Combined cycle power plant

 

(57) Abstract:

The unit is designed for use in power system, in particular for the power plants with cogeneration facilities. The system includes a highly maneuverable gas turbine installation, is made on the basis of a bypass gas turbine engine with variable by-pass ratio, with intermediate cooling of the air during compression and with intermediate heating of the gas during expansion. The presence of a significant number of adjustable elements (inlet guide vanes of the compressor high and low pressure; nozzle turbine apparatus) according to the invention provides maneuverability and efficient operation in three modes: basic mode removing peak loads and in partial load mode. 1 Il.

The invention relates to the field of power engineering and can be used for the power plants with cogeneration facilities.

Known combined combined-cycle power plant (CCPP), the proposed ICT Academy of Sciences ("thermal engineering", 1993, N 10, S. 46-52), which allows to produce thermal and electrical energy. In this scheme, one or two pairs of pressure produced in the recovery boiler (HRSG), post the x turbine installation and the energy injection of steam into the combustion chamber. The proposed scheme PSU has low maneuverability, which is only achieved by injection of steam into the combustion chamber, while installing sharply reduces its efficiency, because the steam is lost, leaving together with the exhaust gases into the atmosphere.

Scheme PSU developed ICT Academy of Sciences, today is technically impossible due to unresolved issues related to the technology of manufacturing of blades of a gas turbine with a penetrating porous cooling.

The well-known scheme PSU, developed by NPO "SATURN" ("thermal engineering", 1993, N 12, S. 42-48), which allows to produce thermal and electrical energy. In the proposed scheme, the air is supplied to the compressor low pressure (CLP), the output of which is cooler (IN), the output of which is connected with the high-pressure compressor (HPC), after which you installed the combustion chamber (CC) associated with the high-pressure turbine, the output of which is equipped with low pressure turbine, from which the exhaust gases are fed to the boiler-utilizer. In the period of seasonal dips heat consumption provided input pair in COP. In this scheme, as the scheme ICT Academy of Sciences, there are significant energy losses related to the durability of the installation. In addition, at partial load of the gas turbine installation are severely throttle, which also greatly reduces its effectiveness.

The present invention allows to increase the efficiency and maneuverability of PSU, especially when covering an alternating schedule of electric and thermal loads.

This is achieved by the fact that in the proposed combined combined-cycle power plant in the channel for supplying air to the low-pressure compressor has adjustable inlet guide device, and the low-pressure compressor is installed with adjustable shutters that are associated with the air channel of an external circuit and with an air channel of an internal contour, and these shutters are designed to allocate the entire flow of air downstream of the compressor low pressure between the inner and outer circuit, and the output from the internal circuit has an adjustable inlet guide apparatus of the high-pressure compressor, the output of which is connected to the collector air flow for cooling high-pressure turbine, moreover, this manifold is located inside the air-to-air heat exchanger, which is installed in the outer loop, the output of which is low pressure, at the entrance to which has adjustable to allow the apparatus, and the output from the secondary combustion chamber has adjustable to allow the device is additionally installed second stage low-pressure turbine located on the same shaft with the first stage low-pressure turbine and low-pressure compressor, and the output of second stage low-pressure turbine connected with an adjustable nozzle device of the power turbine.

The figure schematically shows a General diagram of the inventive PSU containing the air supply channel 1, associated with adjustable inlet guide vanes (BHA) 2, which has the compressor low pressure (CLP) 3, the output of which is connected with adjustable shutters 4 of the second (outer) loop. For adjustable shutters 4 has an air channel, the second circuit 5 and the air channel of the first internal circuit 6. In the air duct 6 has an air-purge drum (IN) 7 and adjustable VNA 8, which is connected with the high-pressure compressor (HPC) 9. In the air duct 5 has an air-to-air heat exchanger 10. The output of the ARC 9 is connected with the inlet of the combustion chamber of an internal contour (COP I) 11 and the collector 12 with IWT 10. EVT 10 is a who's who of pressure. The output from the COP I installed high pressure turbine (HPT) 13, which is located on the same shaft 14 with the ARC 9. Exit theatre 13 is connected with an adjustable nozzle device (CA) 15, which installed the first stage low-pressure turbine (LPT) 16. The output test data sets 16 is associated with an additional combustion chamber (CC II) 17, the entrance of which is simultaneously connected by air channel 18, which is connected to the channel of the secondary circuit 5. The output of the CA II 17 is connected with an adjustable SA 19, which established the second stage LPT 20 located on the same shaft 21 with a first degree TND 16 and KND 3. The output test data sets 20 is connected with an adjustable SA 22, which established power turbine (ST) 23, and its output is connected with a heat recovery boiler (HRSG) 24, the output of which is a pipe 25 for supplying steam to the steam distribution manifold 26, the pipe 27 is connected with heat consumers (TA), and the pipe 28 from the inlet to the steam turbine (PT) 29. FRI 29 to the condenser 30 by the conduit 31 is connected to the deaerator 32 and water pump 33. The output of the pump 33 is connected with the entrance IN 7, the output of which is connected to the TOP 24 of the pipe 34.

