Water conveyance facility
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to hydraulic structures and is intended for the construction of water supply facilities in the form of pipes, conduits, trays and other conduits, exposed to temperature extremes due to climate or features of the technological mode. In straight conduit mounted along it longitudinal connection connected with the conduit at its ends and connected with evenly spaced along its length transverse links, fixing the position of the longitudinal relations between itself and the conduit. When laying out open longitudinal conduit connection placed at regular intervals around its outer perimeter, and at underground laying open longitudinal conduit connection inside it. Longitudinal ties are cooled to a greater extent than the walls of the conduit, and therefore compress the conduit, eliminating tensile stresses in the walls of the conduit when the cooling that ensures the integrity and tightness of the pipe, which increases durability and reduces operating costs. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 8 ill. The invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering construction, specifically the significant temperature fluctuations due to climatic conditions or features of the technological mode of the conduit.Changing the temperature of the walls of the conduits lead to the appearance in them of alternating stresses, the magnitude is proportional to the temperature changes and the length of the conduit. These stresses can reach unacceptable values, leading to the destruction of the water.Known devices for reducing the tensile thermal stresses in the conduits by providing their longitudinal deformations. These devices are referred to as temperature compensators. They are installed in open culverts, diversion pipelines and other conduits /1/.In the flexible conduits continuous design freely placed between the anchor supports curved sections of the conduits perform the role of temperature compensators /2/. The advantage of such joints is that they eliminate the possibility of leakage from the water supply, but the disadvantage is that their application is not hard and split conduits for underground pipelines and conduits, and the conduits, requiring a straight strip.The closest technical solution is the expansion joints thermal stresses telescopic type (back-coupling), which are structurally divided into Stiraetsa due to the possibility of relative changes in length of the pipe sections, connected via a telescopic expansion joint.Telescopic joints are used on straight sections of the conduits, they have a relatively small size, make it possible to compensate not only the longitudinal strain of the conduits, but cross that occur when moving the supports conduits. However, these joints have a number of disadvantages: they are applicable only in conduits of circular cross section and only open when laying roads in manufacturing and operation, as they require special handling of pipes and maintenance, including regular prophylaxis.The number of joints to be installed in conduits, depends on the outside temperature changes, the length and material of the walls of the conduit: the smaller the value of the permissible stress for this material, the more set the joints.A serious drawback of such joints is the possibility of freezing at low temperatures, so that they cease to function, in addition they create additional hydraulic resistance to the flow of water, contribute to the clogging of the conduits.The task, which is directed and what's water conveyance structures between the temperature compensator, in areas where tensile thermal stresses exceed the limit values for installations of this type, and the elimination of deformations in the connection nodes split water conveyance structures.The technical result is achieved by the fact that along conduit mounted in longitudinal communication, United with him at the end of the straight part, and evenly placed along the conduit cross connection fix the position of the longitudinal relations between itself and the conduit. Moreover, when aboveground installation conduit longitudinal communication have evenly over the outer perimeter, and an open conduit underground strip inside it.As longitudinal bracing can be used metal rods, pins or more tubular elements.Comparative analysis of the prototype allows us to conclude that the proposed device is different from the known presence of new structural elements, ensuring the achievement of a qualitatively new result is the elimination of longitudinal tensile stresses in the walls of the conduits due to compression of the conduit lengthwise, the temperature of which, due to their position relative to the conduit is with longitudinal bracing system and its resistance to buckling under axial compression is provided by cross links.Analysis of the known devices, ensuring the removal of the tensile thermal stresses and compensation of deformations walling water conveyance structures, showed that compression structures lengthwise allows you to remove the tensile thermal stresses in beam structures and to eliminate the offset of the individual elements split structures relative to each other, which ensures the integrity and tightness of the entire structure, including various types of joints, socket and socket joints.An important feature of the proposed water conveyance device structures is that the compressive efforts, created lengthwise proportional to the intensity of cooling or tensile stresses resulting from cooling walling - the stronger cooling of the walls of the conduit, the greater the compression lengthwise. Longitudinal and transverse ties represent a static structural elements, and therefore do not require any special operation or maintenance, lower operational costs prevention of connecting nodes and the service conduit.Thus, predegree favorable conditions of work, improves the reliability of water supply facilities - pipelines, trays and other waterways, including their connecting nodes.The invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig. 