Dam hydroelectric power plant with an intermediate tank
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to hydropower and is designed to generate electricity without disrupting the hydrological characteristics of the river and the ecology of the river and adjacent areas. Hydroelectric includes penstock with water intake in the river and bolt. Penstock has a slope less than the slope of the bottom of the river, and connects the intake with an intermediate reservoir, from which originates penstock active screener turbine connected to the shaft of the generator. In the intermediate tank between the input pressure conduit and the entrance to the conduit of the turbine is installed damper flow executed in the form of a wall with holes. Each bucket of the impeller turbines are made in the form of two diverging at an angle of bent gutters and fixed on the impeller can be rotated about the axis of its fastening. The invention allows to reduce the capacity of the intermediate surge tank without disturbing the processes of filling and emptying and increase the efficiency of active Pelton turbines when used to generate electricity from small rivers. 4 Il. The invention relates to engineering the environmental technology and services both in the river and the adjacent areas.Famous dam hydroelectric whose basic construction is the diversion channel made of an open type or in the form of a pressure conduit. At the end of the channel is a jet turbine. If the conduit is made of pressure, in the end it before the turbine must be installed surge tank.The closest in technical essence of the present invention is a project May hydropower plants in the Republic of Gorny Altai". Under this project the river by dams. From it formed the reservoir originates penstock, laid on the banks of the river with a slope equal to or slightly smaller slope of the river bottom. After a certain distance, when the difference of marks fence and the end part of the conduit H has reached the calculated values, installed surge tank and the turbine. Turbine jet. System Kaplan. Jet turbine is a turbine in which the shaft it rotates from the direct effects of water flow on the impeller blades, and a reactive component of the pressure of this stream. This solution has several advantages, however, in the turbine of this type for each kilowatt produced by the ENP, develop local energy sources using the energy flow of small rivers, i.e., working with minimal costs and minimal pressures, have their own characteristics. One of them is that it is not always possible transport conduit BPS to perform open, using the strip folds of the terrain, and laying open diversion channel on the overpass is not always economically justified. Pressure same conduit as noted above, requires installation in his late surge tank. The increase in size of the tank increases the cost of the construction of the BPS.The purpose of the invention is to reduce the capacity of the intermediate surge tank without disturbing the processes of filling and release and to increase the efficiency of active Pelton turbines when used in BPS working with small volumes of flow and pressure.This objective is achieved in that the hydroelectric dam with an intermediate reservoir, including penstock with water intake in the river and gates having a slope less than the slope of the bottom of the river and connecting the inlet from the intermediate reservoir, from which originates penstock screener impulse turbine, on the rim of the impeller to the intermediate tank between the input pressure conduit and the entrance to the conduit of the turbine is installed damper flow, for example, in the form of a wall of a certain height with holes, each bucket of the impeller turbines are made in the form of two diverging at an angle of bent gutters and fixed on the impeller can be rotated about the axis of its fastening.In Fig. 1 shows the General layout of the hydroelectric dam /BPS/ intermediate tank of Fig. 2 - section a-a in Fig. 1, in Fig. 3 - the design of the bucket of the impeller of the turbine of Fig. 4 - the same, lateral view.In one of the reaches of the river 1 with a slope of her bottom i built the intake 2 transport conduit 3 with the shutter 4. Transport hydrogen 3 is made along its entire length in the form of a pipe 5, for example, of reinforced concrete covered with insulated material 6 and laid on the banks of the river on the supports 7. Thus, the slope of the transport conduit 3 to a greater extent equal to the slope of the bottom of the river and may vary along the length of the conduit, copying the profile of the shore.At a distance of Lwater.providing a given head Hfull.set the intermediate tank 8, to which is attached a pressure hydrogen 3 and from which originates the conduit 10 of the turbine 13. In the place where the transport conduit 3 is attached to the reservoir 8, the sump 9. At Phi 8 made in the form of an annular Weir 11, which, in turn, is connected to the sump 9. Weir 11 of the tank 8 and the Weir 12 of the impeller of the turbine 13 connected with the river 1. Penstock turbine 10 13 ends in a nozzle 14, a valve which is controlled by the actuator 15. To the rim of the impeller pivotally attached to the bucket of a special form.The design of the bucket 16 is shown in Fig. 2. Turbine wheel 13, the Weir 12, the drive generators and generator /not shown/ posted in the same building HPP 17. The intermediate tank 8 is a complex engineering structure. Increase its volume reduces the dynamics of the processes that occur in it during operation of the turbine, however, dramatically increase the volume of construction work for hydro and increase the price of the produced BPS kilowatt of electricity. During operation of the turbine 13 is rapidly filling the water tank 8 and release him from it. Turbulent and vortical flows that occur in the tank, have a negative impact on the working pressure conduit 10 of the turbine 13. In order to reduce the volume of the tank to a minimum and at the same time to exclude the negative impact of the process of filling the reservoir to the working pressure of the hydrogen turbine 10 to 13, it has a damper 18 made, for example,the other the conduit 10 of the turbine 13.The bucket 16 /Fig. 2/ impeller turbine BPS with an intermediate tank is made in the form of 2 angled grooves 19 with the outer wall 20 and the separating diaphragm 21. The bottom of the bucket 16 has an intake portion 22. The suction portion is located at an angle to the flow of water 23 emerging from the nozzle 14, in the moment of their contact. The front portion 24 of the bucket 16 is located above the border of the shadow from the next running of the bucket. The bucket 16 to the rim of the impeller is attached by hinge 25. In order to be able to change the power turbine during its operation without changing the flow parameters, each bucket wheel rests on the plunger 26 having the ability to change the trajectory of the bucket with Rminto Rmaxand Vice versa.Operates hydroelectric dam with an intermediate reservoir as follows:
With the opening of the shutter 4 of the conduit 3 begins to fill the intermediate tank 8. After the water level in the tank reaches the maximum level Hfull., annular Weir 11 will dump the excess water back into the river. Then open up the gates of the nozzle 14 /manually or by means of the actuator 15/, the water begins to flow into the bucket of the impeller. The turbine wheel beg the ora General purpose type "OS". The speed of rotation of the impeller and the amount of torque on its axis is regulated automatically by the valve /Fig. 2/ of the nozzle 14 and plungers, related automation systems with generator station. Dam hydroelectric power plant with an intermediate reservoir, including penstock with water intake in the river and shutter having a slope less than the slope of the bottom of the river and connecting the inlet from the intermediate reservoir, from which originates penstock screener impulse turbine, on the rim of the impeller which is fixed buckets and which through the mechanism of reduction is connected with the shaft of the generator, characterized in that in the intermediate tank between the input pressure conduit and the entrance to the conduit of the turbine is installed damper flow, for example in the form of a wall of a certain height with holes, each bucket of the impeller turbines are made in the form of two diverging at an angle of bent gutters and fixed on the impeller can be rotated about the axis of its fastening.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly fish passes in water-intake structures.
SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying water stream free of young fish in waterway; forming hydraulic screen near water-intake influence area to separate above area from main stream of water-intake structure; forming whirlpool area near water-intake shore edge. Water stream is formed upstream water-intake structure. Water for users is taken from whirlpool area formed by inner water spray boundary and shore edge. Facility includes water-intake structure arranged at shore line, water-intake pipes connected with pump, stream former and means for water stream creation in waterway. Means for water stream creation is made as channel operating in non-pressure regime and having outlet part arranged upstream water inlet. Marks formed on channel bottom and waterway bottom coincide one with another. Stream former is located downstream water intake and directed in downstream direction.
EFFECT: creating of hydraulic conditions to protect young fish from ingress in water-intake structure.
14 cl, 9 dwg