The method of preparation of oil for processing and installation for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the technology of desalting and dehydration of oil and applied to the equipment and can be used in refineries and oil producing industries. The method of preparing the oil treatment involves feeding water vapor into the stream transported by pipeline of oil, characterized in that the heating and subsequent sedimentation. And produce pre-heated oil, the supply of water vapor is carried out in the flow of oil, the movement of which is on a plot of steam transform from laminar to turbulent, and then again in laminar flow, the flow is transported with a slope towards the sump, and the pooled oil is directed to additional demolitio, which is done by passing a stream of oil through a coalescing package. The oil treatment unit for processing contains the piping connected to the tank and provided with a socket input stream of oil vapor. Moreover, the connection of the input of water vapor is set coaxially with the pipeline, the installation is equipped with a mixing insert mounted in the pipeline sequentially and coaxially to the nozzle, calorina for the sump and is made in the form of an additional clarifier cholesterosis service, overlying the working section of the separator, while the pipeline is installed with a slope towards the sump, providing movement to the sump dropped out of the flow of oil from mechanical impurities, made with the advanced end and facing the wall of the sump in the bottom part. The use of this invention allows to increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of process oil. 2 S. and 9 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il.

The invention relates to the technology of desalting and dehydration of oil and applied to the equipment and can be used in refineries and oil producing industries like oil refineries, and in the preparation of commercial oil in the oil fields or in the processing of trap oil. While the proposed solution is applicable in the preparation as neptunomonas and emulsions.

Art

The process of desalting and dehydration of oil-based destruction of the emulsion, its emulgirovaniu. When the desalting emulgirovaniu subjected to artificial emulsion of oil from the wash water, specially created for cleaning oil from remaining the same, which combine various measures of influence on emulsion: heating, the addition of demulsifiers, mixing, electroaparatna.

Refineries in the preparation of the oil treatment is mainly used technology, which combined thermochemical method with electric, combining the four factors of influence on emulsion: heating, supply of demulsifier, electric Nola and sucks in a gravitational field (see the book A. N. Levchenko, N. In. The Bergstein, N. M. Nikolaev. The technology of desalting of crude oil in refineries. M., "Chemistry", 1985, pp. 33-35).

Known methods, representing a combination of several factors affecting emulsion, provide a rapid and effective separation. However, the use of demulsifiers and electric fields to disrupt the emulsion, and the need to solve the problem of removal of the emulsion mechanical impurities do these methods are complicated and expensive.

There is a method of destruction of oil-water emulsions (see SU 1736544, IPC B 01 D 17/04, publ. 30.05.92, bull. N 20), comprising adding water to the emulsion, mixing the original emulsion with additional water and dispersing again the second emulsion separation.

The dispersion of the emulsion before applying demulsifier increases the effect of the destruction of oil-water emulsion. However, only the crushing of the particles of the emulsion and the increasing separation of the phases due to the formation of a new surface may not provide full demolitio. This decision, as well as other known methods of desalting and dehydration of oil-water and oily emulsions, requires reagent-demulsifier, contributing to the stratification. However, this method is only applicable for oils, not containing mechanical impurities.

As the closest analogue of the proposed method is adopted method demulsification of crude oil (see ed. St-N 761542, IPC C 10 G 33/04, publ. 07.09.80, bull. N 33), namely, that in the stream transported by pipeline of oil by spraying serves water vapor under a pressure exceeding the working pressure in the pipeline 2-4 ATM, and formed by sputtering area of low pressure is injected solution demulsifier, and then the oil is heated and defend.

Dispersion in the flow of oil vapor together with the demulsifier enhances the efficiency of the process, it has been warming up steam demulsifying agent that promotes the best RA in the known solution is aimed primarily at enhancing the effectiveness of demulsifier. The use of the kinetic energy of the jet of steam to break the emulsion in such a solution is impossible, because a slight excess pressure of steam in relation to the working pressure in the pipeline does not provide the desired result, and the increased pressure will lead to the fact that the pipeline will be the hammer, therefore, will significantly increase the wear on the equipment.

