The method of supplying fuel in a gas turbine engine during startup after a long stay at low temperatures and fuel system of gas turbine engine
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to an aircraft, in particular to fuel systems for gas turbine engines and to a method of supplying fuel to a gas turbine engine. In the method of supplying fuel in a gas turbine engine during startup after a long stay at low temperatures, which consists in preheating the fuel before supplying it to the fuel filter, front heated is separated from the fuel ice formation. These ice formation is heated to melting. Then the formed water is combined with the heated fuel. The fuel system of gas turbine engine includes sequentially installed in the fuel line oblivously the heat exchanger and the fuel filter. In the fuel line before toplevelname heat exchanger installed dispenser ledoobrazovanie in equipped with a heater collector, the output of which is connected with the fuel line between toplevelname heat exchanger and the fuel filter. Such a method and such a fuel system increase the reliability of an aircraft after his long stay at low temperatures by removing ledoobrazovanie in the fuel. 2 S. and 2 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il. There is a method of supplying fuel to the CCD, which consists in preheating the fuel before supplying it to the fuel filter of the engine. The fuel system of this engine includes tank, pump, oblivously exchanger (TMT), filter and regulator, fuel consumption.In such a system the melting ledoobrazovanie in the fuel occurs in the TMT (Manual AGTD "D") ZMKB "Progress", Zaporozhye, 1989 ).The disadvantages of such methods of fuel supply and fuel systems can be attributed to the insufficient amount of heat in the oil at the outlet of the engine for heating the fuel to a temperature that ensures the melting of ledoobrazovanie in the most important moments of operation:
- after a long stay of the parked aircraft at negative ambient temperatures;
- after the departure of the aircraft on the second round when performing a landing.Under these conditions, the efficiency of the melting ledoobrazovanie in TMT becomes critical. It is not excluded the possibility of icing tube plate TMT intake side of the fuel or icing of the filter and subsequent silencing of the engine.At takeoff engine A heat and oil to prevent icing tube plate TMT may not be enough. This is due to the large difference in the values of oil pumps and fuel through TMT, especially in engines with greater thrust.In the case of the departure of the aircraft on the second round, when performing landing, icing these elements of the fuel system may occur due to the lack of heating, cold fuel in the planning mode, when the amount of oil circulating through the engine a little.This takes into account that the temperature of the oil intake side of the fuel TMT 30...50oC lower than at the outlet of the engine as the oil enters TMT opposite side of the input fuel. Therefore, not only the fuel filter, but the fuel pipe, TMT, whose inner diameter is almost twice smaller than the size of the side of the cell protective grid feed pump tank, may be subject icing on the input side of fuel.Under such conditions, freelance content of water or protivookislitelnoj liquid fuel can significantly increase the risk of icing TMT and filter.As a prototype of the invention for the fuel system gas-turbine engine and method of supplying fuel GTE adopted known fuel system engine "D-18" (Manual of the judge is giving fuel GTE. The fuel system of this engine contains sequentially installed in the fuel line feeding the pump tank, motor centrifugal pump, TMT, fuel filter, main gear pump, flow regulator and fuel injectors.The method of supplying fuel GTE at startup after a long stay at low temperatures, is to preheat the fuel before supplying it to the fuel filter, namely, a mixture of fuel with ledoobrazovanie taken from the feed tank centrifugal pump and fed to the motor of the centrifugal pump. This pump pumps the mixture through TMT, where ice formation must turn in the water and go together with the fuel through the filter and the following units: gear pump, flow regulator and fuel injectors.Repeated flight accident icing units of the fuel system showed that the critical modes of operation of the engine at low ambient temperatures the amount of heat coming out of the engine oil is not enough to prevent being in fuel ledoobrazovanie.The objective of the invention is to improve the reliability of an aircraft after its dlinnyh from fuel ledoobrazovanie.This problem is solved in the method of supplying fuel GTE at startup after a long stay at low temperatures, which consists in preheating the fuel before supplying it to the fuel filter, and the Department before heating ledoobrazovanie, which is heated to melt, after which the formed water is combined with the heated fuel. Heated ledoobrazovanie exercise tapped from the compressor air.This problem is solved in the fuel system of the CCD containing successively installed in the fuel line oblivously exchanger (TMT) and the fuel filter, and before TMT installed dispenser ledoobrazovanie in equipped with a heater collector, the output of which is connected with the fuel line between the TMT and the fuel filter.The separator ledoobrazovanie made in the form of a vortex separator with built-in its lower part by a collection of separated ledoobrazovanie, the input of the heater which is communicated to an air line with a cavity for one of the compressor stages of the engine and the output with the atmosphere; and in the center of the separator is installed pipe outlet in the fuel line is exempt from ledoobrazovanie fuel.
