror surface is convex and consists of a set of spherical surfaces of different curvature, which are smoothly connected to each other, and the curvature of convexity increases gradually from top to bottom, the curvature of the upper part of the reflective surface is small or even zero, while the curvature of the lower part of the reflective surface is great. Moreover, the curvature of the reflective surface gradually increases in its lower part as the distance from the vehicle body. The specified mirror has a better performance compared to others, because its field of view is wider and cleaner, and blind spots on it eliminated. However, due to the fact that krivi the minute mirror along the horizontal direction, his field of observation is not wide enough at the top of the mirror.

In connection with the above, the first objective of the present invention is to provide a rearview mirror for a vehicle, which would have a wide field of view without blind spots.

Another objective of the present invention is to provide a clean mirror image distortions that are valid for the unaided eye.

The reflecting mirror surface in accordance with the present invention is a convex surface, the mean curvature gradually increases as the vertical downward direction and in a horizontal direction when removed from vehicle body.

The change of curvature both in vertical and in horizontal directions in accordance with the present invention can be either homogeneous (uniform) or heterogeneous. In the latter case, the rate of change of the average value of curvature gradually increases as the vertical downward direction and in a horizontal direction when removed from vehicle body.

So the direction, and in the horizontal direction, the difference of the average curvature of each differential curved surface shall be maintained in such a range that the image in the mirror in accordance with the present invention was clean and distortion are within allowed for observation with the naked eye.

The range of average values of curvature and speed of its change in the vertical direction and the horizontal direction depends on the range of observation, and the contours of the mirror. The wider the required range of observation, the greater the rate of change of the average curvature. When the same range of observation, the smaller becomes the contour of the mirror, the more you want the average rate of change of curvature, and the greater becomes the contour of the mirror, the less the average rate of change of curvature. Experiments and tests in accordance with the present invention show that for series production vehicles, the value of the curvature lies mainly in the range from 5,010-4to 50,010-4mm-1and the rate of change of curvature lies mainly in the range from 0,0110-4mm to 0,1510-4mm-2.

So the spacecraft and its speed. For vehicles where the driver seat is on the left side, left mirror, of course, is closer to the driver than the right. Therefore, the curvature in the lower and outer parts (left mirror) is less than the corresponding values for the right mirror, and the rate of change of curvature is less than for the left mirror than for the right. It should be clearly understood that this principle applies also to the situation where the driver seat is on the right side of the vehicle.

In Fig. 1 shows the reflective surface of the rearview mirror in accordance with the present invention installed on the right side of the vehicle, and AB, BC, CD and DA represent the four borders of the reflective surface, the arrow X indicates the horizontal direction, and the arrow Y indicates the vertical direction, namely, the arrow X indicates the direction of removal from the vehicle body in a horizontal direction, while the arrow Y indicates the direction to the ground vertically.

In Fig. 2 shows the reflective surface of the rearview mirror in accordance with the present invention, installed on the left side of the transport tx2">

In Fig. 3 shows the boundaries of the reflective surface, cut off from the parabola given for option rearview mirror of Fig. 1.

In Fig. 4 shows the boundaries of the reflective surface, cut off from the parabola given for option rearview mirror of Fig. 2.

In Fig. 5 shows a longitudinal and cross-sections, cut from the right side rear view mirrors, which show the rate of change of the average curvature of the reflective surface for right-hand rearview mirror in accordance with the present invention.

In Fig. 6 shows a longitudinal and cross-sections cut from the left side of the rearview mirror, which shows the average rate of change of curvature of the reflective surface for left-hand drive rear-view mirror in accordance with the present invention.

In Fig. 7 shows a longitudinal and cross-sectional, cut off from rear view mirrors, which show the rate of change of curvature of the reflective surface for other possible variants of the rearview mirror in accordance with the present invention.

In Fig. 8 shows the rear view mirror in accordance with the present invention, which is vertically set the AI with the present invention, which is vertically installed on the right side of the vehicle.

In Fig. 10 shows the rear view mirror in accordance with the present invention, which is installed horizontally on the left side of the vehicle.

In Fig. 11 shows the rear view mirror in accordance with the present invention, which is installed horizontally on the right side of the vehicle.

In Fig. 12 illustrates the optical properties in longitudinal section of the rear view mirror.

In Fig. 13 illustrates the optical properties of the cross-sectional rear view mirrors.

Below is a detailed description of preferred embodiments of the mirrors in accordance with the present invention, given with reference to the accompanying drawings.