A device for breaking oil-water emulsions (see SU 1142499, IPC C 10 G 33/06, publ. 28.02.85, bull. N 8), including the pipeline and longitudinal horizontal partition mounted in the Central part of its cross section and is made in the form of a rectangular plate, gently rolled in a spiral.

Mounted along the axis of the pipe and coiled in a spiral plate provides mixing layer flow transported by pipeline of oil, intensificar thus the process of destruction of the emulsion. However, this device is not effective and, although it allows for further dehydration and desalting of crude oil to reduce reagent consumption - demulsifier, does not provide the possibility of its complete exclusion from the process. However, this device is not solved about, moving layers of thread on the pipe diameter in the known device causes mechanical impurities act as emulsifiers and stabilize the emulsion. In order to avoid this negative effect, the known device should work in conjunction with established before the pipeline filtration equipment, which complicates the process and increases material costs.

As the closest analogue of the inventive installation made a device for the preparation of oil (see ed. St-N 625740, IPC 01 D 17/04, publ. 30.09.78, bull. N 36) containing the pipeline, coupled with gazoochistnym separator, while the pipeline is supplied by a pipe entering the superheated water vapor.

Introduction to notes oil superheated water vapor to some extent solves the problem of increasing the efficiency of oil: both heating oil and hydrodynamic effects of the jet pair, destroying oil emulsion. However, the steam flow in the device is carried out locally in the specific area of flow, and factors that would facilitate uniform distribution of the condensate in the flow and would allow use of p the Ara should be minimal, because at high pressure will be the hammer, damaging the pipeline.

However, this device, like all the above solutions fail to address the problem of removal of water-oil emulsion solids.

The invention

The claimed invention solves the problem of increasing the efficiency of oil for processing by simultaneously run on the same staging area a few necessary for preparing oil conditions, such as heating oil, the introduction of a flow of flush water, ensuring subsequent coalescence of the water and oil phases, removal of mechanical impurities. When this is achieved the degree of training neptunomonas or oil-water emulsion to stratification allows the demulsification process without the use of reagents demulsifiers and electric fields.

The problem is solved by the fact that in the method of preparing the oil treatment, including the supply of water vapor in the stream transported by pipeline of oil, its heating and subsequent sedimentation, according to the invention produce a pre-heated oil and steam is carried out in poto is ainamoi, the stream is transported with a slope towards the sump, and the pooled oil is directed to additional demolitio, which is done by passing a stream of oil through a coalescing package.

Pre-heated oil reduces its viscosity, increases the difference in the densities of water and oil and decreases the strength of the film surrounding the globules of water. Therefore, heating oil before the influence of water vapor is essential for obtaining a technical result due to a combination of supply of the water vapor conversion mode of the flow from laminar to turbulent, and then again in laminar. Obtained in this technical result is the following.

When filing in the flow of oil vapor at the site of injection of steam into the oil forms a zone of reduced pressure due to the kinetic energy of the jet and by the condensation of steam. While the resulting condensation of water vapor plays the role of wash water. It is evenly distributed over the volume of the moving oil is mixed with the warmed oil, washing its salt and dissolving them. Steam at a temperature significantly above the temperature ol the salts and the subsequent separation of oil-water emulsion.

The impact of the changing nature of traffic flow on the site supply of water vapor (from laminar motion in turbulent) is the pressure drop in this area. Therefore, the result of a significant increase in the velocity of the particles of oil, caused by a change in the mode of flow, while the effect on the energy flow of the jet of water vapor intensive mixing of the emulsion with water vapor. Thus there is a "rejuvenation" and the destruction of stable emulsions: attenuated the strength of the film surrounding the globules of water is the dispersion of the emulsion, the steam condenses on the droplets of dispersed water, causing the destruction of the surfactant layer, globules of water become larger and begin their precipitation from the emulsion.

