Water conveyance facility

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to hydraulic structures and is intended for the construction of water supply facilities in the form of pipes, conduits, trays and other conduits, exposed to temperature extremes due to climate or features of the technological mode. In straight conduit mounted along it longitudinal connection connected with the conduit at its ends and connected with evenly spaced along its length transverse links, fixing the position of the longitudinal relations between itself and the conduit. When laying out open longitudinal conduit connection placed at regular intervals around its outer perimeter, and at underground laying open longitudinal conduit connection inside it. Longitudinal ties are cooled to a greater extent than the walls of the conduit, and therefore compress the conduit, eliminating tensile stresses in the walls of the conduit when the cooling that ensures the integrity and tightness of the pipe, which increases durability and reduces operating costs. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 8 ill.

The invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering construction, specifically the significant temperature fluctuations due to climatic conditions or features of the technological mode of the conduit.

Changing the temperature of the walls of the conduits lead to the appearance in them of alternating stresses, the magnitude is proportional to the temperature changes and the length of the conduit. These stresses can reach unacceptable values, leading to the destruction of the water.

Known devices for reducing the tensile thermal stresses in the conduits by providing their longitudinal deformations. These devices are referred to as temperature compensators. They are installed in open culverts, diversion pipelines and other conduits /1/.

In the flexible conduits continuous design freely placed between the anchor supports curved sections of the conduits perform the role of temperature compensators /2/. The advantage of such joints is that they eliminate the possibility of leakage from the water supply, but the disadvantage is that their application is not hard and split conduits for underground pipelines and conduits, and the conduits, requiring a straight strip.

The closest technical solution is the expansion joints thermal stresses telescopic type (back-coupling), which are structurally divided into Stiraetsa due to the possibility of relative changes in length of the pipe sections, connected via a telescopic expansion joint.

Telescopic joints are used on straight sections of the conduits, they have a relatively small size, make it possible to compensate not only the longitudinal strain of the conduits, but cross that occur when moving the supports conduits. However, these joints have a number of disadvantages: they are applicable only in conduits of circular cross section and only open when laying roads in manufacturing and operation, as they require special handling of pipes and maintenance, including regular prophylaxis.

The number of joints to be installed in conduits, depends on the outside temperature changes, the length and material of the walls of the conduit: the smaller the value of the permissible stress for this material, the more set the joints.

A serious drawback of such joints is the possibility of freezing at low temperatures, so that they cease to function, in addition they create additional hydraulic resistance to the flow of water, contribute to the clogging of the conduits.

The task, which is directed and what's water conveyance structures between the temperature compensator, in areas where tensile thermal stresses exceed the limit values for installations of this type, and the elimination of deformations in the connection nodes split water conveyance structures.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that along conduit mounted in longitudinal communication, United with him at the end of the straight part, and evenly placed along the conduit cross connection fix the position of the longitudinal relations between itself and the conduit. Moreover, when aboveground installation conduit longitudinal communication have evenly over the outer perimeter, and an open conduit underground strip inside it.

As longitudinal bracing can be used metal rods, pins or more tubular elements.

Comparative analysis of the prototype allows us to conclude that the proposed device is different from the known presence of new structural elements, ensuring the achievement of a qualitatively new result is the elimination of longitudinal tensile stresses in the walls of the conduits due to compression of the conduit lengthwise, the temperature of which, due to their position relative to the conduit is with longitudinal bracing system and its resistance to buckling under axial compression is provided by cross links.

Analysis of the known devices, ensuring the removal of the tensile thermal stresses and compensation of deformations walling water conveyance structures, showed that compression structures lengthwise allows you to remove the tensile thermal stresses in beam structures and to eliminate the offset of the individual elements split structures relative to each other, which ensures the integrity and tightness of the entire structure, including various types of joints, socket and socket joints.