1 - 8 schematically depicts examples of implementation of water supply facilities with lengthwise. On the drawings as water conveyance structures conventionally shown pipelines with circular and square cross-sectional shape, although the same schema are trays, pipes and any water lines with different cross-sectional shape.In Fig. 1 to 4 show examples of conduits open strip placed over the earth, on its surface or in special channels.In Fig. 1 shows a longitudinal, and Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional view through the pipeline 1 with longitudinal links 2 and transverse links 3. In this example, the longitudinal links 2 made in the form of rods, for example, cables or rods, or rods, for example, rolling - over, bands, tee, etc., In the example used four longitudinal connection 2, and the transverse link 3 taken in the form of a square plate with a circular cutout for the pipeline 1. In the General case, the number of longitudinal ties and constructive implementation of the cross is defined by the first, a in Fig. 4 is a cross-sectional view on the line 4, the longitudinal connection 5 for which is made in the form of tubular elements provided with transverse links 6 in the form of a diaphragm with a Central hole for piping 4.In Fig. 5 to 8 are examples of open conduits underground strip placed under earthen mounds and communicating with the atmosphere.In Fig. 5 schematically shows a longitudinal, and Fig. 6 - cross sections of culvert 7 with a square cross-sectional shape, placed under embankment 8. Longitudinal connection in this example is represented by the system of the main longitudinal link 9 and the distribution of links 10, performing the role of cross-linking. One end of the distribution of links 10 is connected to the end of the pipe 7, and the other with the end of the main longitudinal link 9.In Fig. 7 schematically shows a longitudinal, and Fig. 8 - cross sections of culvert 11, laid under the embankment 12. Longitudinal connection in this example is represented by a separate strips 13, arranged on the inner perimeter of the cross section of the pipe 11 and connected to the pipe 11 at its ends. As cross-linking in this case used the frame 14, evenly distributed along the length of labour is of longitudinal links work.Example 1. Water conveyance structure made in the form of freely suspended straight slotted pipe.Upon cooling of the pipeline, structurally corresponding circuits in Fig. 1 and 2, in the first place cooled longitudinal links 2, placed on the outer periphery of the pipe 1, which in this case reduce and compress the pipe along its axis. Cross connection 3 prevent buckling of compressed pipeline.Consider as a first example of cast-iron piping flare connection, 100 metres in length, is suspended from the frame rack and covered with a layer of thermal insulation. On top of thermal insulation laid longitudinal links 2, fastened transverse links 3, an example of which is shown in Fig. 1 and 2.The operating conditions of the pipeline is exposed to temperature fluctuations, the amplitude of which reaches 100oC, while the minimum temperature can drop to -60oC. Calculation of thermal deformations of the pipeline is performed by the known formula:
L = Lt,
where L is the pipe length, m;
the coefficient of linear expansion of the pipe, 1/deg;
t - temperature difference of the pipe,ooC after emptying of the pipeline. Provided that the pipeline was installed at a temperature of +20oC, the maximum reduction in the length of pipeline length of 100 m will be for cast iron pipes (cast2= 0.000010 1/deg)
Lmax=2tmaxL = 0,00001080100 = 0.08 m,
and the change of length of the longitudinal relations of the steel rods of the same length will be for the same conditions (for steel-31= 0.000012 1/deg)
Lmax=1tmaxL = 0,00001280100 = 0,096 m
From which it follows that the maximum reduction in the length of the pipeline it will be compressed to 22 mm lengthwise from the system of bars located along its perimeter. This means that even in the extreme situation tubing will retain integrity and tightness.In operating mode, the pipeline will always be compressed until the temperature in the pipeline above the air temperature as the pipeline is covered with a layer of thermal insulation and, accordingly, has a temperature close to the temperature of the discharged fluid, and longitudinal ties, RA is. doprovodem structure in the form of culverts square section under the earth embankment.The feature of thermal regime of this pipe is that in summer the walls of the pipe and the soil in the embankment have similar temperature and slightly different from the air temperature and the water in the pipe. In winter the situation is changing: the water in the pipe, as a rule, no, the soil in the embankment retains heat, and the walls of the pipe intensively cooled by cold air flowing into the cavity. Due to the tensile thermal stresses in the cooled walls of the pipe are disclosed seams or cracks. Through the open seams and cracks occurs filtering water and suppose ground, whereupon the tube is deformed and ultimately can be destroyed.Culvert pipe with longitudinal links, shown schematically in Fig. 7 and 8, in the winter time is so.Cold air flows into the pipe 11 with a length of 40 m, primarily cools the longitudinal connection 14 made in the form of steel strips, laid along the pipe on the inner perimeter of its cross section.In summer the temperature of the pipe wall 11 and the steel bands 14 are close together, with the beginning of winter pipe cooling the temperature of the wall of the conduit and steel strips close to the temperature T1= +20oC, in winter, at some point, the wall temperature is reduced to T2= -20oC, and the strip longitudinal ties to this point already chilled to a temperature T3= -30oC. Taking into account that the coefficients of thermal expansion of steel and concrete close to each other, perform the appropriate calculations by the above formula and get:
the magnitude of reduction of the length of pipe
Lt= Lt,= 0,00001040[20-(-20)] = 0,016 m and
the magnitude of reduction of the length of the longitudinal strips relations
