Method and device for transforming thermal energy
(57) Abstract:The working environment of low pressure is evaporated in the evaporator when the absorption of thermal energy of low-temperature source. The working medium is compressed in the compressor and is served in the jet apparatus where it is mixed with the liquid stream coming from the separator, installed after the condenser. In the condenser directs the flow of the working medium from an inkjet apparatus, where it is cooled by transfer of heat to the high temperature receiver. The use of the invention will improve the energy efficiency of thermotransformations due to the reduction in specific energy consumption. 2 C. and 10 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il. The invention relates to a power system, in particular to the process of converting thermal energy of a relatively low temperature level of thermal energy of high temperature level, and can be used for heat and cooling.Widely known vapor compression methods thermotransformation  , including the evaporation of the working medium under reduced pressure, followed by absorption of thermal energy of low-temperature source, the compression of the working medium in the vapor state with GII more high temperature receiver and decrease the pressure of the working medium (usually throttling) before evaporation.Known steam-jet method thermotransformation , is selected as the analog closest to the proposed invention by a combination of traits (prototype), which consists in evaporation of the working environment of reduced pressure due to the absorption of heat of low-temperature source, the compression of this portion of the workspace in the jet device by mixing it with another part of the working environment, having a higher pressure cooling and condensation of the working medium after the ink jet apparatus with the transfer of heat due to thermal energy of a high-temperature receiver, the separation of the working environment on the part of the lower pressure one of the parts of the working environment (throttling or detentional) and its evaporation upon contact with a low temperature source, the pressure increase another part of the working medium pump and its evaporation from a high temperature source of energy. In this way, in the ink jet apparatus serves two streams of steam with different pressures.A device for the transformation of thermal energy (refrigerator or heat pump), including the circulation path defined therein consequently relationy circuit (communication), containing the pump and the evaporator high pressure and connected to the main circuit side of the pump between the cooler and the throttle, and from the side of the evaporator high-pressure - jet apparatus. Jet apparatus of the known device is a steam jet ejector, which is a combination of two jets of steam of different pressures .The known method has a number of advantages, such as simplicity, reliability and relatively low cost. However, its energy efficiency is comparatively small and inferior to the efficiency of the vapor compression methods.The aim of the invention is the improvement of energy efficiency thermotransformation by reducing the specific consumption in the process of mechanical work or a high-temperature heat source.This goal is achieved by the fact that in the process of transformation of thermal energy, including the evaporation of the working environment of reduced pressure with the absorption of heat of low-temperature source, the mixture flows parts of the working environment in the jet device, the cooling medium flow with heat transfer high temperature parate mixed flows of liquid and vapor portions of the working environment, the latter served in the jet apparatus of the compressor.In addition, features of the proposed method, leading to the technical result is:
- submission to jet apparatus part of the liquid working medium after cooling;
the flow in the jet apparatus is additionally part of the heated liquid working environment;
the lower pressure one of the parts of the working environment by throttling;
- additional cooling one part of the working environment before throttling;
- use as a working environment of mixtures of liquids with different boiling points;
- additional compression of the liquid portion of the working environment before it is supplied to the jet apparatus.In the device for the transformation of thermal energy, including the circulation path defined therein sequentially evaporator, an inkjet apparatus, connected with the possibility of supply of the steam flow, coolant, throttle or expander and communications for filing in jet apparatus of the additional threads, communication connect jet apparatus to the circulation path in the area between the cooler and the throttle (the expander) with a possibility of liquid is x2">Other distinguishing features of the proposed device are:
- additional connection inkjet apparatus to the circulation path in the area between the spray apparatus and the cooler;
- inclusion in the communication of the pump for pumping fluid;
- set between the cooler and the throttle separation capacity;