When the heat of the proposed installation works as economically by reducing and increasing the heat load. When the, the mode of removing spikes in partial load mode.

With a significant reduction of the heat consumption (which is highly seasonal) the proposed scheme works as a traditional PSU, since steam after KU 24 is sent as a TA, and to provide work FRI 29. As is well known (see "thermal engineering), No. 12, 1992, S. 41), if the gas turbine unit (GTU) has been part of the PSU, then the optimal compression of air in its compressor is 3-5 times less than for similar GTU working on a simple open cycle. In this mode, the leaf cover 4 air supply to the internal circuit 6, and the CC I secured a small supply of fuel. In the inner loop is a small degree of heating of the air and its corresponding optimal compression of air in the ARC. Through the second path 5 increased air flow, and for COP II, respectively, increased fuel flow. In the second circuit is a higher degree of preheating of air and the corresponding optimal compression of air KND. Thus, in General, GTU will have a total degree of increase of pressure required for efficient operation of the PSU. During the transition to partial electric aremany cover CA-15 and CA-19 and the opening of the SA 22, which leads to increase speed LPT, to increase the speed of low-pressure rotor. This will allow you to get the required power GTU working as part of PSU, at low values of Tgand while maintaining the required values of the degree of compression of the air in the KND, which allow you to have a higher value of the internal coefficient of performance (COP) GTU, ensure acceptable efficiency. Removing the peak load will be achieved by increasing the air supply to the internal circuit and a corresponding increase in fuel supply to the CC I 11.

With increasing heat load (this is also a pronounced seasonal character) FRI 29 is turned off and the steam after KU 25 is supplied to the TA. In this case, the PSU goes to work in the mode GTU utilization type. In this mode, the leaf cover 4 air supply to the second circuit, providing a small air flow through the second circuit. For COP II is a small supply of fuel. The main heating of the working fluid through the COP I. To maintain a high level of reliability TVD 13 at high values in the cooling tract TVD 13 receives a small amount of air after the ARCS 9, last AME 10, g is t maintaining high values of total pressure ratio, required for efficient operation of the gas turbine.

When translating GTU at partial load operation is the reduction of Tgbefore TVD by reducing the fuel supply to the constitutional court I. this reveals SA TND 15 19, which leads to an increase in the degree of expansion of the gas in theatre (theater) and increase the work TVD 13. This will allow you to get the required power GTU in the process of throttling at higher values ofarcsand at low values of Tgthat will allow you to have a higher value of the internal efficiency of the gas turbine, and this in turn will ensure the maintenance of sufficient efficiency of the gas turbine. When translating GTU to relieve peak-load sash 4 and open the air supply to the second circuit 5 with simultaneous disclosure BHA 2 KND 3. Is the increase in the fuel supply in COP II 17 simultaneously cover SA 15 and CA19 test data sets, this leads to an increase in work test data sets. Due to the increase in bypass ratio increases, the flow rate of the working fluid through the ARTICLE which provides for the increase of its capacity.

Technical advantages of the proposed CCGT compared to known is that:

1. The unit has high maneuverability and efficiency in heat, because it is capable of pellicani heat load), while providing the desired condition of the economy is needed is the increase in air pressure.

2. The unit has high maneuverability and the generation of electric energy due to the presence of managed VNA compressors, CA turbines and controlling the flow of air through the inner and outer contour. In the management of said elements is provided an acceptable efficiency, as when running at partial loads, or when withdrawing peak loads.

