The method of rapid earthquake prediction
(57) Abstract:The invention can be used in seismology, in particular in observing systems and data to predict earthquakes. The technical result of the invention is to improve the reliability of the forecast of earthquakes, ease of technical execution, as well as reducing the timing measurements for the assessment of seismic state in a given habitat and provide opportunities for the individual control of seismic state in any given location. The technical result is ensured by the fact that the way the Express control of earthquakes controlled environment is a source of groundwater, which put two electrodes of the measuring device at a given distance from each other, provide measurements of the conductivity of this medium and make the comparison of the obtained value with a reference value of the electrical conductivity of the same environment, the corresponding normal seismic condition. At the same time as a controlled water environment can be used a source of groundwater flowing from the bowels of the earth to the surface. In addition, the measuring device can be.p. f-crystals. The invention relates to the field of seismology, in particular, systems for monitoring and processing data for the forecasting of earthquakes.Many of the evils and miseries of the inhabitants of the Earth bring natural disasters. Especially dangerous volcanic eruptions and earthquakes, because they are almost always unexpected and people do not have time to leave their homes.Developed a large number of different methods of forecasting of earthquakes, the task of which is in the preliminary seismic control of the situation.There is a method of prognosis of adverse events, including continuous monitoring of time-varying parameters geophysical field definition values of period and frequency of oscillation amplitude of the controlled parameters. The conclusion about the possibility of catastrophic phenomena do in the event of a change of geophysical fields sinusoidal oscillatory process with the period from 100 to 1000000 with the amplitude of the oscillations, significantly different from background values for this area (see application EN 92006415, MCI G 01 V 11/00, 1995).The known method of earthquake prediction, consisting of RegistryCleaner carried out by the simultaneous increase of the ratio of the total energy and average energy of signals of electromagnetic radiation and acoustic emission, as well as the maximum energy of the ultrasonic signals sounding (see inventor's certificate SU 1670651 A1, G 01 V 11/00, 1991).There is a method of long-term prediction of time of earthquakes, based on the measurement of variations of the electromagnetic field telluric current Earth. The method consists in the continuous recording daily abnormal rhythm between the two background conditions seymoseaking period. The duration of such status of the region in each case is individual. The forecast of the dates of future earthquakes are based on the duration of the anomaly in time and is determined by the formula (see application EN 93027744, G 01 V 3/00, 1996).There is also known a method of earthquake prediction, in which to increase the probability of detecting a characteristic of the precursor and the processing speed of the signal, carry out the conversion of seismic waves into an electrical signal and the taking of samples of the measured value at multiple points in the space. This creates on the selected profile monitoring measuring range in the form of a rectangular grid of 11 instantaneous meter, measure the signal amplitude at each node of the lattice with skarinou less than 1, form matronym time and judge the magnitude and time of an expected earthquake (see patent RU 2130195 C1, G 01 V 1/00, 9/00, 1999).Despite the fact that in the known methods mentioned above, we use modern achievements of science and technology for fast and accurate identification of change processes in the deep subsurface of the earth, they are not reliable, because it does not allow time to warn the population about the emerging threat of seismic situation in a given area. In addition, they are quite difficult in technical execution and require long processing of measurement results.The closest analogue of the claimed invention is a method of exploration that is used, in particular, for earthquake prediction, in which the excitation current pulses in a controlled environment (section of the earth) perpendicular to the installed electrical lines and measuring first and second differences of potentials with the help of a grounded dipole and quadrupole settings. The measured differences define the tensor characteristic conductivity. Change elements of the tensor characteristics over time judge about changing the geoelectric section property (patent RU 1835939 C, MCI G 01 V 3/00, 1995).The disadvantage of this method is complexity in the Reda.In addition, all known methods based on the use of mass media to alert the public about adverse seismic situation in a given habitat and in case of finding a subject in a seismically active zone where there is no radio or television, or their failure, it is not possible to estimate seismic zone stay for the forecasting of earthquakes in it.Technical problem on which the invention is directed, is to increase the reliability of the forecast of earthquakes, ease of technical execution, as well as reducing the timing measurements for the assessment of seismic state in a given habitat and, in addition, providing opportunities for individual control of seismic state in any given location.The technical result from the use of the invention it is provided that in the way of rapid prediction of earthquakes, including the measurement time of the conductivity when the excitation current in a controlled environment and comparative evaluation of the measurement results, as controlled environment using a groundwater source, where at a given distance Oh of the water environment, then compare the measurement results with a reference value of the electrical conductivity of this medium, characteristic of normal seismic condition, and judge the adverse seismic condition in a given habitat in excess