The way to generate force and movement by controlling the orientation of the twin areas of the material and its application

 

(57) Abstract:

The present invention relates to a method of changing the shape, the implementation of motion and/or force generation in materials with a twin structure. In accordance with this method is high enough external magnetic field acting on the material, refocus twin zone, thereby producing movement or creating force. Performing useful work possible in the case when the energy magnetocrystal anisotropy is higher or equal to the energy of reorientation of twin zones to achieve a given deformation. Devices based on this method have a higher performance, more reliable and less expensive. 4 C. and 26 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill.

The technical field to which the invention relates

The present invention relates to a method of controlling the orientation of twin zones in the material having a twin structure, using magnetic fields to change the form and generate force and movement through mechanisms based on this method.

Prior art

Motion control and power are some of the main elements of mechanical design ustring functional materials, called "Executive" materials. Among the available "Executive" materials the most important groups are piezoelectric ceramics, magnetostrictive intermetallic compounds and alloys with shape memory effect. In piezoelectric ceramics under the influence of an electric field developed deformation. These materials have good frequency characteristics, but the amplitude of the deformation is very small, which limits their applicability. Magnetostrictive materials are deformed when exposed to a magnetic field. Certain intermetallic compounds with significant magnetostrictive effect (e.g., Terfenol - D company Etrema Products, Inc., Ames, USA) provide strain to 0.17%, which is an order of magnitude higher than currently available piezoelectric materials. However, the frequency characteristics of the magnetostrictive intermetallics worse than that of the piezoelectric materials.

Materials with shape memory effect, being subjected to plastic deformation at one temperature, can restore the original undeformed state when the temperature increases above the temperature of phase transformations that are specific for each alloy. In these materials the crystal is narrow or temperature. The process during which mechanically deformed materials with shape memory, restore its original shape after heating, is called irreversible shape memory effect. Subsequent cooling does not restore the modified form. Irreversible shape memory effect is used in fasteners, tightening devices, and devices with pre-tensioned. The strain of a few percent can recover fully, and were achieved voltage recovery of more than 900 MPa. In the case of reversible shape memory effect requires no deformation, and the material "remembers" two configurations, which is obtained by heating and cooling to a certain temperature, specific for a given alloy. The temperature difference between the two configurations may correspond to only 1 to 2 K. the Materials having reversible shape memory, are used to build the forces and displacements in the various actuating mechanisms, which are used in mechanical engineering, robotics and biomedical engineering. The most commonly used materials with shape memory effect is based alloys Ni, Ti, Cu. The disadvantages of the mechanisms on the basis of materials with shape memory effect waking cooling) and low efficiency (energy conversion), which in many alloys is about 1%.

In order to manifest the shape memory effect, the material shall be by a twin substructure. The shape change of the material with shape memory effect based on the reorientation of twin zones in the external field voltage. Two-dimensional illustration of a twin reorientation is shown in Fig. 1. Fig. 1A presents two versions of a twin configuration, denoted as options 1 and 2, which occupies when no external voltage is equal to the zone. When a voltage is applied (see Fig. 1B) border (or plane) of twinning shift and option 2 grows at the expense of option 1, forming a structure that better aligns with the applied voltage. The result of the motion of the boundaries of twinning is thus the transformation of one variant of twinning in the other. Options, the most favorably oriented relative to the applied voltage, expanded. As shown in Fig. 1B, in the end, if the deformation is large enough, may be the only variant of martensite. In the martensitic phase twin options usually are a few Cree is Sculeni complex shape change material, and provides a full shape recovery. Crystallographic analysis showed that the boundaries between martensite plates can also behave as the boundaries of twinning, i.e. a separate plate martensite themselves have twins with respect to adjacent plates. Therefore, the term "boundaries of twinning" in General refers to the boundaries between the plates of martensite as well as to the boundaries within the plates (this definition applies to the boundaries of twinning-driven magnetization, which will be discussed later). In some materials the applied voltage causes the formation of the martensite phase, twin sub-zones which are preferably oriented in accordance with the applied voltage.