Steam power installation comprising a channel for supplying air to the low-pressure compressor, which has a cooler, the output of which is connected with the high-pressure compressor, after which you installed the combustion chamber associated with the high-pressure turbine, the output of which is set low pressure turbine, the output of which is connected with the waste-heat boiler, characterized in that the channel for supplying air to the low-pressure compressor has adjustable inlet guide device, and the low-pressure compressor is installed with adjustable sash, connected with the air channel of an external circuit and with an air channel internal contro pressure between the inner and outer contour, and at the exit from the inner loop has an adjustable inlet guide apparatus of the high-pressure compressor, the output of which is connected to the collector air flow for cooling high-pressure turbine, and this reservoir is located inside the air-to-air heat exchanger, which is installed in the outer loop, the output of which is connected with the additional combustion chamber which is also connected with the output path of the first stage low-pressure turbine inlet which has an adjustable nozzle apparatus, and output from the secondary combustion chamber has an adjustable nozzle apparatus installed the second stage low-pressure turbine, located on the same shaft with the first stage low-pressure turbine and low-pressure compressor, and the output of second stage low-pressure turbine connected with an adjustable nozzle device of the power turbine.

 

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FIELD: power engineering; steam turbines.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at mounting of heavy-weight condensers of steam turbines connected with several exhaust ports of steam turbine low-pressure cylinders. Invention can be used also at servicing and subsequent adjusting of steam turbines especially, high-power ones. Invention improves reliability and increases economy of turbine in operation owing to decreasing excess loads on exhaust parts of low-pressure cylinders and support foundation plates of exhaust parts from side of condenser, decreasing friction forces along support surfaces of low-pressure cylinders, deformation of supports, formation of cracks and increasing vibration stability of turboset at different loads and modes of operation. According to proposed method of mounting of steam turbine condenser connected with several exhaust ports of low-pressure cylinders including assembling, preliminary truing, welding of connecting branch pipes and fixing in space by means of calibrated setting strips under springs. After operation of turboset under load, position of condenser in space is corrected to reduce load on support belt of low-pressure cylinders by disconnecting exhaust branch pipes of turbine and condenser, filling condenser with water of designed mass, placing inserts between upper and lower branch pipes of designed mass, placing inserts between upper and lower branch pipes and subsequent connection of branch pipes of turbine and condenser. Disconnected condenser is filled with water whose mass corresponds to designed load ΔG taken from low-pressure cylinder which is determined by value of compression Δh of spring unit under each support of condenser, basing on its rigidity characteristic K. ΔG removed from low-pressure cylinder is =ΣΔh x K. Estimation of loads on support belt of low-pressure cylinders in process of complex tests is carried out by displacement pickups checking compression of spring under all supports of condenser, and grade pickups on built-in supports of low-pressure cylinders operating at continuous monitoring by means of processor-based devices.

EFFECT: improved reliability end economy of turbine.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to the field of heating engineering namely to power installations.

SUBSTANCE: According to the first variant the engine of boiling has a furnace chamber, a drum, a batcher, a collector switched to the drum. At that the furnace chamber with the drum are united in a common metallic body fulfilled with one removable wall, at that the axis of the drum is located horizontally, inside the drum there is a working member in the shape of a shaft leaning with its ends on the bearings installed in the center of each wall of the body from the inner side along the horizontal axis, on the shaft there are firmly fastened in parallel with the axis the planes of blades and a cog-wheel, at that the blades are fulfilled in the shape of metallic plates between which there are mounted metallic partitions forming a ring capacity filled with air and symmetrical to the axis, the steam collector is located outside of the drum. According to the second variant the engine of boiling has a furnace chamber, a drum, a batcher switched to the drum, a collector, at that the furnace chamber with the drum are united in a common metallic body, at that the axis of the drum is located vertically in the center of the bottom and bearings are installed from the inner side of the lid, inside the drum there is a working member in the shape of a shaft whose ends lean on the bearings, on the shaft axis there firmly fastened under an angle to the axis the plates of the blades in the shape of a screw, around the shaft symmetrically to its axis there is a ring capacity filled with air. near the drum there is a hot water collector communicating with it through a launder in the upper part and through the collector in the low part. The working medium in the engine of boiling is water-steam mixture.

EFFECT: the invention allows use kinetic energy of boiling water for fulfillment of mechanical work.

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

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EFFECT: invention makes possible, while keeping constant steam turbine power, to exclude conventional stem components of the main condenser with piping for turbine sets exhaust stem condensing from design layout, to lower weight of unit equipment, reduce its volume by (3650) % and to improve reliability of exhaust stem condensing system.

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EFFECT: invention enables using waste heat of industrial production for elimination of dependence on weather and unstable and intermittent concentration of heat solar radiation.

6 cl, 4 dwg

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