A significant factor affecting the separation of the emulsion is further transformation of the nature of the flow of oil, namely the conversion of turbulent flow laminar flow. With this change in the mode of movement is extinguished flow rate is falling kolestiramina drops of water from oil. However, in the process of turbulent motion and due to the effect of increased temperature and kinetic energy of the Li motion in laminar flow from the stream begins to fall out mechanical impurities. The transport stream with a slope towards the sump provides permanent removal of these impurities from the pipeline.

Thus, the influence of steam on heated oil moving in the stream with a shifting mode of movement, subject to the impact of the jet of steam at the moment when the stream is most intense, first of all, you can get the oil-water or oil-water emulsion, ready to coalescence even from persistent old oil, secondly, a loss of mechanical impurities from the oil, allowing you to complete demolitio emulsion by passing it through coalescers packages of fibrous material or porous polyurethane foam (presence of mechanical impurities destroys these packages and quickly takes them out of the system). However, the movement of the flow into the sump with a bias removes impurities from the pipeline and prevents their deposition on the internal walls.

When large volumes of produced oil, it is advisable to carry out the method of transporting oil concurrent threads on more than one pipeline and defending each thread in a separate tank. Further, the process may of Kiani is I.

In the particular case of the method for large volumes of produced oil flow, moving in contact with the walls of the pipeline, pass in laminar motion. This prevents interruptions in the implementation of the method, which can occur when high performance when a large volume of oil and the traffic flow in the pipeline can not be completely converted to turbulent.

In this case, it is advisable to perform before demolitia additional filtering of the emulsion to remove not dropped out of the emulsion solids.

The problem is solved also by the fact that the installation of oil for refining, containing piping connected to the tank and provided with a socket input stream of oil vapor, according to the invention the connection of the input of water vapor is set coaxially with the pipeline, the installation is equipped with a mixing insert mounted in the pipeline sequentially and coaxially to the pipe, heat exchanger installed on the inlet pipe, and a separator emulsion included in the install sequentially with the sump and is made in the form of an additional clarifier cholesterosis service, per their move to the sump dropped out of the flow of oil from mechanical impurities, made with advanced end and facing the wall of the sump in the bottom part.

The design of the installation, including installation in the pipeline mixing consistently insert for tube feeding in the flow of oil vapor and coaxially with the pipe, the installation of the pipeline with the slope toward the sump and constructive study coupled with the sump output of the pipeline, converts the mode of flow (laminar motion in turbulent, and then again in laminar flow) and the flow in the flow of oil vapor to the site, where they have the transformation of the flow from laminar to turbulent, which determines, first, the maximum efficiency of destruction neptunomonas or oil-water emulsion, secondly, the intense loss of emulsion solids and provides such further flow of oil, which is the most favorable phase separation of the emulsion and removal of mechanical impurities. Introduction (compared to the prototype) in the installation of the heat exchanger provides preheating of oil, and the connection sequentially with the sump of the separator emulsion, vylitala, allows you to complete the process of oil for further processing.

Thus, by means of the inventive device is used for solving the same task and achieves the same effect as in the present method, i.e., the claimed invention are connected to form a single inventive concept.

In the analysis of prior art identified solutions that are pre-warming the oil before the destruction neptunomonas emulsion through a heat exchanger (for example, see the book edited by B. I. Bondarenko, the Album process scheme for processing oil and gas. M , Chemistry, 1983, page 10, Fig. 1-2). It is also known the use of separators, emulsion in the form of a tank with a separator coalescing packets (see EN 2105584, IPC 01 D 17/04).

However, similar solutions, which would place the use of steam in conjunction with changes in the mode of movement of the stream of oil and water or neptunomonas emulsion to improve the efficiency of oil for processing and removal from the emulsion solids, which is particularly necessary when applying for separating emulsions cholesterolic packages of fibrous Materialovedenie of the proposed solutions to the eligibility criteria of the invention "inventive step".