- installation before the throttle (expander) additional cooler.Thus, in the proposed method, in contrast to the known process of compression of the working medium in the steam jet apparatus is replaced by compressing the vaporous portion of the workspace original compressor, and then vapor-liquid jet device.In the jet device of the liquid-vapor mixture reaches supersonic speeds, at which there is a pressure surge with simultaneous condensation of the steam and heat.In the proposed method, in contrast to the known does not require high temperature energy source to produce steam of high pressure, and mechanical energy costs for intermediate vapor compression in the first stage or compression of the fluid supplied to the jet apparatus is much less than the same StreetPilot thermotransformation) of the proposed method is much higher not only in comparison with the method of the prototype, but also in comparison with vapor compression method.The essence of the proposed method is illustrated in the circuit diagram of the installation for its implementation, shown in Fig. 1, the conventional image of the characteristic processes of this method in the coordinates of the absolute temperature T is the classical entropy S in Fig. 2.The device in Fig. 1 includes a circulation circuit 1 containing the evaporator 2, a compressor 3, an inkjet apparatus 4, a cooler 5, a separating tank 6, an additional cooler 7 and the throttle valve 8. For circulation of the liquid component of the working environment has a pump 9 and communication 10, 11. The evaporator 2 is connected to a low-temperature source of heat 12, and the cooler 5 - to high-temperature heat sink 13. Additional cooler 7 also has an external cooling (arrows).In Fig. 2 presents the following processes state changes of the working environment:
1-2 - evaporation of the workspace with the absorption of heat of low-temperature heat source;
2-3 - steam compression of the working medium to the intermediate pressure by use of a mechanical compressor;
3-4-8-7 - the mixture of vaporous and liquid parts of working with
5-6 - the return part of the heated liquid working medium in an inkjet apparatus, increasing its speed;
5-7 - Isobaric cooling part of the liquid working medium to transfer heat energy for external consumers;
7-8 - the after part of the cooled liquid working medium in the inkjet device;
7-9 - supplemental cooling the remaining portion of the workspace;
9-1 - throttling evaporated portion of the workspace.The image processes of the proposed method in Fig. 2 is conventional and is used for illustration purposes, since a reasonably accurate picture of these processes is very difficult because of their instability and variable mass production environment.The energy balance of the proposed method, as usual, reflects the fact that the amount of energy received in the cycle working environment, equal to the amount of power delivered to an external sink of thermal energy. In particular, the amount of energy produced by the working environment by evaporation Q1-2and compression Q2-3(and possibly from other sources), equal to the amount of thermal energy Q5-7and Q7-9transmitted to various components of the working environment external to the consumer.The effectiveness of the proposed sporocila device vapor-liquid jet apparatus.The proposed method can be implemented using traditional heat pumps and refrigerators low-boiling liquids, such as R 12, R 22, R 134a, etc. or their mixtures with each other or other liquids (mineral or synthetic oils, water and so on).The proposed method can significantly improve our earlier technical-economic indicators of the processes thermotransformation.Sources used
1. Sokolov, E. J. , Brodyansky C. M. Energy basis of transformation of heat and cooling processes. - M.: Energoizdat, 1981, S. 14-66.2. Thermodynamic fundamentals of artificial cold. The Handbook. - M.: Food industry, 1980, S. 50-51. 1. The process of transformation of thermal energy, including the evaporation of the working environment of reduced pressure, followed by absorption of thermal energy of low-temperature source, the mixture flows parts of the working environment in the jet device, the cooling medium flow with heat transfer high temperature receiver, the separation of the working environment on the part of the decompression part of the working medium, characterized in that the jet device of the Pach is rum.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that jet apparatus of the return portion of the liquid working medium after cooling.3. The method according to PP.1 and 2, characterized in that jet apparatus serves part of the heated liquid working medium.4. The method according to PP.1 to 3, characterized in that the lower pressure one of the parts of the working environment spend throttling.5. The method according to PP. 1 to 4, characterized in that before throttling one of the parts of the working environment more cool.6. The method according to PP.1 to 5, characterized in that the working medium is a mixture of liquids with different boiling points.7. The method according to PP.1 to 3, characterized in that the liquid part of the working environment before serving in jet apparatus additionally compress.8. A device for the transformation of thermal energy, including the circulation path defined therein sequentially evaporator, an inkjet apparatus, connected with the possibility of supply of the steam flow, coolant, throttle or expander, and communications for filing in jet apparatus of the additional threads, characterized in that the communication plug jet apparatus in the circulation circuit n the PE the area between the spray device and the evaporator is installed compressor.9. The device under item 8, wherein the jet apparatus has an additional connection to the circulation path in the area between the spray apparatus and the cooler.10. The device according to PP.8 and 9, characterized in that the communication contains a pump for pumping fluid.11. The device according to PP.8 to 10, characterized in that between the cooler and the throttle is set separation capacity.12. The device according to PP. 8 to 11, characterized in that upstream of the throttle (the expander) is an additional cooler.
FIELD: power engineering, in particular, technology for transformation of heat by means of heat pumps, used in heating, conditioning and water supplying systems.