Appropriate materials reorientation of twin areas responsible for voltage recovery of a few percent (for example, about 10% in Ni-Ti alloys with shape memory effect). In some alloys, the voltage required for the reorientation of twin zones, very little. In Fig. 2 shows curves of stress - strain for some materials with shape memory effect. It is seen that in most of these alloys 4% deformation is achieved napra, necessary for the formation of deformation of 1% by reorientation of twin variants, shown in Fig. 2 areas, limited curves stress - strain behavior, axis deformation and the vertical dashed line. Energy density voltage for In-Ti, Ni-Mn-Ga alloys (ferromagnetic Ni2MnGa), CuZn-Sn and Cu-Zn be 104, 8,5 1041,1 105and 2.3 105J/m3respectively.

Will continue to use the concept of magnetic energy (magnetocrystal) anisotropy, which plays an important role in the present invention. In ferromagnetic crystals magnetocrystal anisotropy energy is the energy that directs the magnetization along certain crystallographic axes, called the axes of easy magnetization. In Fig. 3 shows magnetization curves of a single crystal of cobalt with a hexagonal crystal structure.

Its axis of easy magnetization parallel to the axis of the unit cell. Saturation is achieved at low values of the magnetic field in this direction, as shown in Fig. 3. To achieve saturation of the sample in the basal plane is much more difficult. To saturate the necessary magnetic field and magnetic anisotropy, corresponding to the process of magnetization in different directions, is the area between the curves of magnetization for these areas. In cobalt energy density required to saturate the sample in the direction of hard magnetization is about 5105J/m3(the area between the curves of saturation in Fig. 3). The energy density of the anisotropy of magnetic hard alloys based on Fe and Co are in the range of 105up to 107J/m3. The highest energy density anisotropy value (K1), close to 108J/m3was observed in metals group 4f at low temperatures. In intermetallic compounds, such as Co5Nd, Fe14Nd2B and Sm2Co17, energy density anisotropy at room temperature are 1,5107, 5107, 3,2106J/m3respectively.

The invention

The present invention concerns a principle of creation of actuators for providing motion and forces, controlled by magnetization. The action of such mechanisms is based on the reorientation of twin zones of the Executive material mechanism, which is operated by a magnetic field. This Mat is the material with shape memory effect). By controlling the corresponding source of the magnetic field of their performance, precision and efficiency is much higher than that of materials with shape memory effect. New mechanisms, operated by means of magnetization, have great potential for use in mechanical engineering. They will replace the hydraulic, pneumatic and electromagnetic actuators in many applications. The use of these materials will lead to easier, simpler and more robust construction than conventional technologies. Because twin reorientation occurs in three dimensions, magnetic control can provide complex shape changes. The scope of this invention extends due to the fact that it provides the ability to remotely control such mechanisms and supply power to their Executive materials. Machine, providing controlled motion or desired changes shape (e.g., bending, twisting, clamp, clamping, pumping fluid, such as liquids, can be a small, respectively, of a modified form and pre-oriented piece of material. It is expected that Biala use in micro - and nanotechnology.

List of figures

In Fig. 1A - 1B schematically (in two dimensions) presents changes in the martensitic material that described above, namely the rotation of twin zones under the action of tension;

in Fig. 2 shows curves of stress - strain (tensile) for single crystal alloys In-Ti, Cu-Zn-Sn and Ni-Mn-Ga alloy by Geissler (Ni2MnGa) and polycrystalline alloy of Cu-Zn with shape memory effect during the reorientation of twin zones;

in Fig. 3 shows magnetization curves of a single crystal of cobalt:

Fig. 4 illustrates the principle of the present invention, i.e., the rotation of twins under the action of an external magnetic field, namely:

in Fig. 4A presents the initial situation in the absence of an external magnetic field;

in Fig. 4B shows the reversal double under the influence of the magnetic field H;

Fig. 5A - 5B illustrate the principle of changing the shape of twin material under the influence of a magnetic field, which causes a change in shape of the material, and also initiates the movement and build strength in the Executive mechanism, namely:

in Fig. 5A presents the initial situation in the absence of a magnetic field;

in Fig. 5B shows the moment of impact externally, the AI twin zones under the influence of a magnetic field;

in Fig. 6 shows the experimental setup to study the reorientation of twin zones under the influence of a magnetic field.

