The method of operation of the engine

 

(57) Abstract:

The method is intended for use in energy, in particular in the engine on vehicles. The method of operation of the engine includes the introduction of the working substance in a closed working chamber of variable volume, the volume of which in the first working phase increases, and the second working phase to reduce the original volume, while the volume of the working chamber in the first working phase to increase until the temperature referred to the working substance does not reach the dew point, specific to the working substance, and the second working phase for reducing the volume of the working chamber as the working substance use first the external environment. The invention provides increased efficiency, allows you to create environmentally-friendly engine, increase reliability, and reduce the cost. Moreover, the method is universal and can be used in engines with various chambers of variable volume, for example in rotary piston engines, and pumps. With appropriate control of the motor can operate as a compressor, pneumatic or hydraulic motor. 14 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The invention relates to areas

The known method of operation of the external combustion engine (patent RF N 2008479, CL F 02 C 1/04), namely, that through the inlet into the working space of the cylinder serves heated working fluid, which expands and moves the piston, producing mechanical work.

The disadvantage of this method is low efficiency.

Known heat engine (patent Germany N 4101500, CL F 01 K 25/06), the way in which the technical essence is the closest to the claimed. In the cylindrical chamber of such engine, limited movable wall, provided the mass of the evaporated liquid as the working medium at an initial temperature of the boiler. In the first working phase volume of the cylindrical chamber increases from the inner dead center position through movement of the movable wall outwardly to the outer dead point. At the bottom dead center position, the movement of the wall is retained for a specified period of time. As a consequence, to begin condensation of supercooled vapor liquid, which causes a sudden pressure drop. In the second operating phase, the movable wall moves to the inner dead point. The cooled condensate is heated via a heat exchanger to ex what is the low efficiency and the dynamics of the engine.

The problem to which the invention is directed, is to increase the efficiency of the engine. Moreover, the proposed solution allows you to create environmentally-friendly engine, increase reliability, and reduce the cost.

The problem is solved due to the fact that in the method of operation of the engine, including the introduction of the working substance in a closed working chamber of variable volume, the volume of which in the first working phase increases, and the second working phase to reduce the original volume, the volume of the working chamber in the first working phase to increase until the temperature of the working substance will not reach the dew point, specific to the working substance, and the second working phase for reducing the volume of the working chamber as the working substance use first the external environment.

Ecological purity of the engine is ensured by the fact that as the working substance can be used environmentally friendly substances such as air and water vapor obtained, for example, as a result of ignition of the fuel mixture on the basis of hydrogen (H2any other way, for example by heating the water.

Declare Nigam requirements for the materials of manufacture of the working chamber and other parts of the engine and makes it possible to use cheaper and lighter materials (ceramics, plastic and so on). The use of the design of the engine lighter materials makes it less inertia. The reliability of the engine increases due to the fact that implementation of the proposed method can be implemented with a simple structure.

Implementation of the inventive illustrated by a drawing.

The figure schematically depicts the engine.

The engine includes a camera 1 variable displacement, for example a cylinder with a movable wall 2, which can move between the top dead point and bottom dead point, made in the form of the piston. Movable wall 2 is connected with a device for removing 3 having, for example, a flywheel (not shown). The camera 1 has an inlet device 4 located at the upper dead point. The input device 4 is designed to enter the inside of the working chamber 1 of the working substance, which is, for example, vapor-gas mixture consisting of water vapor and air. The mechanism of the inlet 4 should provide as short opening and closing and sealing the inlet window (not shown), and the modes specified moments of the trip. The input device 4 may have a device (not shown in the SKN holes or the time of its opening and closing. The input device 4 should provide the necessary level of sealing when closed. The input device 4 can be performed in a controlled valve 5 and valve 6. In the chamber 1 may have multiple inlets (the drawing shows one inlet device) depending on the number of components included in the composition of the working substance and how they are input sequentially through one or simultaneously through a few).