Lp= Lt,= 0,00001040[20-(-30)] = 0,020 m
From the comparison of calculated values with the cooling water pipe tensile stresses in its walls will be fully compensated by the compression due to differential contraction of lengths of tubes and bands of longitudinal ties 0.004 m = 4 mm, Thus, the occurrence of cracks and expansion joints in the pipe wall is prevented.Permissible compressive deformation of the walls of the conduits can be calculated. Regulation of the force of compression longitudinal conduit connections may be accomplished by the installation of shock absorbers in the nodes of the fastening elements of these relations with the ends of the conduit, as well as by adjusting the temperature difference between conduit and element is howling isolation: the first directly on the wall of the conduit, and the second is over the elements of the longitudinal links. This allows you to adjust the degree of cooling of the longitudinal bracing elements and the walls of the conduit.Long conduits, are not allowed considerable tensile stress, can be equipped with longitudinal bracing systems on separate sections, between which are placed expansion joints thermal strains including those made from materials that allow significant tensile stresses and bending, but the number of such joints will be much smaller compared to pipelines without longitudinal ties.Thus, the proposed device water conveyance structures allows to compensate the tensile thermal stress in the walls of the conduits, which is better known ensures the integrity and water tightness, increases durability, reduces operating costs.Sources taken into account when preparing the description of the invention
1. Hydraulic structures. (Handbook of the designer) / Ed. by B. N., Niedrige. - M.: Stroiizdat, 1983. S. 407 - 415.2. Freshest A. R. and other Steel pipe hydroelectricty the - 263. (Prototype). 1. Water conveyance structure, exposed to temperature extremes due to climate or features of technological modes of operation, including conduit and joints of temperature deformations at the ends of the straight portions, characterized in that it contains are placed along a straight section of conduit rigidly bonded with him on the ends of the longitudinal connection in the form of rods, or rods, or more tubular elements, and evenly spaced along the conduit cross connection, the locking position of the longitudinal relations between him and conduit.2. Water conveyance facility under item 1, characterized in that the conduits open strip longitudinal links placed evenly along the outer perimeter of the conduit.3. Water conveyance facility under item 1, characterized in that for open conduits underground strip longitudinal links placed within the conduit.
FIELD: methods or layout of installations for water supply, particularly for plants, which generate thermal energy and electric power with the use of solid fuel, prevention of natural water resource contamination with suspended solids and hazardous chemical compositions.
SUBSTANCE: system comprises sewage tank, runoff ditch, filtering dam, reagent preparation and supply station, floccule forming device, floccule distribution device, which distributes floccules over runoff ditch width, water deposit structure, sorption filter and water cleaning complex, which cleans water in winter period. Complex includes ground and sorption chambers and underground pipeline. Above components are arranged in series downstream the filtering dam and arranged below seasonal ground freezing level. Water deposit structure comprises primary and fine cleaning ground chambers. Bases of filtering dam, ground and sorption chambers and underground pipeline are on one level. Floccule forming device is made as multistage zigzag gutter.
EFFECT: increased operational efficiency and ecological safety, possibility to use ecologically clear natural materials for system construction.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: discharge water conduit of hydraulic accumulating electric station (HAES) includes input head, transition section, water conduit, anchor support, knee of discharge water conduit and flow-guiding element. Discharge water conduit is equipped with support gasket, utility gallery, connecting pipeline, nozzle with stop valves, fixing longitudinal and transverse sealing tapes. Flow-guiding element is arranged in the form of elastic shell, besides support gasket is arranged between water conduit and anchor support, utility gallery is installed in body of anchor support, connecting pipeline is mounted into body of anchor support and is arranged so that its part passes directly through utility gallery. Nozzle with stop valves is installed on connecting pipeline in utility gallery, flow-guiding element is arranged on inner side of water conduit in the area of its knee, fixing longitudinal and transverse sealing tapes are also installed inside water conduit directly at the edges of flow-guiding element and in its middle part. Flow-guiding element is fixed in water conduit so that its longitudinal edges are arranged in middle part of opposite side inner surfaces of water conduit parallel to axis of water conduit and fixed to its wall with the help of fixing longitudinal sealing tapes and pins, and transverse edges of flow-guiding element are arranged on opposite sides of knee: one - from upper side of knee, the other one - on lower side of knee, both - on lower inner surface of water conduit in plane perpendicular to axis of water conduit, and fixed to its wall with the help of fixing upper and lower transverse sealing tapes by means of pins. Directly on knee flow-guiding element is also fixed to wall of water conduit with the help of fixing medium transverse sealing tape by means of pins, which provides for formation of upper and lower cavities between flow-guiding element and inner surface of water conduit. Upper end of connecting pipeline is connected to upper cavity formed by flow-guiding element and inner surface of water conduit, and lower end of connecting pipeline is connected to lower cavity.