The first option

It is shown in Fig. 3 the curve is part of a parabola and can be described by the expression: y = 0,0038 x2. As is well known, the curvature of this curve varies continuously. Four borders mirrors, the data for the first variant in accordance with the present invention, obtained from this curve. On the parabola selected four points X1= 300, X2= 204, X3= 286 and X4and the coordinates of the four segments of arcs cut off from the parabola. Four chords that correspond to the four arcs, denoted respectively as H1= C 4002+ 102(mm), H2= C 2002+ 102(mm), H3= 400 (mm), H4= 200 (mm). Four arc used for the formation of the four edges of the reflective surface in accordance with this option.

On the basis of changes in the mean of the curvature of the four points A, B, C and D shown in Fig. 1, or four points A', B', C' and D' shown in Fig. 2 are not arranged in the same plane. If three points A, C and D (or A', C' and D') lie in the same plane (the plane of the paper), the point B (or B') is located above the sheet of paper.

The first version of the rearview mirror is installed on the right side of the vehicle. As shown in Fig. 5, the boundaries of the mirrors are arc corresponding to the four chord H1H2H3and H4on the curve y = 0,0038 x2.

The following description applies to the determination of the curvature of the selected sections of the reflective surface of the right-side rear view mirror in accordance with the first variant of its construction.

As shown in Fig. 5 as four borders mirrors cut off from the parabola y = 0,0038 x2, what's the cross section 1-1', 2-2', 3-3' and 4-4', when the distance between two adjacent longitudinal sections of 40 mm So that the distance from any boundary to the nearest longitudinal section is 40 mm In the vertical direction of the selected four of the cross-section 5-5', 6-6', 7-7' and 8-8', when the distance between two adjacent cross sections 80 mm So that the distance from any boundary to the nearest cross-section is 80 mm

On the chord of the longitudinal section 1-1' in the vertical direction of the selected point every 45 mm Corresponding to these points the values of the average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00053416, 0,00063161, 0,00077311,

0,00097228, 0,00124937, 0,00163241,

0,00215379, 0,00283154, 0,00361800

On the chord of the longitudinal section 2-2' in the vertical direction of the selected point every 45 mm Corresponding to these points the values of the average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00057589, 0,00067956, 0,00083014,

0,00104161, 0,00133468, 0,00173845,

0,00228793, 0,00300682, 0,00385594

On the chord of the longitudinal section 3-3' in the vertical direction of the selected point every 45 mm Corresponding to these points the values of the average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00063580, 0,00075158, 0,00091917,

0,00115 gap point every 45 mm Corresponding to these points the values of the average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00071782, 0,00085361, 0,00104892,

0,00131950, 0,00168643, 0,00217607,

0,00281544, 0,00361343, 0,00451336

On the chord of the longitudinal section 5-5' in the vertical direction of the selected point every 45 mm Corresponding to these points the values of the average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00070679, 0,00072323, 0,00074847,

0,00078365, 0,00083020, 0,00088986,

0,00096481, 0,00105769, 0,00117173

On the chord of the longitudinal section 6-6' in the vertical direction of the selected point every 45 mm Corresponding to these points the values of the average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00107583, 0,00109625, 0,00113044,

0,00118054, 0,00124917, 0,00133950,

0,00145538, 0,00160131, 0,00178240

On the chord of the longitudinal section 7-7' in the vertical direction of the selected point every 45 mm Corresponding to these points the values of the average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00173110, 0,00176173, 0,00181205,

0,00188579, 0,00198716, 0,00212082,

0,00229165, 0,00250423, 0,00276175

On the chord of the longitudinal section 8-8' in the vertical direction of the selected point every 45 mm Corresponding to these points the values of the average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00279425, 0,, is that in the first embodiment, as the curvature values of the differential surfaces, and the average rate of change of curvature gradually and unevenly increase both in a vertical direction downward or horizontal direction at a distance from the vehicle body. In the first embodiment, the values of the average curvature lying in the range from 5,341610-4to 45,133610-4mm-1. The values of the rate of change of curvature lying in the range from 0,023210-4to 0,105410-4mm-2.