The working chamber 1 also has an exhaust device 7, which may be several (the drawing shows one exhaust device designed for short message internal cavity of the working chamber 1 from the second external environment, and can also be used for removal of the working chamber 1 of the condensate. The exhaust device 7 can be represented by any type of devices that provide intermittent communication between the internal cavity of the working chamber 1 and the external environment, with subsequent reliable sealing of the working chamber 1. For example, as an exhaust device 7 may be used, the outlet box having a square cross section or provided with a device change is m, in the moment of maximum expansion of the working chamber 1, it falls into the area of the inner cavity of the working chamber 1 and communicates with the second external environment. However, the venting device of this design is of limited use. Can also be used discharge device made in the form of a valve provided to control the actuation point, the duration of the open state and the sectional area of the exhaust box or pipe. This outlet can be placed in any part of the working chamber. As the valve in the exhaust device can be used the check valve, the inlet of which, falling into the zone of excessive compared to the external relative to the working chamber environment pressure, automatically carries out the message of the internal cavity of the working chamber with the second external environment until such time as the pressure of the working medium within the working chamber 1 becomes equal to the pressure value of the second external environment, followed by sealing of the working chamber 1. As more universal can be used discharge device made in the form of a locking side of the working chamber 1 of the device, such as a controllable camera 1 and provides all modes of operation. The location of the inlet and outlet devices and their number are determined by structural necessity and technological feasibility.

In the described embodiment of the method of operation of the engine is the last of the above design outlet.

Under the first external environment refers to the environment, which is located under the movable wall 2 of the working chamber 1 from the bottom dead point. Under the second external environment refers to the environment through the exhaust device 7 carry the message of the internal cavity of the working chamber 1.

The method of operation of the engine can be carried out as follows. Initially movable wall (piston) 2 is at top dead center, the working chamber 1 thus sealed. The volume of the working chamber 1 is minimal. Via the input device 4 into the working chamber 1 is carried out under pressure intermittent intake a certain amount of the working substance in the form of steam or steam-gas mixture, where the pair used water vapor as a gas - air or in a chamber (not shown) is supplied to the fuel mixture on the basis of hydrogen (H2this mixture is ignited and the resulting exhaust Yai point in the direction of the bottom dead point, increasing the volume of the working chamber 1. First, the movement of the movable wall 2 is due to the work of the working substance, for example 1/5 part of the turn. The pressure drops. Then the movement of the movable wall 2 to the bottom dead point is under the influence of external forces, such as a flywheel. The system parameters are selected so that at maximum volume of the working chamber 1, the steam temperature reaches the dew point. The value of the volume of the working chamber 1, the steam temperature reaches the dew point. At a certain point in the stroke of the movable wall 2 in the first working phase triggers the discharge device 7, through forced government by, for example, mechanical or electromagnetic devices, etc. offer operated valve 8 and automatically actuates the check valve 9. When this occurs, the message of the internal cavity of the working chamber 1 from the second external environment. After the pressure on both sides of the exhaust device 7 will be eliminated, the check valve 9 is sealed. Thus discharge the excess pressure inside the working chamber 1. As a result of expansion of steam or steam-gas mixture and lowering the pressure inside the working to the I at the end of your turn is at the bottom dead point. Due to the resulting pressure difference in the internal volume of the working chamber 1 and under the movable wall 2 in the second operating phase, the movable wall 2 is moved from the bottom dead point to the upper dead point. When this is done mechanical work, and as the working substance is first the external environment. During this phase operated valve 8 of the exhaust device 7 can remain open, allowing the achievement of the movable wall 2 of the upper dead point to be evacuated from the working chamber 1 condensate and/or remnants of the humidified gas through the check valve 9 and the exhaust device 7, which in this case, when the second working phase open. At the end of the second working phase of the exhaust device 7 is locked. The cycle repeats.

The inventive method is universal and can be used in any working designs chambers of variable volume.