When solving the preparation of large amounts of oil perform the installation containing several parallel, similar to the above, pipelines, each of which is associated with its own sump.

In a particular implementation, the devices should be carried out by mixing the paste in the form of two facing each other with smaller bases and spaced along the axis of the pipeline truncated cones connected at the smaller bases of the cylinder, forming a flow of the mixing insert. Such embodiment of this element provides the necessary to obtain a technical result, a mode change of the flow of oil, it is characterized by a simple design and ability to provide the necessary relative positions of the mixing insert and steam supply.

For processing a large amount of oil you can run the unit with the mixing insert in the pipe with a gap relative to its walls. To do this, perform inserts in the form of a corresponding cylinder of the cones, the larger the diameter of which is slightly less than the diameter of the pipeline. In this case, to prevent mechanical impurities, which castanospermum to colesterolo package.

List of figures

The inventive method and device are illustrated by the following drawings:

in Fig. 1 presents the General scheme of the installation for implementing the method;

in Fig. 2 - General installation scheme for a large volume of processed oil;

in Fig. 3 is a schematic depiction of the pipe and sump inventive installation;

in Fig. 4 - section A-A in Fig. 3, illustrating the execution of the end portion of the pipeline.

Information confirming the possibility of carrying out the invention

For the implementation of the proposed method using the oil treatment unit for processing (see Fig. 1), which includes the unit heat exchanger 1, a pipe 2 connected to the tank 3, and the separator 4 emulsion containing a coalescing pack 5. The installation, designed for large volumes of produced oil (see Fig. 2) includes a pipeline consisting of three parallel lines 2', 2" 2"' United, respectively, with tanks 3', 3", 3"', as well as the separator emulsion, consisting of three stages: 4', 4", and 4"' arranged in series for parallel connected tanks 3', 3", 3"'. Pipeline 2 (pipelines 2', 2", 2"') associated with steam (on certid in the flow of oil vapor (see Fig. 3). The pipe 6 is installed coaxially to the pipe 2 and provides the steam flow in the Central part of the flow of oil. In the pipeline 2 (or in each of the pipelines 2', 2", 2"') sequentially and coaxially to the pipe 6 is mounted mixing box 7, consisting of two truncated cones 8 and 9, spaced around the axis of the pipe and joined on the lower grounds of the cylinder 10. The pipe 2 is installed with a slope towards the sump 3, providing movement to the sump 3 layers of precipitated solids. While the end part of the pipeline 2, soamsawali with tanks 3, made with the advanced end (see Fig. 4), which converts the output to the wall of tank 3 in the bottom part. The large diameters of the bases of the truncated cones 8 and 9 of the mixing insert 7 is slightly less than the diameter of the pipeline 2. In the result between the wall of the pipeline 2 and the mixing box 7 is formed a gap 11, which provides the flow part of the flow of oil in addition to the mixing insert 7. In outcome 4 the emulsion before cholesterosis package 5 has a filter element 12.

An example of performing the method and operation of the plant.

Served on a plant with a capacity of 350 cubic meters/hour of crude oil, comprising: salts is aimed at the installation of the oil is pre-heated in the unit heat exchanger 1 by the heat of exhaust prepared oil, then on the pipeline 2 is transported in the direction of the tank 3. In the pipeline 2, the flow of oil into the quasi laminar movement mode, but, encountering on the way the cone 8 and the cylinder 10 of the mixing insert 7, the traffic flow is converted from laminar to turbulent. On a plot of conversion of the flow from laminar to turbulent in the oil through the pipe 6 serves water vapor. Intense mixing of oil and steam, which continues on the section of the cylinder 10 of the mixing insert 7, in this case, since the area of the input pair, i.e., at the site of the cone 8, and on the section of the cylinder 10 of the mixing insert 7 is formed a zone of reduced pressure, the particles of oil are moved with great speed, however, is the additional heat oil under the action of steam, water vapor condenses, and the existing steam condensate plays the role of wash water, washing dissolved in oil salt and dissolving them. On this site in the zone of turbulence is the main destruction of the emulsion.