of the measured values of electrical conductivity relative to the reference values.Furthermore, the definition of reference values of electrical conductivity and control the measurement of the conductivity of the water environment is carried out at the same temperature, because the temperature change of the water environment is changing and the value of its conductivity.This measuring device can be made portable, contains the power supply (unit batteries) associated with the regulator to ensure the measurement of the conductivity of the water environment in any given location.In addition, the electrodes of the measuring device is placed in a controlled aquatic environment is always at the same depth, keeping the same distance between them.As a controlled environment, you can use the source water flowing from the bowels of the earth, or water from wells located in areas unfavorable odawise in quiet (normal) seismic condition, constantly current sources of groundwater rising to the surface from the bowels of the earth, are almost constant (established) number of substances and elements dissolved in water. Each source has its own chemical composition, characteristic. This is due to the fact that an underground stream on its way enriched by substances through which it flows. The presence in water saturated or unsaturated salt solution add water properties of electrical conductivity in varying degrees. As mentioned, each source has its own composition of chemical substances and, therefore, a certain amount of electrical conductivity, which will always be constant during normal seismic situation for this source. With the advent of micro-cracks and channels in the bowels of the Earth changes its seismic condition dramatically increases the electrical conductivity of groundwater sources, as water, washing them, on their way filled with more items, changing its chemical composition. The sharp increase in the values of electrical conductivity (decrease in resistance) underground source is a sign of a future earthquake in a given habitat.For implementing the method e is VA, electrodes to a predetermined depth and at the same distance from each other, and measure time using known measuring devices, conductivity of water sources in a given area, and analyze measurement results by comparing them with a reference conductivity values for each of the controlled source of water identified under normal seismic condition, in the case of sharp increase of the conductivity values of the water sources is judged on the occurrence of adverse seismic conditions in a given habitat. The method of rapid prediction of earthquakes in a given habitat is carried out by measuring the water environment, such as water sources, in time, in several places they are released to the surface or by measuring the water from the wells. In addition, analysis of the results of measurements of several water sources in a given habitat in the event of a sharp increase of the conductivity of their waters will allow roughly predict the scale and the epicenter of future earthquakes.At the same time to ensure the accuracy of rapid prediction of earthquakes in any given place and having, for example, the difficult terrain and renanim, contains the power supply and is equipped with advanced voltage stabilizer for improved measurement accuracy.As a portable measuring device containing a power source and a stabilizer, for the measurement of the conductivity of the water source used, for example, multimeter (tester), the electrode which is immersed in the aqueous environment of the source, let the current carry out the measurement of the conductivity of this medium, followed by the assessment of the results of measurement with a reference value characteristic of a given water source.To ensure accuracy of measurement results the measurement of these conductivity values is performed at the same temperature, immersing the electrodes for the excitation current in the aquatic environment of the source is always the same size, keeping the same distance between the electrodes.The measurement results of the reference conductivity values of each water source in a given habitat at different temperatures are tabulated for ease of comparative evaluation.The method of rapid prediction of earthquakes in a given habitat allows you to quickly and simply ritalinic devices to ensure the accuracy of the prediction by the use of portable measuring device equipped with a current source and a voltage regulator, for placing them in a controlled environment at any specified remote location, as well as conduct individual earthquake prediction by the subject in the seismically unfavorable habitat. 1. The method of rapid prediction of earthquakes, including the measurement time of the conductivity when the excitation current in a controlled environment and comparative evaluation of the measurement results, wherein the controlled environment is a source of groundwater, which put two electrodes of the measuring device at a given distance from each other, measure the conductivity of this water environment, compare the obtained value with a reference value of the electrical conductivity of this medium determined at normal seismic situation, after which judge adverse seismic condition in excess of the measured values of electrical conductivity with respect to its reference values for the aquatic environment.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the measuring device has a source Peter> 3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the temperature of the aqueous medium during the test the electrical conductivity measurements should correspond to the temperature of the water environment in determining reference values of the conductivity of the water environment during normal seismic situation.4. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the electrodes of the measuring device is placed in a controlled aquatic environment is always at the same depth, while maintaining the same distance between them.5. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 4, characterized in that the controlled environment is a source of groundwater coming to the surface.