Information confirming the possibility of carrying out the invention

The present invention provides a new way to make changes in the shape, motion and/or force generation in materials, based on the reorientation of twin zones under the influence of an external magnetic field.

The invention will be hereinafter described in detail, with explanation of its essential features, as well as with reference to Fig. 2-6, facilitate easier understanding of the invention.

In Fig. 4 shows a two-dimensional illustration of the principle of reorientation of twin zones under the influence of an external magnetic field. In the crystalline ferromagnetic material in the absence of an external magnetic field the magnetization vector lies along the axis of easy magnetization. The situation shown in Fig. 4A, corresponds to the presence of two twin variants. The axis of easy magnetization is parallel to the side of the unit cells of each option. It should be emphasized that the axis of easy magnetization is not necessarily parallel to the plane of twinning; it can CLASS="ptx2">

If an external magnetic field affects the crystalline ferromagnetic material, the magnetization vectors tend to turn from the axis of easy magnetization of the unit cell to the direction of the external magnetic field. If the energy magnetocrystal anisotropy indicated in this document, as Ukhigh, the magnetic field required for such a reversal must also be high. This is shown in Fig. 3 for hexagonal cobalt. If the energy of reorientation of twin zone (that is the energy of motion of the boundaries of twinning) is small compared with the energy Ukmagnetocrystal anisotropy, twin zone reoriented under the action of an external magnetic field, and the magnetization remains in the original direction of easy magnetization oriented unit cells. In Fig. 4B shows how an elementary cell of one twin variant under the influence of an external magnetic field into another option. In the doubles, with favorable orientation relative to the magnetic field grow at the expense of other counterparts, as shown in Fig. 5.

In Fig. 5 presents initial situe. The magnetization is directed parallel to the plane of twinning. In Fig. shows only part of the magnetization vectors. With reference to this figure it is assumed that the twins should only consist of a single ferromagnetic domains (recent studies have shown that twins in some ferromagnetic martensite, such as Fe-Pt, can consist of two magnetic domains, the boundary which crosses the double).

In Fig. 5B shows how the unit cell, the axis of easy magnetization which differs from the direction of the external magnetic field rotates so that this axis coincides with the direction of the field. This leads to the growth of twin zones with a preferred orientation relative to the external field and to reduce other option of twin zones. In the end, can only stay one twin variant of that shown in Fig. 5V.

The reorientation of twin zones described above, affects the shape change of the material, which thus can provide movement and build strength in the Executive mechanisms with magnetic control, using Executive materials with twin areas. Because the shift is happening is additional material such mechanisms can be restored when removing fields or changing its direction. The influence of external magnetic field on the orientation of the unit cell of martensite can cause directional movement of interphase boundary martensite - martensite and the austenite - martensite, which can also be used in enforcement mechanisms. In this case, preferably oriented twinned martensite grows at the expense of the initial phase. This growth can also be reversible.

It is assumed that the management reorientation of twin zones by means of the magnetic field should provide appropriate material reversible deformation of a few percent (similar deformation recovery caused by stress, in alloys with shape memory effect). In order to cause deformation induced magnetization, it is necessary that the energy Ukmagnetocrystal anisotropy of the material was greater than or comparable to the energy required for the reorientation of twin zones to achieve this deformation. Energy is defined as energy of reorientation of twin zones and designated as Etwincludes members associated with the shape change of the material, i.e. the strain energy and dissipation. With respect to the actuators Utw1and work performed by the mechanism. The higher the value of Ukthe greater the magnetic field energy can be converted into mechanical work of the actuator and, thus, the greater the force that can be created.

Further comparison of the anisotropy energies with the energies of the transition Etwin various materials. As was shown in Fig. 2, the energy density Etwto create a strain of 1 % in some martensitic alloys with shape memory effect are in the range of 104to 2.3 105J/m3. On the other hand, there are many materials in which the energy density of the magnetic anisotropy ranges from 105up to 108J/m3. Some examples of these materials above (alloys based on Co, Fe and rare earth metals). Density energy anisotropy of some materials even nab-TI. This is a big difference in energies Ukand Etw1demonstrates ample opportunities to find the best materials combining high energy anisotropy and lowtw.