Next, the flow of oil enters the area of a truncated cone 9 of the mixing insert 7, where the speed of the particles constituting the emulsion extinguished, the pressure in the flow increases, the driving mode potoka impurities. This process continues with further movement of the flow through the pipeline. Because the pipeline is installed with a slope, the layer drop-down of the emulsion mechanical impurities not deposited on the wall of the pipe and moves with the flow into the sump. Due to the constructive execution of the end portion of the pipeline and its location at the bottom of the sump, exfoliating emulsion and solids enter the tank without mixing them. The clarifier separates the emulsion into oil and water and loss of mechanical impurities. Separated in the sedimentation tank water drains on water treatment facilities (not shown), mechanical impurities are precipitated in the sedimentation tank, where they can accumulate, and from where they are removed during maintenance and repair works, and partially dehydrated and desalted oil is directed into the separator 4 of the emulsion, and adding to the oil in the wash water, is passed through the filter element 12 and a coalescing pack 5. Since the major part of the mechanical impurities was removed from the oil during transportation by pipeline 2 and settled in the settling tank 3, the filter element 12 is only required as an auxiliary.

At the output of the e more than 0.1% of the volume, content of mechanical impurities not more than 0, 5 mg/l At the same time the operation of the separator emulsion without replacement colesterolo package can reach 1 year.

Thus, the claimed method and device for the preparation of oil treatment allowed without the use of demulsifiers and dehydrators to get well prepared for processing crude oil, from which most removed solids, salt and water. At the same time with the task of improving the efficiency and reduce the cost of preparation of oil solved the problem of increasing the life of cholesterolic packages to their failure.

1. The method of preparing the oil treatment, including the supply of water vapor in the stream transported by pipeline of oil, its heating and subsequent sedimentation, characterized in that produce pre-heated oil, the supply of water vapor is carried out in the flow of oil, the movement of which is on a plot of steam transform from laminar to turbulent, and then again in laminar flow, the flow is transported with a slope towards the sump, and the pooled oil is directed to additional demolitio, which is done by passing a stream relname flows for more than one pipeline and defend each thread in a separate tank.

3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the flow of oil in contact with the pipe walls, pass in laminar motion.

4. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that the oil before additional demolitia filter.

5. The method according to p. 1, or 2, or 3, or 4, characterized in that the additional demolitio perform in a few steps.

6. Installation of oil for refining, containing piping connected to the tank and provided with a socket input stream of oil vapor, characterized in that the connection of the input of water vapor is set coaxially with the pipeline, the installation is equipped with a mixing insert mounted in the pipeline sequentially and coaxially to the pipe, heat exchanger installed on the inlet pipe, and a separator emulsion included in the install sequentially with the sump and is made in the form of an additional clarifier cholesterosis service, overlying the working section of the separator, while the pipeline is installed with a slope towards the sump, providing movement to the sump dropped out of the flow of oil from mechanical impurities, made with advanced end and facing the wall Otte one similar pipeline installed parallel to the first and at least one settling tank, associated piping.

8. Installation under item 6 or 7, characterized in that the mixing insert is made in the form of two facing each other with smaller bases and spaced along the axis of the pipeline truncated cones connected at the smaller bases of the cylinder, forming a flow of the mixing insert.

9. Installation under item 8, characterized in that the mixing insert is installed in the pipeline with a gap relative to the diameter of the pipeline.

10. Installation under item 9, characterized in that it is equipped with a filter element to trap solids, set up colesterolo package.

11. Installation according to p. 6, or 7, or 8, or 9, or 10, characterized in that it is provided with at least one sequentially installed separator emulsion.

 

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EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 ex

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