FIELD: geophysical prospecting by electric means by the method of induced polarization.
SUBSTANCE: the device has an exciting field forming unit and a signal measurement unit. The exciting field forming unit has a ship generator, switch forming bipolar DC square pulses, generating plant and a ballast device. The signal measurement unit has a receiving multi-electrode line, resistivimeter, multi-channel measuring device, ship echo sounder, Global Position System receiving indicator and a signal processor. According to the claimed method, the research of the geological medium along the observation outline is carried out by excitation of periodic alternating current pulses and determination of geoelectric medium parameters, geoelectric sections are constructed, a conclusion is made on the presence of a deposit of hydrocarbons according to the exposed anomalies of conduction and the parameters of induced polarization.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of the research results.
8 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: physics; geophysics.
SUBSTANCE: current pulse is excited in the medium under investigation, and parameters of its induced polarisation are defined. Geoelectric section is generated to make a conclusion about the presence of hydrocarbon fields on the basis of abnormal manifestations of induced polarisation parameters. At that, electromagnetic and seismic waves are excited simultaneously or with a time shift. To excite the said waves unipolar rectangular impulses of direct current are generated, their absolute and relative duration depending on parameters of medium under investigation. In the beginning of timing pulse electric field is measured simultaneously at measuring probe groups of two detector lines towed at different depth. Besides, detector line depth and hydroacoustic pressure of seismic source are measured. Also a device is offered, which includes pulse generator, capacitor charging unit, power generator, bank of capacitors, switchboard, seismic emitter, transmitter/receiver line, receiver line, multi-channel gauge, echo-sounder, GPS satellite navigation receiver, signal processor.
EFFECT: higher reliability of research results.
18 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: geoelectrical prospecting.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to geoelectrical prospecting by the electrical resistance method. The method uses two fixed supplying grounding circuits, the first of them being located in practical infinity, the other one along with two fixed reception grounding circuits being arranged nearby the observation profile, two additional movable grounding circuits located at equal distance from the second supplying grounding circuit. In measurements, in every position of the movable grounding circuits, the latter are connected in turns to a power source or an instrument. On connecting them to the power source, a voltage drop between the fixed reception grounding circuits is measured. On connecting them to instrument and measuring the voltage drop between them, the fixed supplying grounding circuits are connected to electric power source. The aforesaid operations are effected for all preset positions of the movable grounding circuits. Proceeding the measurement results, sections of apparent electrical resistance and voltage drop are plotted to estimate the availability of geoelectrical irregularities in the section.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of revealing geoelectrical irregularities and lower ambiguity in experimental data interpretation.
SUBSTANCE: current is cutoff to soil through two point sources. The first source is placed close by vertical interface, and the second is taken to infinity. Position of one equipotential line of electric field is detected. Measuring electrodes is mounted by tangent to equipotential line symmetrically to tangency point of ray lined from auxiliary point presenting mirror reflection of point source relative to interface with specified equipotential. Besides, measuring electrodes can be placed by line, perpendicular to interface symmetrically to power supply provided close by interface. Near to interface there is compensatory point source with current value fixed by parity where I0, Ik are currents from the first and compensatory sources, ΔΨ1MN is differential of the space function that determinates position of measuring electrodes relative to the first source, ΔΨ2MN is differential of space function that determinates position of measuring electrodes relative to compensatory source. Measuring electrodes voltage indicates time variations of resistivity.
EFFECT: simplified positioning of electrical survey unit and improved measurement accuracy.
SUBSTANCE: at the profile points the current is supplied through a pair of feeding electrodes to the earth. Current value and potential difference between pair of receiving electrodes is measured. Feeding electrodes are moved with pitch equal to 1 m symmetrically relative to the centre to limit distance between feeding electrodes, which is determined by the specified investigation depth. As per measurement results the apparent specific resistance is calculated. As per data of apparent specific resistance the graph of its behaviour is built depending on half-spacings of feeding electrodes. Specific resistances of frozen beds are calculated as per apparent specific resistance graph. Percentage of clay in unit volume of rock is calculated as per data of specific resistances of frozen beds by the following formula: where ρclay - specific clay resistance, which in permafrost zone section is characterised as constant value which on average is equal to 100 ohm m, ρfb -specific resistance of frozen bed. Lithologic composition of sand-clay complex of frozen rocks is determined as per clay content.