In some ferromagnetic martensite boundaries of twinning are very mobile under the influence of the applied voltage. In Fig. 2 with respect to the ferromagnetic martensitic alloy Ni2MnGa (single crystal) it was shown that exposure to low voltage from 10 to 20 MPa, in the direction [100] causes the reorientation of twin zones and leads to a reversible deformation value of 4%. To get in these alloys, the deformation amount of 1% due to the reorientation of twin zones under the influence of a magnetic field, the energy of anisotropy must be greater than the energy of reorientation of twin zone Etwcomponent in accordance with Fig. 2, 8,5 104J/m3. This value is quite low and, therefore, it is assumed that the deformation caused by the magnetization in the material is possible. In many ferromagnetic alloys with shape memory effect, currently available, and in other iron-based alloys, which are twinned structure, voltage razgolicen high for the implementation of deformations, based on the reorientation of twin zones under the influence of a magnetic field has been experimentally demonstrated in some alloys. For example, in materials, in which the reorientation of twin zones, causing deformation of 1%, it would be necessary voltage 100 MPa, Etwin accordance with the calculations should be 5105J/m3(assuming a linear relationship between stress and strain). In order to trigger the deformation by the reorientation of twin zones caused by the magnetic field, the energy of anisotropy must be greater than or equal to 5 105J/m3. This value of energy anisotropy is the same as the cobalt, and it can be provided in many alloys based on Fe and Co.

As a third example, assume that a very high voltage is 500 MPa would be required to create some material deformation of 1 % by reorientation of twin zones. To obtain the deformation of the same magnitude under the influence of magnetic field energy density anisotropy of 2.5 106J/m3. This value of energy anisotropy can also be achieved in the respective alloys, since the highest values of energy anisot who eat the description to determine magnetocrystal anisotropy energies are only applicable valuation obtained for some classes of materials, because the value of the anisotropy energies for twin materials with low Etwcan't be measured by measuring the saturation magnetization (see Fig. 3). The reason is that the direction of magnetization in this case is not deployed in the applied field along the hard axis of magnetization of the unit cell, but the saturation is reached at lower levels of the magnetic field due to the realignment of twin zones (together with the vectors of magnetization). Magnetization measurements should be conducted on samples with one double, which in many cases impossible to obtain.

The present invention is aimed at finding new ferromagnetic materials, which detect high energy anisotropy and low Etw.

The best materials can have high energies the anisotropy characteristic of rare-earth metals, and at the same time moving boundaries of twinning appropriate twinning phase. In addition, promising submitted materials with shape memory effect based on Co and Fe, with close-Packed hexagonal or cubic martensite lattice, whose work has already view anisotropy and strengthen the alloy mechanical, what prevents a preferred slide, making the twinning main mechanism of deformation. Another interesting group of materials for mechanisms driven magnetization, are alloys by Geissler (for example, type Ni2MnGa), the ferromagnetic properties of which are determined by the presence of Mn.

In many materials the rate of shifts of boundaries, of twinning is very high, down to a fraction of the speed of sound. This means that the movement induced magnetic field in the respective materials, happen very quickly, and the mechanisms on the basis of these materials can operate at high frequencies.

Examples

The reorientation of twin zones caused by the magnetic field was experimentally studied in alloys based on Fe-Ni-Co-Ti, Fe-Ni-C and Fe-Mn-N. These materials are ferromagnetic and demonstrate twinned microstructure. The measured anisotropy energies was about 5 105J/m3for alloys of Fe-Ni-Co-Ti and 2105J/m3for alloys of Fe-Ni-C. it is Assumed that these values should be high enough in order to carry out the deformation induced magnetic field based on the reorientation of twin zones. Next will be described the experimental The experimental set-up

Schematic diagram of the setup for studying the effect of stress and magnetic field on twin zone shown in Fig. 6. This setting allows you to create axial load and torsional load and measure the corresponding deformation of the samples. Sample 6 was fixed in two coaxial tubes-holders 1 and 2. Tube 1 was fixed, and the tube 2 is used for the deformation of the sample. The sample chamber was surrounded by a winding 7 for forming a magnetic field acting on the sample. In an alternating magnetic field frequency characteristics of the deformations that occur under the influence of magnetic fields were measured at low frequencies. At higher frequencies the frequency response was measured using a load cell attached to the sample. In these measurements the measuring tube 2 has been removed. The same procedure was used when measuring curved samples. Changes deformations under the influence of the magnetic field were measured under static and alternating magnetic fields.

