Method and device for transforming thermal energy

 

(57) Abstract:

The working environment of low pressure is evaporated in the evaporator when the absorption of thermal energy of low-temperature source. The working medium is compressed in the compressor and is served in the jet apparatus where it is mixed with the liquid stream coming from the separator, installed after the condenser. In the condenser directs the flow of the working medium from an inkjet apparatus, where it is cooled by transfer of heat to the high temperature receiver. The use of the invention will improve the energy efficiency of thermotransformations due to the reduction in specific energy consumption. 2 C. and 10 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il.

The invention relates to a power system, in particular to the process of converting thermal energy of a relatively low temperature level of thermal energy of high temperature level, and can be used for heat and cooling.

Widely known vapor compression methods thermotransformation [1] , including the evaporation of the working medium under reduced pressure, followed by absorption of thermal energy of low-temperature source, the compression of the working medium in the vapor state with GII more high temperature receiver and decrease the pressure of the working medium (usually throttling) before evaporation.

Known steam-jet method thermotransformation [2], is selected as the analog closest to the proposed invention by a combination of traits (prototype), which consists in evaporation of the working environment of reduced pressure due to the absorption of heat of low-temperature source, the compression of this portion of the workspace in the jet device by mixing it with another part of the working environment, having a higher pressure cooling and condensation of the working medium after the ink jet apparatus with the transfer of heat due to thermal energy of a high-temperature receiver, the separation of the working environment on the part of the lower pressure one of the parts of the working environment (throttling or detentional) and its evaporation upon contact with a low temperature source, the pressure increase another part of the working medium pump and its evaporation from a high temperature source of energy. In this way, in the ink jet apparatus serves two streams of steam with different pressures.

A device for the transformation of thermal energy (refrigerator or heat pump), including the circulation path defined therein consequently relationy circuit (communication), containing the pump and the evaporator high pressure and connected to the main circuit side of the pump between the cooler and the throttle, and from the side of the evaporator high-pressure - jet apparatus. Jet apparatus of the known device is a steam jet ejector, which is a combination of two jets of steam of different pressures [2].

The known method has a number of advantages, such as simplicity, reliability and relatively low cost. However, its energy efficiency is comparatively small and inferior to the efficiency of the vapor compression methods.

The aim of the invention is the improvement of energy efficiency thermotransformation by reducing the specific consumption in the process of mechanical work or a high-temperature heat source.

This goal is achieved by the fact that in the process of transformation of thermal energy, including the evaporation of the working environment of reduced pressure with the absorption of heat of low-temperature source, the mixture flows parts of the working environment in the jet device, the cooling medium flow with heat transfer high temperature parate mixed flows of liquid and vapor portions of the working environment, the latter served in the jet apparatus of the compressor.

In addition, features of the proposed method, leading to the technical result is:

- submission to jet apparatus part of the liquid working medium after cooling;

the flow in the jet apparatus is additionally part of the heated liquid working environment;

the lower pressure one of the parts of the working environment by throttling;

- additional cooling one part of the working environment before throttling;

- use as a working environment of mixtures of liquids with different boiling points;

- additional compression of the liquid portion of the working environment before it is supplied to the jet apparatus.

In the device for the transformation of thermal energy, including the circulation path defined therein sequentially evaporator, an inkjet apparatus, connected with the possibility of supply of the steam flow, coolant, throttle or expander and communications for filing in jet apparatus of the additional threads, communication connect jet apparatus to the circulation path in the area between the cooler and the throttle (the expander) with a possibility of liquid is x2">

Other distinguishing features of the proposed device are:

- additional connection inkjet apparatus to the circulation path in the area between the spray apparatus and the cooler;

- inclusion in the communication of the pump for pumping fluid;

- set between the cooler and the throttle separation capacity;

- installation before the throttle (expander) additional cooler.

Thus, in the proposed method, in contrast to the known process of compression of the working medium in the steam jet apparatus is replaced by compressing the vaporous portion of the workspace original compressor, and then vapor-liquid jet device.

In the jet device of the liquid-vapor mixture reaches supersonic speeds, at which there is a pressure surge with simultaneous condensation of the steam and heat.

In the proposed method, in contrast to the known does not require high temperature energy source to produce steam of high pressure, and mechanical energy costs for intermediate vapor compression in the first stage or compression of the fluid supplied to the jet apparatus is much less than the same StreetPilot thermotransformation) of the proposed method is much higher not only in comparison with the method of the prototype, but also in comparison with vapor compression method.