EFFECT: reduced losses of flow energy in discharge water conduit, reduced material intensity, labour intensives of water conduit elements manufacturing and its cost, increased reliability of discharge water conduit operation.
SUBSTANCE: water-intake facility consists of shore well, pump station, self-flowing line, head, aerator of flow generator and fish-retention net. Head and aerator-flow generator are placed in satellite water reservoir joined to lake by means of water-intake channel, besides aerator-flow generator is arranged near shore of satellite water reservoir in the section between head and channel so that water arrives to its for aeration from lake, being mixed with water of satellite water reservoir, and oxygen-saturated water of aerator-flow generator is sent to head.
EFFECT: reduced energy inputs for aeration of water in the area of head.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes installation of a water conduit pipe in the duct chamber, its sealing along surface of the duct adjacency, chamber dehydration, installation of lower section of the knife gate body. After installation of the lower section of the gate body the pipe is withdrawn, and the upper section of the knife gate body is installed.
EFFECT: simplified assembly of knife gates in chambers of sewage and water conduit ducts of water supply networks.
SUBSTANCE: method includes forwarding a larger part of Volga run-off from the Zhigulevskoe storage pond bypassing existing hydraulic structures of the Zhigulevskaya HPP along the valley of the Usa River for its supply into water-passage tunnels under a neck between water areas of the Zhigulevskoe and Saratovskoe storage ponds, designed to supply water onto blades of hydraulic turbines of a new hydraulic power plant in the area of the settlement Perevoloki of Samara region, and also for idle discharge of water into the water area of the Saratovskoe storage pond.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase the extent of protection of structures arranged in zones of possible breakthrough of water masses.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydrotechnical construction and can be used for removal of deposits on water intake facilities with intake from lower layers of water for agricultural water supply. Water intake comprises rainwater perforated tubes 10, laid into a layer of filtering surface, protective shield made from laid in a row with clearance rods 1, connected to lower side of hollow pipes 2. Hollow pipes 2 are made on upper generatrix of pipe with air outlet holes between free sections of each rod 1. Inside hollow pipes 2 are fixed on bottom additional pipes 4 with clearance. Additional pipes 4 are made from soft elastic material with micropores. Additional pipes 4 are pneumatically communicated via air duct 5 with tap 6, cavity of which is connected with compressor 7 of compressed air fed via air duct 5 into additional pipes 4. Compressor 7 is connected with time relay 8. End sections of hollow pipes 2 have washing calibrated holes 9, and end sections of additional pipes 4 are plugged.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, reliability and reduced operating costs.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydrotechnical and hydroelectric construction and can be used for creation of pressure water conduits, derivational, hydroelectric pumped storage, etc. hydroelectric power plants, as well as pump stations. Composite mobile derivational water conduit (CMDWC) includes a water intake of syphon or other type, water-supply sections, a composite water conduit from traditional rigid, as well as soft and flexible composite nanomaterials with shape memory, which include an outer shell, two inner shells with an additional coating from composite nanomaterials, which together are flow-guiding elements, at intersections of landsliding areas, as well as terrains with complex elements of orography: ravines, downwarpings, etc. CMDWC is suspended by cable-stayed systems fixed on supports, and there are devices for damping a hydraulic impact and monitoring technical state of the CMDWC extending in a building of container-type like a small hydro-derivative power plant. CMDWC erection method includes as part of design documentation calculation and development parts, including planning its route, creation of the upper and the lower reservoirs, laying the water conduit itself. Delivery and installation of the water conveying sections are performed directly on the route, where their inner and outer shells are mounted with serial interconnection by means of a flexible link starting from the syphon or another water intake. At hard-to-reach areas of highlands installed are supports and a cable-stayed system, onto which by means of preliminary fixed on the CMDWC shells the water-conveying section is suspended. On underlying sections with high water pressure by means of compensators water conveying sections are connected with the water conduit made of plastic or metal, if necessary, a bandage is installed. Then a building is erected of a container-type small hydro-derivative power plant with a previously installed in it hydroelectric unit, devices for damping the hydraulic impact and monitoring the CMDWC technical state. Further, the diffuser is mounted and conditions are provided for damping the energy in the lower reservoir.