With the application of the described sample holder were also conducted measurements of electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility, as shown in Fig. 6. So, for incamera for samples immersed in liquid nitrogen or liquid helium, and the temperature could be regulated by means of the heater 4 in the range from 4 to 600 K.

Dissipation attributed to the motion of the boundaries of twinning and martensitic phase boundaries, were also analyzed for this installation. The amount of martensite was determined by measurements of electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. To determine the relative content of the martensite phase was also used mössbauer spectroscopy. Mössbauer spectroscopy has proven to be more effective for this study in comparison with x-ray spectroscopy, because its results are not sensitive to the texture of the sample.

Example 1

The sample was exposed to a variable of torsion, and measured its ability to damp vibrations. These experiments showed that the boundaries of twinning (as well as the interface between austenite and martensite twinning) are very mobile. The measurements were carried out at strain amplitudes of 10-6up to 10-3.

Example 2

Strain-induced magnetization were measured on curved samples. First martensitic sample mechanically curved. During this devoran sample was oriented in a different way, what has resulted as a consequence of different reactions to the stresses of compression and tension to different proportions of twin variants. It was confirmed that the amount of martensite on both sides of the sample in the same way. Under the influence of magnetic fields in curved sample appeared deformation caused by the magnetic field, and they had different directions on different sides of the sample. On the other side, which was initially mechanically stretched, the magnetic field has caused the decline, and on the other side under the action of the magnetic field occurred stretching. For example, when exposed to a magnetic field of 1 kOe in the slightly curved sample Fe-Ni-C martensite twinning thickness of 1 mm, the difference in deformation between the two sides amounted to 2.2 10-5. This value is higher than the magnetostriction of the material. This effect cannot be explained by magnetostriction, because it may not cause deformation in opposite directions on both sides of the sample, and, moreover, its magnitude is too small.

Initial mechanical deformation were also created by the torsion. Deformation of the torsion influenced special reorientation of twin zones. Under the influence of the magnetic field in this area appeared Def is the shaft of the fields, perpendicular and parallel to the surface of the sample. The intensity of the Bragg peaks are coordinated with the relative number of twin variants, corresponding to the condition of diffraction. Measurements showed shifts in the maxima of intensities, which were interpreted as a consequence of twin re orientation of martensite induced magnetization. Changes of maximum intensity was observed in the alloys, in which twin was only the inner plates of martensite. The outer portion of the plates consisted of dislocation cells and weaves. Therefore, the interfacial boundaries between the phases of austenite and martensite in these alloys are fixed and controlled by the magnetic field, the growth of martensite plates with preferably oriented twin variants cannot serve as an explanation of the observed effects.

Industrial applicability

New actuators, based on the present invention have significant technological and commercial potential. None of the other ways to create energy and movement, based on the properties of the material, can not provide this combination of high deformations, forces, speed, TNO fluid, pumps (including high pressure), fuel injectors or similar devices, by means of an impact on the material actuator, and the actuator of the active vibration control, springs, tappets, valves and controllers, robots, precision equipment and linear motors. These mechanisms can also be equipped with a sensitive and controls. The resulting system, called adaptive, active and intelligent, become common in modern cars. Define the operating parameters of the machine in real time, and a managed response to changes in the external environment and internal changes make it possible to achieve higher performance, minimum energy consumption, extend the service life of these structures and reduce costs for operation and maintenance. Adaptive structures used in aerospace, automotive and naval applications in civil engineering, precision engineering and production technology. The most common actuators are pneumatic and hydraulic systems, electromagnetic actuators, and such ispolnitel is the development of adaptive structures was significantly slowed due to the lack of similar materials with high speed and large stroke length. New materials based on the present invention, can lead to significant progress in the technology of adaptive structures and modern engineering.

