Granular compound fertilizer

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a granular potassium phosphate fertilizers prolonged action on the basis of glass. Granular fertilizer complex is made in the form of a multilayer granules, each layer of which is the main nutritional component of plant-based compounds separately phosphorus and separately potassium in mixtures with fertilizers. Each group of layers consisting of phosphorus compounds, potassium compounds designed to dissolve within one year, and the number of groups of layers corresponds to the desired number of years of operation of all the fertilizer granules. Fertilizer differs prolonged action, environmentally safe, because it is not washed away and do not erode, all components are assimilated by plants form at the expense of the metastable structure of the vitreous state. 2 Il., table 1.

The invention relates to a granular prolonged potassium and phosphate fertilizers on the basis of glass.

Consumers have the following fertilizer requirements:

- the complexity of the content of useful components, including trace elements;

- ability to prolonged action;

- the minimum is necessary and useful component of fertilizers in particular the growing season.

In world practice there are no fertilizers, simultaneously meet all four requirements.

It is known complex granular fertilizer for U.S. patent N 395942 class. C 01 B 25/16, published in 1976, including granular ammonium phosphate mixed with potash and ammonium nitrate. The downside of it is the lack of prolonged action and low strength pellets.

It is also known granular compound fertilizer according to the patent of Russian Federation N 2034817 class. C 05 B 7/00 published 10.05.95,, bull. N 13 containing ammonium phosphate, mixed with carbonate of magnesium and calcium and then granulated at a temperature of 80...100oC. Fertilizer has a prolonged effect on the vegetation period only for one year, with most of it goes into the groundwater.

We know take for prototype fertilizer (and.with. USSR N 1119999 class. C 05 B 13/06, published 23.10.84, bull. N 39), containing vitrified form of potassium phosphate the major components and trace elements.

Fertilizer is 3 years, does not penetrate into the groundwater and does not disappear. The downside of it is the lack of ability in accordance with the development of plants otdat to insufficient yield.

The aim of the present invention is to provide such fertilizers, which, with prolonged action, would provide increased yields due to the variable composition of the components that go into the ground at different points in development and fruiting of plants.

The objective of the invention is to make long-term integrated fertilizing ability during the growing season to provide plants with nutrients consistently in accordance with their needs. This means that at different periods of development of plants fertilizer should be

1. Different kinetics of dissolution.

2. Different composition coming in soil solutions of mineral substances.

3. Different pH values generated by the fertilizer in the soil.

For example, in the early stages of development of grain crops necessary not only shared the highest dissolution rate, but also increased the yield of potassium, magnesium, phosphorus. At later stages it is necessary to increase the calcium content, digestible minerals while reducing the total dissolution rate.

For different types of crops special requirements on the composition and seatosea provided, however, in the known granular complex fertilizer containing potassium and phosphate components in combination with trace elements, they are presented in vitrified compounds of variable composition. Pellets are made from multilayered, with consistent and repetitive placement of layers of potash and phosphate components, each of which includes trace elements, the number of groups of layers corresponds to the number of years of fertilizer.

Fertilizer in accordance with the invention is formed in a multilayer structure of various known in the art methods.

In steklovarennyh furnaces are prepared metaphosphate melts with variable content of oxides of potassium, magnesium, calcium, silicon, boron, and combinations of micronutrients. Then form granulomatous or fiber structure, for example, methods of deposition, granulation or drawing glass fibers from melts or sequentially coating the core with a mixture of P2O5then K2O and so forth 4-5 times depending on the number of years of fertilizers. Thus, form 4-5 groups of layers.

The thickness of each layer, its mass and rate of dissolution shall correspond the practical, spherical, ellipsoidal or comminuted form. In any case, approaching the center of the layers must thicken to save the required annual mass. Thus, set the natural order of power plants during each year consistently necessary components in accordance with the development of vegetation.

Layering fertilizers allows to solve the problem of rotation in which the shift pulses or Solanaceae come grains.

Consider the application of the proposed solutions in the following example.

An example implementation.

The production of glass is in the form of a three-layer cylinder (Fig. 1) with variable thickness layers 2 H2H2H3length L.

To get pieces of sandwich cylinders were used centrifugal casting and spunbond hood rods from the melt at a temperature of 1100-1200oC diameter 10 - 20 mm with a total length of blanks from 200 - 1000 mm

In the course of the following banners at a temperature of 700 - 800ocould cylindrical rods with a diameter of 3-5 mm with a tolerance on diameter of 0.3 mm, length 1000 mm, the thickness of the layers 2H1H2H3respectively 1,5; 1,0; 0, is the duty to regulate the glasses 1, 2, 3. Accordingly, the glass layer 1 dissolves relatively quickly in comparison with layer 2 and the glass layer 3 is faster than layer 2. Thus, this is consistent speed change output of nutrients and trace elements in soil solutions under constant external conditions.

Layers 1, 2, 3 differed in trace element composition when the total content of the last up to 2% by weight. Based on task obtained cylindrical rods with a length of 1000 mm was seccionales on segments of length 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100 mm 0.5 mm and divided into fractions depending on their length. This allowed us to change the ratio of surface area - R2and forming a - 2 RL (where R is the total radius of the cylinder, R = H1+ H2+ H3). The total rate of dissolution is determined by the ratio of these areas. In the end, the kinetics of dissolution of different granulometric fractions may vary within the kinetic dependences shown in Fig. 2 with the same composition and thickness of layers of glass, obtained during the production of glass from the melt.

In the process of dissolution of all types of glasses (1, 2, 3) pH of solutions changes in the conditions of constant volume, vodata allows you to vary the pH within the specified limits, based on the rate of dissolution and particle size distribution of the fractions.

The proposed fertilizer provides all the necessary 4 fertilizer requirements listed at the beginning of the application. The unity of these signs puts the proposed fertilizer significantly higher known in the world practice. It differs prolonged action due to the sharp temperature dependence of the dissolution rate of each layer, environmentally safe, because not washed and not erode. All components are assimilated by plants form at the expense of the metastable structure of the glassy state of the material.

Granular fertilizer complex variable composition, containing potash and phosphate components in combination with trace elements presented in vitrified form, characterized in that the granules are made of a multilayer with consistent and repetitive placement of layers of potash, phosphate and other components, each of which includes various trace elements, the number of groups of layers of different composition corresponds to the number of years of fertilizers.

 

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