SUBSTANCE: device has circulation contour of working body, which includes serially connected compressor, capacitor, regenerative heat exchanger and first evaporator, and also line of second consumer, output of capacitor via heated substance is connected to line of first consumer. Input of ejector via active substance is connected to output of regenerative heat exchanger. Output of ejector is connected to input of first evaporator and through throttling valve is connected to input of second evaporator. Input of ejector via passive electronic substance is connected to line of second consumer. Output of second evaporator via separator is connected to line of third consumer.
EFFECT: extended functional capabilities of heat supplying systems and water supplying systems, namely, to receive in one apparatus both heat for heat supply system and cold at average temperature level for conditioning system and at low temperature level for cooling systems.
FIELD: heat engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat pump comprises compressor, condenser, expander, evaporator, and heat exchanger. The inlet of the first space of the heat exchanger is connected with the outlet of the evaporator, and the outlet of the heat exchanger space is connected with the compressor. The inlet of the second space of heat exchanger is connected with the circuit between the condenser and expander through the control valve, and the outlet of the second space is connected with the circuit between the three-position control valve and expander. The expander is made of a throttle. The heat pump is provided with the temperature gauge mounted between the compressor and first space of the heat exchanger and is connected with the three-position control valve through controller.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and stability of operation.
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat pump comprises compression cylinders, cylinder for adjacent tank with separating piston provided with individual heat exchangers, valving members, and high-pressure hydraulic pump connected in the closed circuit. Two additional cylinders interconnected through the valving members are connected in parallel between the inlets of the vertically oriented compression cylinders. The first additional cylinder is provided with a baffle. The pistons are interconnected with the rod passing through the opening made in the baffle. Two spaces formed by the walls of the baffle, pistons, and wall of the cylinder are provided with openings connected with the outlets of the three-way hydraulic switch whose inlets are connected with the inlet and outlet of the high-pressure hydraulic pump. The piston of the second additional cylinder is connected with the separating piston of the cylinder of the adjacent tank through the rod, rocking lever provided with hydraulic drive, and second heat insulated rod. The pistons of the compression cylinders are provided with displacers. The surfaces of displacers and inner surface of the compression cylinders adjacent to the air outlet of the cylinders are heat-insulated by means of solid heat insulator.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
1 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to equipment for residential and industrial room heating. Compression heat pump consists of an evaporator, compressor, condenser, restrictor and liquid separator. The evaporator and condenser are represented with the enclosing vortex heat exchangers containing working agent supply and discharge nozzle and, respectively, low potential and high potential coolant supply and discharge nozzles, helical manifold with guiding unit and end walls. Micro channels are made on the internal and external surface of end walls. The enclosure is installed from the external surface side.
EFFECT: small-sized and high-capacity heat pump.
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to heat engineering, and namely to heat pump devices. Heat pump includes evaporator, capacitor, throttle shutoff and control valves and vacuum pump, which are in-series included in closed circulation circuit of cooling agent. Vacuum pump is made with possibility of pumping cooling agent vapours with speed of 350 l/s within pressure range of 133 to 0.53·105 Pa. Invention provides the possibility of using a wide range of high-boiling matters as heat carriers with Tboiling >273°K at atmospheric pressure of matters. The most preferable is ethanol and its water solutions.
EFFECT: developing compact heating systems which do not require fuel margins and special communications, advantageous as to power and economy, and environmentally safe.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to compositions of a cooling agent or liquid heat carrier, which contain: approximately 1-99 wt % HFC-1234yf, approximately 99-1 wt % ammonia. The invention also relates to methods of producing heat, coldness, replacing cooling agent with large value of GWP using said composition, as well as a method of using said composition as a liquid heat carrier.
EFFECT: disclosed composition can be used as heat carrier.
7 cl, 6 ex, 14 tbl
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a composition of refrigerant agent or heat-transfer liquid, containing at least one compound selected from a group consisting of fluoroolefins of formula E- or Z-R1 CH=CHR2 , in which R1 and R2 independently denote a C1-C6 perfluoroalkyl groups, and where the said compound has at least 5 carbon atoms.
EFFECT: disclosed fluoroolefin compositions can be used to replace existing compositions of refrigerant agents or heat-transfer liquids, which have higher global warming potential; furthermore, compounds used in the composition are non-flammable.