Since the reorientation of twin zones occurs in three dimensions, under the influence of a magnetic field it is possible to implement complex changes forms, including stretching/compression, bending or torsion of the samples. This greatly expands the scope of the present invention in many technological fields and in engineering. Other actuators driven magnetization, i.e., based on magnetostriction, do not possess such properties. Mechanism/machine to provide controlled movement or certain changes of form under the influence of a magnetic field can be pre-oriented piece of material with a certain form. With careful development of the form and the original twin structure of the Executive mechanism can significantly complicated way to change the form, following a cyclical changes in the intensity of the magnetic field. The direction of the Executive material mechanism can be changed by changing the direction of the field.

The way to create izmeneniya operation of the actuator by an appropriate source of magnetic field. Remote control effectively, for example, in the biomedical field, in particular in medical devices and artificial organs such as artificial hearts. A large number of similar mechanisms may operate simultaneously under the control of a common source of magnetic field. Even if the magnetic field was the same for all actuators, these mechanisms could operate differently depending on the original twin patterns created in the material.

Since led twin structure can exist in thin foils, wires and particles, mechanisms using such forms, attached to the Executive material according to the present invention can be applied in micro - and nanotechnology. The size of the mechanism can even be reduced to the size of individual twin zones. Nanomechanism can be used, for example, quantum tunneling current for position control.

The present invention represents a new way of performing the movement, changes in the shape and create power by means of electric energy. Mechanisms based on this method, can potentially become the most widely used of privv some areas of mechanical engineering new actuators will replace the conventional electric device, because they have a higher performance, more reliable and less expensive. However, the broadest potential use of this invention lies in the new applications that become possible only thanks to new technologies, based on this invention.

1. The way to create change material forms, movements and/or forces by exposing the material to a magnetic field corresponding direction and magnitude, characterized in that as the specified material selected material with a twin structure, and the direction and magnitude of the magnetic field is selected sufficient to shift the twin areas of the material.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the material is affected by a magnetic field in the direction of the axis of easy magnetization of the desired twin orientation.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the material is affected by the magnetic field in the direction of providing the desired change in the shape or movement of material in the reorientation Dvoinikov zones.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the stretching/compression of the material he is under the influence of a magnetic field in a direction different from the healthy lifestyles the effect of bending or twisting of the material he is under the influence of the magnetic field in the direction other than the direction of the axis of easy magnetization of twin zones.

6. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 5, characterized in that the material is affected by a magnetic field with a variable direction and/or a change in the value field as a function of time.

7. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1 - 6, characterized in that the energy magnetocrystal anisotropy of the material is higher than the total energy of reorientation of twin areas necessary to implement the desired changes in the shape, and the work performed by the material, or comparable to that amount.

8. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1 to 7, characterized in that the material is affected by the magnetic field, the energy of which is higher than the total energy of reorientation of twin areas necessary to implement the desired changes in the shape, and the work performed by the material, or comparable to that amount.

9. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that it is carried out in the presence of a specified material internal stress or under the influence of external forces.

10. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the material is ferromagnetic.

11. The method according to any of the preceding items, characterized thespecialone to change its shape under the influence of a magnetic field.

12. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the specified material is Executive material actuator for creating motion and/or force.

13. The way to create movement and/or force by submitting to the actuator control action and provide remote power this mechanism by application to the Executive material specified mechanism of the magnetic field in the respective direction and magnitude, characterized in that as Executive material selected material with a twin structure, and the direction and magnitude of the magnetic field is selected sufficient to shift the twin areas of the material.

14. The way to create movement on p. 13, characterized in that the Executive material moulded into the form of thin foils, wires or particles with twin structure, suitable for use in micro - and nanotechnology.

15. The actuator containing the Executive ferromagnetic material that can change its shape under the influence of the applied magnetic field, and the source of the magnetic field, characterized in that as the Executive mater what CSOs specified source, selected sufficient for the reorientation of twin areas of the material.