EFFECT: invention increases technically possible hydro-energetic potential of small mountain rivers by using seasonally-active mobile derivational hydroelectric power plants.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: drive has the asynchronous machine (210), operated as the asynchronous motor/generator to control the gate. The machine (210) has the brake (230) with release the brake device. The method contains the following steps in which the emergency closing situation is detected and/or indicated, the brake (230) is released by the release the brake device in the event, when the insufficient power is indicated. The machine (210) is activated by the gravity force of the hydraulic gate shield or the roller gate. The machine (210) is operated automatically, at that the rotating field is formed. The machine (210) is operated in the generating island operating mode, in which the rotating field is generated automatically.
EFFECT: creation of the method and device to control the hydraulic gate or the roller gate drive, which during the emergency shutdown provides the gate shield release passively.
24 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to method for lining of pipe internal surfaces with application of tubular layers and molded shells and spacer device for lining of pipe internal surfaces, and may be used for heat insulation of tubular chambers with speed heat flow. Method for lining of chamber with heat-shielding coating includes application of adhesive layer and installation of tubular multilayer shell with action of internal pressure and heating. For chamber lining two cloths from porous heat-shielding carbon material, having each the area equivalent to chamber surface are impregnated with phenol formaldehyde resin and rolled in cylinder by two coaxial layers with fiber woof across its generatrix and diametrically installed joints. At that previously internal surface of chamber and border contacting surfaces of cloths are coated with glue, dried, and cylinder is installed in chamber. Inside chamber with cylinder installed in it along its whole length spacer device is inserted, sealed from chamber ends by force of squeezing with plugs. Plugs are equipped with drain holes and nozzles, through one of which air is supplied into internal cavity of spacer device, pressure of 3.8-4.0 kgf/cm2 is created and maintained for 60-65 min at the temperature of 170-180°C. Then chamber is cooled, air is released, and plugs and spacer device are withdrawn. Spacer device for chamber lining is arranged in the form of rubber tubular rings set equipped with end collars with grooves, in which along circumference longitudinal channels are arranged that communicated to drain holes in plugs. At that ratio of rings diametre to their width makes 1:2…2.5.
EFFECT: higher quality of internal coating application in chamber.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions is related to tiling material hardened in-situ with longitudinal reinforcement and method of its production. Method for production of tiling material hardened in-situ consists in provision of the first tubular element from material impregnated with resin in compressed condition as internal tubular element and impregnation of impregnated material with resin. Then coarse canvas is placed, which is selected from woven or non-woven canvas and having high strength in direction of warp at least on part of one surface of compressed tubular element. Coating made of material that is impermeable for resin is placed on tubular element and coarse canvas, in order to get external impermeable coating. Tiling material hardened in-situ includes the first tubular element of material impregnated with resin, reinforcing canvas selected from woven and nonwoven canvas and having higher strength in direction of warp. AT that canvas location is selected so that not to prevent radial expansion of tiling. Tiling material also contains external coating, which is impermeable to resin and is located around the first tubular element and canvas.
EFFECT: development of improved method to produce longitudinal reinforced tiling material, and also in production of tiling material with higher longitudinal strength.
15 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: method includes stages, where porous insulation is formed in the form of extended arched elements, a layer of a sodium silicate solution is applied onto the specified insulation and at least partially into its pores. The layer of the sodium silicate solution is hardened to the threshold condition. The external surface is adhered to the layer of the sodium silicate solution upon completion of the hardening stage. Insulation is installed onto the outer surface of the pipeline, and open edges or seams are sealed between installed items. The structure arranged according to this method may have a separating film and a contact glue.
EFFECT: possibility to prevent corrosion.
21 cl, 8 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the production of pipes for oil and gas pipelines. The tubular article (10) has a longitudinal axis X and comprises separate inner and outer bands (12, 14) of material wound helically overlapping. Each of the bands (12, 14) has a longitudinal axis L and the first and second edges (16, 18 16', 18'), and contains two or more longitudinally extending ridges (20, 22, 20', 22'), each of which extends along the longitudinal axis L parallel to one another. Each of the ridges (20, 22, 20', 22') contains asymmetric ridges having a front edge (24, 24') and non-contact areas (26, 26') of the rear edge, which are spaced apart by the distance G. Each of these front edges (24, 24') Is in contact with one another and forms a contact area (28, 28').
EFFECT: improving the product quality.
22 cl, 14 dwg