An important feature of the proposed water conveyance device structures is that the compressive efforts, created lengthwise proportional to the intensity of cooling or tensile stresses resulting from cooling walling - the stronger cooling of the walls of the conduit, the greater the compression lengthwise. Longitudinal and transverse ties represent a static structural elements, and therefore do not require any special operation or maintenance, lower operational costs prevention of connecting nodes and the service conduit.

Thus, predegree favorable conditions of work, improves the reliability of water supply facilities - pipelines, trays and other waterways, including their connecting nodes.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig. 1 - 8 schematically depicts examples of implementation of water supply facilities with lengthwise. On the drawings as water conveyance structures conventionally shown pipelines with circular and square cross-sectional shape, although the same schema are trays, pipes and any water lines with different cross-sectional shape.

In Fig. 1 to 4 show examples of conduits open strip placed over the earth, on its surface or in special channels.

In Fig. 1 shows a longitudinal, and Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional view through the pipeline 1 with longitudinal links 2 and transverse links 3. In this example, the longitudinal links 2 made in the form of rods, for example, cables or rods, or rods, for example, rolling - over, bands, tee, etc., In the example used four longitudinal connection 2, and the transverse link 3 taken in the form of a square plate with a circular cutout for the pipeline 1. In the General case, the number of longitudinal ties and constructive implementation of the cross is defined by the first, a in Fig. 4 is a cross-sectional view on the line 4, the longitudinal connection 5 for which is made in the form of tubular elements provided with transverse links 6 in the form of a diaphragm with a Central hole for piping 4.

In Fig. 5 to 8 are examples of open conduits underground strip placed under earthen mounds and communicating with the atmosphere.

In Fig. 5 schematically shows a longitudinal, and Fig. 6 - cross sections of culvert 7 with a square cross-sectional shape, placed under embankment 8. Longitudinal connection in this example is represented by the system of the main longitudinal link 9 and the distribution of links 10, performing the role of cross-linking. One end of the distribution of links 10 is connected to the end of the pipe 7, and the other with the end of the main longitudinal link 9.

In Fig. 7 schematically shows a longitudinal, and Fig. 8 - cross sections of culvert 11, laid under the embankment 12. Longitudinal connection in this example is represented by a separate strips 13, arranged on the inner perimeter of the cross section of the pipe 11 and connected to the pipe 11 at its ends. As cross-linking in this case used the frame 14, evenly distributed along the length of labour is of longitudinal links work.

Example 1. Water conveyance structure made in the form of freely suspended straight slotted pipe.

Upon cooling of the pipeline, structurally corresponding circuits in Fig. 1 and 2, in the first place cooled longitudinal links 2, placed on the outer periphery of the pipe 1, which in this case reduce and compress the pipe along its axis. Cross connection 3 prevent buckling of compressed pipeline.

Consider as a first example of cast-iron piping flare connection, 100 metres in length, is suspended from the frame rack and covered with a layer of thermal insulation. On top of thermal insulation laid longitudinal links 2, fastened transverse links 3, an example of which is shown in Fig. 1 and 2.

The operating conditions of the pipeline is exposed to temperature fluctuations, the amplitude of which reaches 100oC, while the minimum temperature can drop to -60oC. Calculation of thermal deformations of the pipeline is performed by the known formula:

L = Lt,

where L is the pipe length, m;

the coefficient of linear expansion of the pipe, 1/deg;

t - temperature difference of the pipe,ooC after emptying of the pipeline. Provided that the pipeline was installed at a temperature of +20oC, the maximum reduction in the length of pipeline length of 100 m will be for cast iron pipes (cast2= 0.000010 1/deg)

Lmax=2tmaxL = 0,00001080100 = 0.08 m,

and the change of length of the longitudinal relations of the steel rods of the same length will be for the same conditions (for steel-31= 0.000012 1/deg)

Lmax=1tmaxL = 0,00001280100 = 0,096 m

From which it follows that the maximum reduction in the length of the pipeline it will be compressed to 22 mm lengthwise from the system of bars located along its perimeter. This means that even in the extreme situation tubing will retain integrity and tightness.