16. The actuator under item 15, characterized in that the direction of the axis of easy magnetization of the Executive material selected parallel to the direction of the magnetic field.

17. The actuator under item 15, characterized in that the stretching/compression of the Executive material, the direction of the axis of easy magnetization his twin zone selected is different from the direction of the magnetic field.

18. The actuator under item 15, characterized in that the bending or twisting of the Executive material, the direction of the axis of easy magnetization his twin zone selected is different from the direction of the magnetic field.

19. The actuator according to any one of paragraphs.15 to 18, characterized in that the source of the magnetic field is arranged to change the direction and/or magnitude of the field as a function of time.

20. The actuator according to any one of paragraphs.15 to 19, characterized in that the Executive material has energy magnetocrystal anisotropy greater than the sum of the energy of reorientation of twin areas necessary for the implementation of telemag the AUX, the mechanism by p. 15, characterized in that the source has a capability of forming a magnetic field, the energy of which is higher than the total energy of reorientation of twin areas necessary to implement the desired changes in the shape, and the work performed by the Executive material, or comparable to that amount.

22. The actuator according to any one of paragraphs.15 to 21, characterized in that the Executive material moulded into the form of thin foils, wires or particles with twin structure, suitable for use in micro - and nanotechnology.

23. The actuator according to any one of paragraphs.15 to 21, characterized in that the Executive is the martensite containing twin zone, the number and orientation, providing change its shape under the influence of a magnetic field.

24. The way to move material, especially fluid, pumps, injectors or similar devices, by means of influence on the material actuator, wherein the actuator includes Executive material, having a twin structure, and the source of the magnetic field, the direction and magnitude of which is selected is sufficient for paleorient is the action scene themes the impact on floating material is carried out by stretching/compression of the Executive of the material of the actuator in the reorientation of twin zones of the Executive material under the influence of a magnetic field.

26. Way to move material on p. 24, characterized in that the Executive material affects the magnetic field in the direction of providing the desired change in the shape or motion of the Executive material in the reorientation of twin zones.

27. The way to move material according to any one of paragraphs.24 to 26, characterized in that the actuating material is affected by a magnetic field with a variable direction and/or a change in the value field as a function of time.

28. The way to move material according to any one of paragraphs.24 to 27, characterized in that the energy magnetocrystal anisotropy Executive of the material is higher than the total energy of reorientation of twin areas necessary to implement the desired changes in the shape, and the work performed by the Executive material, or comparable to that amount.

29. Way to move material on p. 24, characterized in that the Executive material labour implement the desired changes in the shape, and the work performed by the Executive material, or comparable to that amount.

30. The way to move material according to any one of paragraphs.24 to 29, characterized in that the Executive is the martensite containing twin zone, the number and orientation, providing change its shape under the influence of a magnetic field.

 

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1 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: using three-phase synchronous machines for power generation.

SUBSTANCE: proposed motor-generator set has three-phase synchronous motor and three-phase synchronous generator both mounted on common shaft excited by permanent magnets. Motor and generator rotors and stators are salient-pole components. Stator poles carry stator windings. Motor and generator stator poles measure 120 electrical degrees along rotor outer circumference. Motor and stator field permanent magnets are disposed on rotor backs between its poles. Flat compensating permanent magnets installed in center of generator rotor poles are disposed in panes crossing generator axis.

EFFECT: enhanced economic efficiency of power generation.

1 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: conversion of explosive material chemical energy into electrical energy using magnetocumulative or explosion-magnetic generators for magnetic cumulation of energy.

SUBSTANCE: proposed magnetocumulative generator that depends for its operation on compression of magnetic flux and is designed for use in experimental physics as off-line pulsed energy supply, as well as in studying properties of materials exposed to super-intensive magnetic fields, in experiments with plasma chambers, acceleration of liners, and the like has permanent-magnet system. Spiral magnetocumulative generator is coaxially mounted inside system. Magnetocumulative generator has magnetic flux compression cavity. This cavity is confined by external coaxial spiral conductor and internal explosive-charge conductor, as well as by initiation system. The latter is disposed on one of butt-ends. Permanent-magnet system is assembled of at least one radially magnetized external magnet and axially magnetized internal magnet provided with axial hole. External magnet is disposed on external surface of magnetocumulative generator spiral conductor. Internal magnet is mounted at butt-end of spiral conductor on initiation system side, like poles of external and internal magnets facing magnetic flux compression cavity.