The second option

The second option refers to the rearview mirror installed on the left side of the vehicle, as shown in Fig. 6. The boundaries of the reflective surface taken from the parabola y = 0,0038 x2. As shown in Fig. 4, the parabola selected four point X'1= 305, X'2= 220, X'3= 286 and X'4= 310, which are indicated respectively as a', b', c' and d'. Starting from these points a', b', c' and d' in the direction to the origin of the four segments of arcs cut off from the parabola. Four chords that correspond to the four arcs, denoted respectively as H'1= C 4002+ 102(mm), H'2= C 2002+ 102(mm), H'3= 400 (mm), H'4= 200 (mm). Four arc used deedaydee description applies to the determination of the average curvature of the selected sections of the reflective surface left-hand rear-view mirror in accordance with a second embodiment of its construction.

As shown in Fig. 6, since the four borders of the left-hand rear view mirrors are cut from the parabola y = 0,0038 x2it can be calculated curvature of each of these boundaries. In the horizontal direction selected four longitudinal section 17-17', 18-18', 19-19' 20-20', when the distance between two adjacent longitudinal sections of 40 mm So that the distance from any boundary to the nearest longitudinal section is 40 mm In the vertical direction of the selected four cross-sections 21-21', 22-22', 23-23' and 24-24', when the distance between two adjacent cross sections 80 mm So that the distance from any boundary to the nearest cross-section is 80 mm

On the chord of the longitudinal section 17-17' in the vertical direction of the selected point every 45 mm Corresponding to these points the values of the average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00053142, 0,00061175, 0,00072084,

0,00088212, 0,00111608, 0,00145130,

0,00192026, 0,00253899, 0,00325407

On the chord of the longitudinal section 18-18' in the vertical direction of the selected point every 45 mm Corresponding to these points the values of the average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00058763, 0,00066716, 0,00078625,

0,00095875, 0,00120536, 0,00155472,
0,00064746, 0,00074374, 0,00088260,

0,00107894, 0,00135419, 0,00173732,

0,00226073, 0,00294008, 0,00372007

On the chord of the longitudinal section 20-20' in the vertical direction of the selected point every 45 mm Corresponding to these points the values of the average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00072485, 0,00084976, 0,00102530,

0,00126920, 0,00160573, 0,00206604,

0,00268264, 0,00346727, 0,00435603

On the chord of the longitudinal section 21-21' in the vertical direction of the selected point every 25 mm Corresponding to these points the values of the average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00063742, 0,00066166, 0,00069286,

0,00073237, 0,00078204, 0,00084443,

0,00092310, 0,00102307, 0,00115143

On the chord of the longitudinal section 22-22' in the vertical direction of the selected point every 25 mm Corresponding to these points the values of the average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00092607, 0,00095387, 0,00099257,

0,00104515, 0,00111598, 0,00121145,

0,00134113, 0,00151960, 0,00176942

On the chord of the longitudinal section 23-23' in the vertical direction of the selected point every 25 mm Corresponding to these points the values of the average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,0014 slight pressure from the beginning towards the selected point for every 25 mm Corresponding to these points the values of the average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00246664, 0,00250600, 0,00256586,

0,00265488, 0,00278727, 0,00298711,

0,00329690, 0,00379481, 0,00463041

Previous data show that in the second embodiment, as the values of the average curvature of the differential surfaces, and the average rate of change of curvature gradually and unevenly increase both in a vertical direction downward or horizontal direction at a distance from the vehicle body. In the second embodiment, the curvature values are in the range from 5,314210-4to 45,560310-4mm-1. The values of the rate of change of curvature lying in the range from 0,020010-4to 0,100210-4mm-2. In comparison with the first variant of the mean value of the curvature is increased, and the rate of change of curvature was less.

A third option

It is shown in Fig. 7 the mirror refers to the third version of the right-hand rear view mirrors for trucks medium-duty. Its reflective surface is a part of mirrors the first option, and the left border of the mirror of Fig. 7 is a longitudinal cross-section, which is 45 mm from the left edge pokazat upper bounds shown in Fig. 5 mirrors. The size of the reflective surface of the rearview mirror in accordance with a third option is 270 mm x 140 mm

As shown in Fig. 7, in the horizontal direction of the mirror selected five longitudinal sections 9-9', 10-10', 11-11', 12-12' and 13-13', when the distance (the length of the chord between two adjacent longitudinal sections 35 mm Left margin of the mirror corresponds to the section 9-9', and the right boundary corresponds to the section 13-13'. In the vertical direction of the mirror selected five cross-sections 9-13', 14-14', 15-15', 16-16' and 9'-13' at this point from 9 to 13 are located at the upper end, and the points from 9' to 13' are located at the lower end, and the distance (chord length) between two adjacent cross sections is 60 mm