In operating mode, the pipeline will always be compressed until the temperature in the pipeline above the air temperature as the pipeline is covered with a layer of thermal insulation and, accordingly, has a temperature close to the temperature of the discharged fluid, and longitudinal ties, RA is. doprovodem structure in the form of culverts square section under the earth embankment.

The feature of thermal regime of this pipe is that in summer the walls of the pipe and the soil in the embankment have similar temperature and slightly different from the air temperature and the water in the pipe. In winter the situation is changing: the water in the pipe, as a rule, no, the soil in the embankment retains heat, and the walls of the pipe intensively cooled by cold air flowing into the cavity. Due to the tensile thermal stresses in the cooled walls of the pipe are disclosed seams or cracks. Through the open seams and cracks occurs filtering water and suppose ground, whereupon the tube is deformed and ultimately can be destroyed.

Culvert pipe with longitudinal links, shown schematically in Fig. 7 and 8, in the winter time is so.

Cold air flows into the pipe 11 with a length of 40 m, primarily cools the longitudinal connection 14 made in the form of steel strips, laid along the pipe on the inner perimeter of its cross section.

In summer the temperature of the pipe wall 11 and the steel bands 14 are close together, with the beginning of winter pipe cooling the temperature of the wall of the conduit and steel strips close to the temperature T1= +20oC, in winter, at some point, the wall temperature is reduced to T2= -20oC, and the strip longitudinal ties to this point already chilled to a temperature T3= -30oC. Taking into account that the coefficients of thermal expansion of steel and concrete close to each other, perform the appropriate calculations by the above formula and get:

the magnitude of reduction of the length of pipe

Lt= Lt,= 0,00001040[20-(-20)] = 0,016 m and

the magnitude of reduction of the length of the longitudinal strips relations

Lp= Lt,= 0,00001040[20-(-30)] = 0,020 m

From the comparison of calculated values with the cooling water pipe tensile stresses in its walls will be fully compensated by the compression due to differential contraction of lengths of tubes and bands of longitudinal ties 0.004 m = 4 mm, Thus, the occurrence of cracks and expansion joints in the pipe wall is prevented.

Permissible compressive deformation of the walls of the conduits can be calculated. Regulation of the force of compression longitudinal conduit connections may be accomplished by the installation of shock absorbers in the nodes of the fastening elements of these relations with the ends of the conduit, as well as by adjusting the temperature difference between conduit and element is howling isolation: the first directly on the wall of the conduit, and the second is over the elements of the longitudinal links. This allows you to adjust the degree of cooling of the longitudinal bracing elements and the walls of the conduit.

Long conduits, are not allowed considerable tensile stress, can be equipped with longitudinal bracing systems on separate sections, between which are placed expansion joints thermal strains including those made from materials that allow significant tensile stresses and bending, but the number of such joints will be much smaller compared to pipelines without longitudinal ties.

Thus, the proposed device water conveyance structures allows to compensate the tensile thermal stress in the walls of the conduits, which is better known ensures the integrity and water tightness, increases durability, reduces operating costs.

Sources taken into account when preparing the description of the invention

1. Hydraulic structures. (Handbook of the designer) / Ed. by B. N., Niedrige. - M.: Stroiizdat, 1983. S. 407 - 415.

2. Freshest A. R. and other Steel pipe hydroelectricty the - 263. (Prototype).

1. Water conveyance structure, exposed to temperature extremes due to climate or features of technological modes of operation, including conduit and joints of temperature deformations at the ends of the straight portions, characterized in that it contains are placed along a straight section of conduit rigidly bonded with him on the ends of the longitudinal connection in the form of rods, or rods, or more tubular elements, and evenly spaced along the conduit cross connection, the locking position of the longitudinal relations between him and conduit.

2. Water conveyance facility under item 1, characterized in that the conduits open strip longitudinal links placed evenly along the outer perimeter of the conduit.

3. Water conveyance facility under item 1, characterized in that for open conduits underground strip longitudinal links placed within the conduit.

 

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