EFFECT: reducing the cost of operations and improving informativity owing to determining lithologic composition of frozen rocks without any drilling data and using common data on geologic structure of investigation region.
1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: potentially dangerous area is selected on territory to be analysed. At least three measuring modules are arranged on said area. Every said module consists of radiating electrode, main electrode pair with its one electrode making zero electrode, and at least one additional electrode pair. Said electrode pairs of measuring electrode are arranged at 180°/n to each other where n stands for number of electrode pair. All electrodes are located on one equipotentional line of radiating electrode. Electrodes of one pair are arranged on one line with radiating electrode. Directional diagrams of electrode pairs are plotted. Potential difference is measured between zero electrode and main electrode pair, and other electrodes of appropriate measuring module. Abnormal potential difference and direction diagram are used to determine direction for each measuring module to zone of rocks irregularities. Zone location is defined at intersection of said directions.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and validity.
SUBSTANCE: at an observation line, two three-electrode electrical soundings are performed using an apparatus comprising four earthing contacts lying on one line symmetrically about the observation point. The fifth earthing contact relates to virtual "infinity" and is connected to one terminal of an electric current source. Central earthing contacts are connected to a voltage measuring device. When taking measurements, outermost power earthing contacts are successively connected to the other terminal of the electric current source. Potential drop Δ UAMN and ΔUA'MN between receiving earthing contacts is measured. The operations are repeated for all given positions of power earthing contacts. Potential drop for vertical electrical sounding and potential drop for unipolar sounding is calculated from the measured potential drop at each observation point for given differences. The distribution of apparent electrical resistance in sections for two three-electrode and vertical sounding and distribution in section of potential drop for unipolar sounding is determined from the measured and calculated potential drops. The results determine the presence and location in the section of geological irregularities.
EFFECT: high efficiency of detecting geological irregularities in the geological environment.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: complex instrument includes loaded drilling pipe that consists of the first and the second part separated by isolated gap, and distant-measuring cartridge containing distant measuring scheme that includes power source generating voltage drop at isolated gap, and axle current at drilling column that is returned through geologic bed, it also includes isolated measuring electrode connected to the first part and scheme for specific resistance measuring connected in the course of operation to measuring electrode and distant-measuring scheme.
EFFECT: integration of possibilities to measure specific resistance into electro-magnetic distant-measuring instrument and obtaining the data of specific resistance as well as distant measuring.
58 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a system for monitoring local surface earthquake precursors on a secure territory, having two supply earth terminals connected to a probe current pulse generator, and a system of receiving earth terminals connected to a receiver which is connected to a signal processing unit. The system of receiving earth terminals is formed by N buried electrodes, N-1 of which are arranged uniformly on a circle of diameter D=0.5-0.6 km, and one central electrode placed at the centre of said circle. Radial conductors are connected each of the N-1 electrodes of the system of receiving earth terminals. Electrodes of the supply earth terminals are spaced apart by a distance L=(15-20)D. The system of receiving earth terminals is directed in the plan randomly relative electrodes of the supply earth terminals and lies from the latter at a distance X=(1.5-1.6)L. The probe current pulse generator generates current pulse bursts with frequency of 0.02-0.2 Hz, burst duration of 10-30 s and current in the pulse of 1-10 KA at least twice a day at the same time of the day.
EFFECT: high reliability of information on the hypocentre of an imminent surface earthquake and its parameters, particularly the event time and amplitude estimate.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a dielectric body of streamlined shape with installed metering electrodes, a metering unit comprising amplifiers, to inputs of which electrodes are connected, a summator, inputs of which are connected with outputs of amplifiers, and also an additional electrode, at the same time metering electrodes are made in the form of wires with insulated side surface, assembled into a cord or bundle with a polished end, the minimum distance between which and the additional electrode exceeds the size of the turbulence zone, the number of amplifiers is equal to the number of metering electrodes, every of which is connected to the input of the appropriate amplifier, and the additional electrode is connected with the common bus of the metering unit. The additional electrode is made in the form of a hollow metal cylinder installed on the dielectric body, the surface area of which is ten times and more exceeds the total area of the end surface of metering electrodes, at the same time the cord of wires, in the form of which metering electrodes are arranged, is installed inside the second electrode so that its end protrudes beyond the edge of the additional electrode.
EFFECT: increased resolving capacity and increased accuracy of measurement of small-scale fluctuations of flow speed.
2 cl, 2 dwg