the IG. 2 - separator of ledoobrazovanie in the form of a vortex separator.Claimed fuel system GTE implementing the claimed method fuel contains sequentially installed in the fuel line 1 fuel tank 2, the pre-supply pump 3, fire valve 4, the motor of the centrifugal pump 5, TMT 6, fuel filter 7, the main pump 8, the flow regulator fuel 9 connected with nozzles (not shown) of the engine 10. The fuel system also includes an air line 11 air sampling from one of the last stages of the compressor (not shown) of the engine 10. In the fuel line 1 before TMT 6 has a separator 12 ledoobrazovanie in provided with a heater 13, the collector 14, the output 15 of which is connected with the fuel highway 1 between TMT 6 and the fuel filter 7.The separator 12 ledoobrazovanie made in the form of a vortex separator. In its lower part has a built-collection 14 separated ledoobrazovanie.The entrance 16 of the heater 13 indicated by the line 11 with the cavity for one of the compressor stages (not shown) of the engine 10, and the output 17 from the atmosphere.In the center of the separator 12 ledoobrazovanie installed pipe 18 leading to the fuel rail 1 is released from ice is S="ptx2">The fuel system operates as follows.Fuel ledoobrazovanie from the tank 2 is taken pre-supply pump 3 and highway 1 through the fire valve 4 is supplied to the centrifugal pump 5. Centrifugal pump 5 draws fuel ledoobrazovanie to tangentially-inclined entrance of the separator 12. As a result, the fuel flow with ledoobrazovanie gets in the separator 12 translational-rotational motion. However, ice formation under the action of centrifugal forces to move towards the periphery of the slip into the collector 14, and exempt from ledoobrazovanie fuel is supplied to the center of the separator 12 and the pipe 18 back in the line 1 and in TMT 6. Received by the collector 14 of ice formation are heated by hot air flowing through the heater 13. This air is taken from one of the compressor stages of the engine 10 and the pipe 11 is supplied to the inlet 16 of the heater 13. After wrapping the outer surface of the collector 14, the air is vented to the atmosphere through pipe 17. The resulting melt water is diverted from the collector 14 through the pipe 15 back to highway 1 on the site for TMT 6 fuel flow.The invention provides an aircraft without failure, dvigateli any protivogistaminnyh fuel additives. 1. The method of supplying fuel in a gas turbine engine during startup after a long stay at low temperatures, which consists in preheating the fuel before supplying it to the fuel filter, characterized in that before the heating is separated from the fuel ice formation, which is heated to melt, after which the formed water is combined with the heated fuel.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the heated ledoobrazovanie exercise taken from the compressor of the gas turbine engine of air.3. The fuel system of gas turbine engine containing successively installed in the fuel line oblivously the heat exchanger and the fuel filter, characterized in that the fuel line before toplevelname heat exchanger installed dispenser ledoobrazovanie in equipped with a heater collector, the output of which is connected with the fuel line between toplevelname heat exchanger and the fuel filter.4. The fuel system on p. 3, characterized in that the separator ledoobrazovanie made in the form of a vortex separator with built-in its lower part by a collection of separated ledoobrazovanie, the input of the heater which message is in the center of the separator is installed pipe outlet in the fuel line is exempt from ledoobrazovanie fuel.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas-turbine engines.
SUBSTANCE: system is designed for utilization of fuel leaks in drain systems of gas-turbine engines. Proposed system contains drain tank divided into upper and lower spaces by spring-loaded flexible partition. Upper space is connected through check valve and drain valve with nozzle manifolds, through other check valve, with atmosphere, and through third check valve, with fuel pump input. Lower space is connected with high-pressure source through pressure selector. Fuel-air medium sensor is installed under check valve communicating with atmosphere. Selector is made in form of electromagnetic valve with spool device. Check valve connected with fuel pump is located lower than minimum permissible fuel level in tank, level being set by program. Such design of drain system precludes getting of air to fuel pump input and meets ecological requirements as to effective combustion of fuel owing to return of fuel from drain tank into fuel tank at steady state operating conditions of engine.
EFFECT: provision of pollution-free engine.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; engines.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for draining fuel leaks from manifold and returning fuel into engine fuel system. Proposed device contain drain tank connected with drain fuel source, ejector with working nozzle, outlet and receiving chamber, drain tank shutoff valve, float installed in drain tank and connected with shutoff valve. Constant pressure valve connected with ejector outlet is installed at inlet of ejector working nozzle. Throttling needle with spring and piston is installed in working nozzle of ejector. One space of piston being connected with drain space and the other, with ejector outlet.