EFFECT: reduced leakage fluxes beyond magnetic-flux compression loop, enhanced initial energy in compression loop of spiral magnetocumulative generator.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: power engineering; power supply systems for various fields of national economy.

SUBSTANCE: proposed electrical energy generating unit has low-to-high voltage converter connected to external power supply that conveys its output voltage through diode to charging capacitor. Accumulated charge is periodically passed from capacitor through discharger to first inductance coil accommodating second inductance coil disposed coaxially therein and having greater turn number. Second coil is resonance-tuned to operating period of discharger. Voltage picked off this coil is transferred through diode to charging capacitor. Electrical energy is conveyed to power consumer by means of third inductance coil mounted coaxially with respect to two first ones. It is coupled with these coils by mutual inductance and is connected to rectifier.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

1 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: pulse equipment engineering, in particular, technology for magnetic accumulation of energy, related to problem of fast compression of magnetic flow by means of metallic casing, accelerated by air blast produced by detonation of explosive substance; technology for forming high voltage pulses, which can be used for powering high impedance loads, like, for example, electronic accelerators, lasers, plasma sources, UHF-devices, and the like.

SUBSTANCE: method for producing voltage pulse includes operations for creating starting magnetic flow, compressing it under effect from explosive substance charge explosion products in main hollow, output of magnetic flow into accumulating hollow and forming of pulse in load and, additionally, compression of magnetic flow is performed in accumulating hollow, forming of pulse is performed in additional forming hollow, and main, accumulating and forming hollows are filled with electro-durable gas. Device for realization of magnetic-cumulative method of voltage pulse production includes spiral magnetic-cumulative generator, having coaxial external spiral-shaped conductor and inner conductor with charge of explosive substance, the two forming between each other aforementioned main hollow for compressing magnetic flow, and also accumulating hollow and load. Device additionally has pulse forming hollow, positioned between additional hollow and load. Accumulating hollow is formed by additional spiral conductor, connected to spiral conductor of magnetic-cumulative generator and to portion of inner conductor. In accumulating hollow coaxially with inner conductor of magnetic-cumulative generator, ring-shaped conical dielectric element is positioned. All hollow are connected to system for pumping electric-durable gas. Ring-shaped conical dielectric element is made with outer cylindrical surface, adjacent to inner surface of additional spiral conductor, and to inner conical surface. Angle α between outer surface of portion of inner conductor, positioned in accumulating hollow, and inner surface of conical ring-shaped dielectric element is made in accordance to relation 7°≤α≤30°.

EFFECT: increased power, increased current pulse amplitude, shorter pulse duration, increased electric durability.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: explosive pulse engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for manufacturing spiral coil for magnetic explosion generator producing current pulses of mega-ampere level intended to obtain more densely wound coil of higher inductance and, hence, higher current gain of magnetic explosion generator includes winding of insulated conductors on mandrel, coil potting in compound, curing of the latter, and coil removal from mandrel. Round-section conductor is deformed prior to winding until its sectional area is enclosed by oval, then it is covered with insulation and wound so that small axis of oval is disposed in parallel with spiral coil axis.

EFFECT: improved performance characteristics of coil.

1 cl 2 dwg

FIELD: electric engineering, in particular, of equipment for transformation of heat energy, including that of the Sun, to electric energy.

SUBSTANCE: electric generator contains stator with stator winding and rotor positioned therein, made in form of piston; stator is provided with two vessels filled with gas, connected hermetically to each other via a hollow cylinder, which is made of material with high magnetic penetrability and having two limiters on the ends of cylinder, and piston is positioned inside aforementioned cylinder, made of magnetic-hard material and provided with piston rings, while stator winding is wound on cylinder and its ends are connected to load clamps.

EFFECT: provision of high efficiency.

1 dwg

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