The essence of the proposed method is illustrated in the circuit diagram of the installation for its implementation, shown in Fig. 1, the conventional image of the characteristic processes of this method in the coordinates of the absolute temperature T is the classical entropy S in Fig. 2.

The device in Fig. 1 includes a circulation circuit 1 containing the evaporator 2, a compressor 3, an inkjet apparatus 4, a cooler 5, a separating tank 6, an additional cooler 7 and the throttle valve 8. For circulation of the liquid component of the working environment has a pump 9 and communication 10, 11. The evaporator 2 is connected to a low-temperature source of heat 12, and the cooler 5 - to high-temperature heat sink 13. Additional cooler 7 also has an external cooling (arrows).

In Fig. 2 presents the following processes state changes of the working environment:

1-2 - evaporation of the workspace with the absorption of heat of low-temperature heat source;

2-3 - steam compression of the working medium to the intermediate pressure by use of a mechanical compressor;

3-4-8-7 - the mixture of vaporous and liquid parts of working with

5-6 - the return part of the heated liquid working medium in an inkjet apparatus, increasing its speed;

5-7 - Isobaric cooling part of the liquid working medium to transfer heat energy for external consumers;

7-8 - the after part of the cooled liquid working medium in the inkjet device;

7-9 - supplemental cooling the remaining portion of the workspace;

9-1 - throttling evaporated portion of the workspace.

The image processes of the proposed method in Fig. 2 is conventional and is used for illustration purposes, since a reasonably accurate picture of these processes is very difficult because of their instability and variable mass production environment.

The energy balance of the proposed method, as usual, reflects the fact that the amount of energy received in the cycle working environment, equal to the amount of power delivered to an external sink of thermal energy. In particular, the amount of energy produced by the working environment by evaporation Q1-2and compression Q2-3(and possibly from other sources), equal to the amount of thermal energy Q5-7and Q7-9transmitted to various components of the working environment external to the consumer.

The effectiveness of the proposed sporocila device vapor-liquid jet apparatus.

The proposed method can be implemented using traditional heat pumps and refrigerators low-boiling liquids, such as R 12, R 22, R 134a, etc. or their mixtures with each other or other liquids (mineral or synthetic oils, water and so on).

The proposed method can significantly improve our earlier technical-economic indicators of the processes thermotransformation.

Sources used

1. Sokolov, E. J. , Brodyansky C. M. Energy basis of transformation of heat and cooling processes. - M.: Energoizdat, 1981, S. 14-66.

2. Thermodynamic fundamentals of artificial cold. The Handbook. - M.: Food industry, 1980, S. 50-51.

1. The process of transformation of thermal energy, including the evaporation of the working environment of reduced pressure, followed by absorption of thermal energy of low-temperature source, the mixture flows parts of the working environment in the jet device, the cooling medium flow with heat transfer high temperature receiver, the separation of the working environment on the part of the decompression part of the working medium, characterized in that the jet device of the Pach is rum.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that jet apparatus of the return portion of the liquid working medium after cooling.

3. The method according to PP.1 and 2, characterized in that jet apparatus serves part of the heated liquid working medium.

4. The method according to PP.1 to 3, characterized in that the lower pressure one of the parts of the working environment spend throttling.

5. The method according to PP. 1 to 4, characterized in that before throttling one of the parts of the working environment more cool.

6. The method according to PP.1 to 5, characterized in that the working medium is a mixture of liquids with different boiling points.

7. The method according to PP.1 to 3, characterized in that the liquid part of the working environment before serving in jet apparatus additionally compress.

8. A device for the transformation of thermal energy, including the circulation path defined therein sequentially evaporator, an inkjet apparatus, connected with the possibility of supply of the steam flow, coolant, throttle or expander, and communications for filing in jet apparatus of the additional threads, characterized in that the communication plug jet apparatus in the circulation circuit n the PE the area between the spray device and the evaporator is installed compressor.

9. The device under item 8, wherein the jet apparatus has an additional connection to the circulation path in the area between the spray apparatus and the cooler.

10. The device according to PP.8 and 9, characterized in that the communication contains a pump for pumping fluid.

11. The device according to PP.8 to 10, characterized in that between the cooler and the throttle is set separation capacity.

12. The device according to PP. 8 to 11, characterized in that upstream of the throttle (the expander) is an additional cooler.

 

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