On the chord of the longitudinal section 9-9' in the vertical direction of the selected point every 30 mm. Corresponding to these points the values of the average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00092854, 0,00109159, 0,00129440, 0,00154602

0,00185649, 0,00223490, 0,00268492, 0,00319642

On the chord of the longitudinal section 10-10' in the vertical direction of the selected point every 30 mm. Corresponding to these points of curvature values for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00097815, 0,00114840, 0,00135975, 0,00162151

0,001944 is the each 30 mm Corresponding to these points the values of the average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00106371, 0,00124783, 0,00147525, 0,00175530

0,00209851, 0,00251484, 0,00300936, 0,00357389

On the chord of the longitudinal section 12-12' in the vertical direction of the selected point every 30 mm. Corresponding to these points the values of the average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00118599, 0,00139144, 0,00164314, 0,00194986

0,00232098, 0,00276458, 0,00328307, 0,00385514

On the chord of the longitudinal section 13-13' in the vertical direction of the selected point every 30 mm. Corresponding to these points the values of the average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00132711, 0,00155821, 0,00183845, 0,00217520

0,00257560, 0,00304383, 0,00357748, 0,0041604

On the chord of the longitudinal section 9-13' in the vertical direction of the selected point every 25 mm Corresponding to these points the values of the average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00095329, 0,00099412, 0,00104999

0,00112338, 0,00121735, 0,00137142

On the chord of the longitudinal section 14-14' in the vertical direction of the selected point every 25 mm Corresponding to these points the values of the average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00133269, 0,00138641, 0,00146135

0,00156117, 0,00169019, 0,00185328

On the chord protology average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00191464, 0,00198708, 0,00208724

0,00221984, 0,00238972, 0,00260127

On the chord of the longitudinal section 16-16' in the vertical direction of the selected point every 25 mm Corresponding to these points the values of the average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00276648, 0,00286953, 0,00300276

0,00317069, 0,00337627, 0,00361923

On the chord of the longitudinal section 9'-13' in the vertical direction of the selected point every 25 mm Corresponding to these points the values of the average curvature for the differential surfaces is equal to:

0,00390717, 0,00407028, 0,00425179

0,00445306, 0,00467147, 0,00489838

Previous data show that in the third embodiment, as the values of the average curvature of the differential surfaces, and the average rate of change of curvature gradually and unevenly increase both in a vertical direction downward or horizontal direction at a distance from the vehicle body. Since the reflecting surface in the third embodiment, is part of the rearview mirror in accordance with the first variant, the values of the average curvature lying in the range established for the first option. As the reflective surface, described in the third embodiment, taken in the right and bottom of the mirror under the lie in the range from 0,033510-4mm to 0,134910-4mm-2.

Summarizing the above, it can be argued that the rearview mirror for a vehicle in accordance with the present invention has a wide field of view with two (lateral) sides and on the rear side of the vehicle, with a fixed blind spots and clean the mirror image. Therefore, such a mirror can significantly help to improve driving conditions.

1. Rear view mirror for a vehicle containing a convex reflecting surface, characterized in that the average value of the curvature of the reflecting convex surface gradually increases from top to bottom in the vertical direction of the reflecting mirror surface and in a horizontal direction when removed from vehicle body.

2. Rear view mirror for vehicles under item 1, characterized in that the increase in the average curvature in the vertical direction and/or in the horizontal direction can be homogeneous or heterogeneous.

3. Rear view mirror for vehicles under item 2, wherein when the change in the average curvature in the vertical napalitano increases as from top to bottom in the vertical direction of the reflecting mirror surface, and when you remove from the vehicle body in a horizontal direction.

4. Rear view mirror for vehicles under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the image distortion caused by the change of the mean curvature convex reflecting surface, visually acceptable to the driver.

5. Rear view mirror for vehicles under item 1, characterized in that the value of the mean curvature of convex reflecting surfaces lie in the range of 5.0 to 10-4- 50,0 10-4mm-1.

6. Rear view mirror for vehicles under item 3, characterized in that the average rate of change of the average curvature lies in the range from 0.01 to 10-4- 0,15 10-4mm-2.

7. Two rear-view mirrors for vehicles, each of which has a convex reflecting surface, wherein the value of the mean curvature convex reflecting surface of each mirror is gradually increased in the vertical direction of the mirror from top to bottom, and in the horizontal direction when removed from the vehicle body, the closer to the driver's seat is a plot of the reflective surface, the less C

 

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