EFFECT: prevention of cavitation in ejector and getting of air into fuel system.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices and methods of combustion of fuel-air mixture in air-jet engines, small-size gas-turbine engines and gas-turbine plants. Proposed low-pressure nozzle contains annular atomizing edges, body accommodating central air swirler, channel to feed fuel with auger swirler, and outer air swirler arranged on nozzle body. Channel to supply swirled high-pressure air is arranged around fuel feed channel. Two-tier jet outer air swirler is provided with outer and inner inclined holes, air vortex stabilizer and annular outer and inner atomizing edges. Method of fuel atomizing by low-pressure nozzle comes to delivery of fuel and pressure feeding of air through central swirler and outer swirler. Fuel is fed between two swirler air flows formed by central swirler and channel to supply swirler high-pressure air. Flows of air and fuel getting to annular atomizing edges of nozzle form finely dispersed fuel air-mixture. Drops of mixture are atomized by air jets of outer swirler first on its inner annular atomizing edge, and then on outer edge. Said peculiarities of proposed invention increase payload capacity of aircraft, reduce exhaust of harmful substances.
EFFECT: reduced energy losses and expenses.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: rocketry and aeronautical engineering; fuel systems of flying vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: device proposed for realization of this method includes fuel tanks connected in succession by means of pipe lines; sequence of fuel utilization is estimated by intensity of heating of fuel contained in them.
EFFECT: reduction of temperature at engine plant inlet.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: metered delivery of fluid medium from supply source to users.
SUBSTANCE: proposed meter includes metering valve sliding in body at working stroke C; this valve has inlet hole for receiving fluid medium from supply source and outlet for discharge of fluid medium to user. Meter is provided with passage for fluid medium for performing washing motion of fluid medium over contact surfaces of valve and body. Passage is formed by helical groove at width L and screw pitch P. Besides that injector is proposed which is fitted with this meter.
EFFECT: avoidance of accumulation of contaminants during flow of fluid medium through meter.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; turbomachines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed fuel injection system contains high-pressure pump for delivering fuel at high pressure from fuel tank, fuel nozzles arranged in combustion chamber of turbomachine and metering device located between said high-pressure pump and fuel nozzles to control rate of fuel getting into fuel nozzles from high-pressure pump. Metering device contains delivery valve operated in accordance with two delivery levels by metering valve to which fuel is delivered from said high-pressure pump. Electrically controlled shutoff valve is provided additionally to cut off fuel delivery to said fuel nozzles.
EFFECT: possibility of limiting heating of fuel and setting optimum dimensions of system components.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: devices for mixing of fuel components including gaseous and liquid fuel, water vapor and air before their supply to the combustion chamber.
SUBSTANCE: the mixer of fuel components has a fuel supply manifold and a system for preparation of the fuel-containing mixture including a device of multi-point fuel injection. The system for preparation of the fuel-containing mixture is made in the form of a single Venturi tube, the device of multi-point fuel injection installed in the Venturi tube up to its critical section is made in the form of a tore-shaped stream-lined manifold with openings on the outer and inner surfaces. The tore-shaped manifold of multi-point injection is tear-shaped.
EFFECT: simplified and lightened construction of the mixer, reduced friction loss.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: gas-turbine plants.
SUBSTANCE: system comprises nozzle provided with internal axial space that is terminated by the outlet port for fuel-air mixture at one of its ends. The nozzle has first stage for supplying fuel provided with several first fuel supply openings that enter the internal space, are arranged around the axis of the nozzle, and are connected with the inlet fuel zone through fuel supply passages, and at least one passage for air supply that enters the internal axial space and is connected with the inlet air zone. The nozzle is additionally provided with at least second stage for fuel supply provided with several second fuel supply openings that enter the internal space, are arranged around the axis of the nozzle, and are connected with the inlet fuel zone of the nozzle through the fuel supply passages. The fuel supply passages are in part in coincidence with the fuel supply passages of the first stage.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of fuel-air mixture.
18 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; turbomachines.
SUBSTANCE: fuel system of turbomachine combustion chamber has fuel-feed nozzle providing spraying of fuel in combustion chamber, and mixing-and-deflecting unit arranged symmetrically relative to axis of fuel-feed nozzle and designed to form mixture of fuel oxidizer with fuel and its atomizing in said combustion chamber. Mixing-and-deflecting unit has first swirler and, at least, second swirler arranged with relative displacement along said axis and separated by venture device arranged coaxially relative to fuel-feed nozzle. First swirler is rigidly fastened to said fuel-feed nozzle and is arranged at constant distance from nozzle in radial direction. Distance is chosen so that fuel atomized by fuel-feed nozzle cannot get onto said first swirler.
EFFECT: provision of good atomizing of fuel under all conditions.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises injecting compressed air into the system for supplying fuel to the nozzle. The compressed air is injected directly to the fuel injection head downstream of the valves. The injecting is controlled by the signal characteristic for a given stage of operation of the turbine machine. The compressed air is taken at the exit of the compressor, is collected in a tank, and then is injected to the head through the internal pipeline.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
12 cl, 8 dwg