34 cl, 11 ex, 17 tbl
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: air conditioning system has four-way valve, heat exchanger and control, which are located indoors, control and heat exchanger, which are located outdoors, and which are connected in series to each other so that circuit is formed. Compressor steam-jet system includes compressor which has the first gas inlet hole, the second gas inlet hole and gas outlet hole. The first gas inlet hole is connected to four-way valve by means of gas-water separator. The second gas inlet hole is connected by means of bypass tube on which electrical expansion valve is located to indoor located control and outdoor located control. Gas outlet hole is connected to four-way valve. Indoor control is in-series connected by means of fluid tank to outdoor control. Bypass tube is located between indoor control and fluid tank and has the coil located inside fluid tank. Gas condition sensors are located at the first gas inlet hole, the second gas inlet hole and gas outlet hole. Depending on sensor readings the pressure of the second gas inlet hole of compressor is regulated so that volume of cooling agent jet can be maintained at optimum level.
EFFECT: higher heating capacity and efficiency of used energy at low ambient air.
8 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchange system comprises two heat pumps, every of which comprises a working cylinder, a piston separating the cylinder cavity into a working cavity filled with a working substance and a hydraulic drive cavity filled with a working liquid, and a heat exchanger installed in the working cavity. Both heat pumps have identical working cylinders, filled with identical quantity of the working substance, working cylinders are installed in the module in parallel to each other, and their pistons are equipped with stems, ends of which are kinematically connected to each other by means of a double-arm rocker.
EFFECT: using the invention will make it possible to increase a thermal coefficient due to reduction of power inputs, to provide for compact installation of thermal pumps.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: energy-saving two-stage heat pump includes two units connected to each other and separated on the inside with a horizontal partition wall into isolated paths of plenum air and exhaust air. Air purifying filters, primary heat exchangers connected to each other by means of pipeline with a plate-type heat exchanger, a pump and solenoid-type valves, which are arranged on it, are installed in the first unit in the air flow direction in both paths. An additional heat exchanger and an adiabatic humidification plant are installed in the exhaust air path before the primary heat exchanger. A heat exchanger, an adiabatic humidification plant, a heater and a suction fan are installed in series in the air flow direction in the second unit in the plenum air path, and a compressor, a four-way valve, a heat exchanger and a fan are installed in series in the exhaust air path in the air flow direction. Heat exchangers in the second unit are interconnected in the paths.
EFFECT: increasing thermotechnical efficiency of the first utilisation stage at heating of plenum ambient air; eliminating the possible formation of ice on heat exchanger surfaces in exhaust flow; possible use of the first stage during the warm season of the year for cooling of plenum ambient air.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: heating engineering, particularly heat pumps and domestic and industrial cooling plants.
SUBSTANCE: method involves simultaneously performing isothermal compression and adiabatic expansion of different working body portion parts with following pressure recovery to initial value in heating and cooling heat-exchangers. Heterogeneous working body supplied as foamed neutral liquid provided with foaming additives and inert gas, is compressed. Then the working body is separated into liquid and gaseous fractions, which are separately throttled and expanded correspondingly. After that the fractions are separately supplied into parallel heating and cooling heat-exchangers with following mixing thereof and foam generation. Device comprises working body circulation loops provided with compressor, throttle and cooling and heating heat-exchangers. Compressor outlet is connected with tangential connection pipe of separator. Upper connection pipe of separator is linked to expander inlet. Lower connection pipe thereof is attached to throttle, which in turn is connected with inlet nozzle of injector included in inlet connection pipe of compressor through heating heat-exchanger. Side connection pipe of injector is communicated with expander outlet through cooling heat-exchanger. The expander is mechanically or electrically linked to compressor drive.
EFFECT: decreased pressure in cooling and heating heat-exchangers to compressor pressure level and increased ecological safety.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering. Heat pump power supply plant with heterogeneous working medium composed of foam-like mix of neutral fluid and inert gas comprises circuits of working medium fluid and gas circulation with heating and cooling heat exchangers, controlled throttle, expander and adiabatic compressor with foam generator and vortex separator. Foam generator mixing screen of foam generator is connected to ejector compressor passive medium inlet. Ejector compressor active medium inlet nozzle is connected with hydraulic pump outlet. Said hydraulic pump inlet is connected with controlled throttle and hot heat exchanger of fluid circuit connected to vortex separator bottom fluid pipe. Vortex separator tangential pipe is connected to ejector compressor outlet diffuser via heat-isolated oven coil. Vortex separator top gas pipe is connected to recuperative heat exchanger first channel connected with expander inlet. Expander outlet is connected via cold heat exchanger and recuperative heat exchanger second channel with foam generator gas inlet. Foam generator fluid inlet is connected with controlled throttle. The latter is connected to hydraulic pump inlet. Hydraulic pump with low-rpm drive is articulated via overrunning clutch and reduction gear with expander and electric generator.
EFFECT: decreased weight and overall dimensions, higher efficiency.
6 cl, 1 dwg