The proposed method can be used in rotoprone engines, and pumps. With appropriate control of the motor can operate as a compressor, pneumatic or hydraulic motor.

1. The method of operation of the engine, including the availability of substances used in oceanway working phase increase, and the second working phase to reduce the original volume, wherein the volume of the working chamber in the first working phase to increase until the temperature referred to the working substance will not reach the dew point, specific to the working substance, and the second working phase for reducing the volume of the working chamber as the working substance use first the external environment.

2. The method of operation of the engine under item 1, characterized in that when increasing the volume of the working chamber produce short message internal cavity of the working chamber with the second external environment, upon completion of the above process messages mentioned working chamber seal.

3. The method of operation of the engine under item 1, characterized in that as the working substance in the first working phase use steam.

4. The method of operation of the engine under item 1, characterized in that as the working substance in the first working phase using a gas-vapor mixture.

5. The method of operation of the engine on the PP.1 and 3, characterized in that the steam quality in the first working phase using water vapor.

6. The method of operation of the engine on the PP.1 and 4, characterized in that the gas quality in PE is ar or steam gas gain as a result of ignition of the fuel mixture on the basis of hydrogen (H2while the ignition are carried out either inside the chamber or outside the chamber.

8. The method of operation of the engine on the PP.1 and 4, characterized in that the introduction of steam and gas into the working chamber of exercise jointly.

9. The method of operation of the engine on the PP.1 and 4, characterized in that the introduction of steam and gas in the working chamber of the exercise sequence.

10. The method of operation of the engine under item 1, characterized in that the first external environment in the second working phase using a gas or a liquid or a vapor or vapor-gas mixture.

11. The method of operation of the engine under item 1, characterized in that the introduction of the working medium in the working chamber passes through the inlet device equipped with a check valve.

12. The method of operation of the engine on the PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the second pressure of the external environment different from atmospheric.

13. The method of operation of the engine on the PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the first pressure of the external environment is not equal to the second pressure of the external environment.

14. The method of operation of the engine on the PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the first environment and the second environment have the same parameters.

15. The method of operation of the engine under item 1, wherein the than necessary, within the working chamber outlet condensate and/or humidified gases.

 

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FIELD: electrical engineering; single-phase motors.

SUBSTANCE: proposed single-phase motor has stator frame closed by front and rear end plates with rotor-carrying shaft passed through front end plate bore, wound poles, and terminal box. Novelty is that shaft is mounted in front end-plate and intermediate-support bearings. Rotor stacked of laminations is press-fitted in plastic and made in the form of sleeve provided with external bottom bushing and its outer surface has longitudinal slots accommodating copper bars; positive leads of all copper bars are connected to copper ring disposed at rear part of rotor coaxially to the latter. Negative leads of all metal bars are connected to copper ring disposed in front part of rotor likewise coaxially to the latter. Transformer disposed within stator frame has movable and fixed parts similar in mechanical design. Transformer fixed part has magnetic core stacked of laminations press-fitted in plastic and made in the form of sleeve with internal central leg carrying primary winding whose leads are connected to terminal box binding posts. Transformer fixed part is bolted to inner surface of rear end plate installed coaxially to motor shaft. Transformer fixed part has magnetic core assembled of laminations press-fitted in plastic and made in the form of sleeve with central leg carrying secondary winding and secured on rear end of shaft; movable and fixed parts of transformer are facing one another by their open parts and spaced apart through small clearance. In addition, secondary winding leads are connected through shaft-mounted rectifier unit to negative and positive copper rings of rotor. Two pairs of field poles have their coils connected through rectifier unit to input binding posts of terminal box. Poles enclose rotor on inside and outside; north poles are convex, they are disposed inside rotor and face the latter by their convex surface; south poles are concave; they are disposed outside and their convex part faces rotor outer surface; one pole pair is spaced 180 deg. apart from other pole pair.

EFFECT: ability of varying motor shaft sped and sense of rotation.

1 cl, 16 dwg

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