Active turbine

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention is intended for use in floating and fixed the hydroelectric power plants for year-round production of electricity from the free flow of rivers without construction of hydraulic structures. Turbine is Kovshova turbine, the axis of which rotates in bearings secured in the racks. The turbine buckets are deaf external form and the bottom, which is made in the form of a curved blade, drawn from a separate shutter, the symmetry axis which does not coincide with the longitudinal axis of their symmetry, and stops limiting the rotation of the shutters at an angle not exceeding 90o. When exposed to water flow curtain fall on each other and form a dense bottom of the bucket. The top of the turbine is closed to half casing having front and rear sockets. The angles of divergence from the center to the periphery, respectively: front flare - 60o, rear - 20o. Spread and laying blinds on stops may be executed by a worker thread. Turbine with floating base stations are connected actuator and pantograph. The design of the turbine allows to ensure its work in half-submerged and fully submerged. 2 Il.

The dynamic pressure of the free flow of the river is characterized by variability within the river itself, and in time. In addition to its power, even in rough rapids of the rivers are small, and the design of turbines, whose job is the transfer free energy of a river in the mechanical movement of the rotor, should take into account both the variability of the energy source in time and space of the river and its limitations, i.e., the turbine must have a high hydraulic efficiency.

From theory of jet turbines are aware that their hydraulic efficiency may not be more than 0.5, while active under certain conditions, it can reach the unit.

Of active turbines closest to the technical essence of the present invention is "Hydropower installation, and. St. N 28168 F 03 B 13/00, CL 88.B.4/ author: M. O. Filatov.

Water systems according to this invention consists of a series of paired water wheels /turbines/, installed in pairs across the river. Each subsequent pair of wheels, for better use of the energy flows is in the water. Their rotation in a single-vector space of river flow is achieved by the pressure difference of the flow on the upper and lower part of the turbine wheel, and this, in turn, is achieved by the fact that each blade wheels are made in the form of a bucket with deaf machines connected to the framework, on which hinged shutters, in one position by the flow of the river is pressed to its limits and forming at this moment deaf the bottom of the ladle, perceiving themselves pressure of the flow of the river, and at the moment of transition frames from the work blank in the opening movement the bottom for free passage through it of the flow of the river.

Hydraulic efficiency of the turbine along.St. 28168 certainly higher than any jet turbines installed in the same flow of the river, however, the scope of the bucket are the brakes, when driving against the flow of the river, and installing a second set of wheels directly behind the first line will not give the desired effect. In closing the bottom of each bucket placed in the frame of the shutter is at an angle to the flow, and he's hitting her reactive force occurring on the surface of the roller blind is discarded in the area of idle movement of the blinds, creating in this area vortices and ripple, dramatically reducing the velocity head, designed the second is the ditch of the first row of wheels, i.e. the second row of wheels on and.with. 28168 must be removed from the first row of 8 diameters of the wheels, making installation bulky.

The purpose of the invention is the increase of hydraulic characteristics of active turbines operating in the free flow of the river.

This objective is achieved in that the turbine according to the invention, includes impeller, closed the top cover, made in the form attached in a row on the same shaft buckets with deaf external form, mounted on a spreading beam, the bottom of which is drawn from the blinds, opening or closing the bottom by the flow of the river, characterized in that each flap hinged to the outer form of the bucket, and turn around its axis is limited on one side by stops mounted on the external form of the bucket, on the other hand - as near curtains, the working surface of each roller blind affected by river flow, made convex or concave in cross-section, being rectilinear in the longitudinal, the cover closing the top of the impeller, closes it up to half of the wheel and together with the underlying beam and side walls, representing the stationary continuation rotating the Noah wheel flares, the first in the course of the stream is made divergent from the wheel to the periphery with a total divergence angle of its form, not to exceed 60oand the second is the 20ounderlying beam is made in the form of a frame, in which the short form fixed rack with bearings of the impeller of the turbine and an aperture which in the working area of the wheel is closed near the floats, one end hinged to the inner longitudinal generatrix of the frame, and the second pressed, for example, the force of hydrostatic pressure, stops secured to the underlying beam, and the upper forming floats made under the configuration of the sockets.

Thus, the claimed solution differs from the prototype, therefore, it meets the criterion of "novelty."

In Fig. 1 shows the proposed turbine in three projections. In Fig. 2 shows a cross-section of the turbine cross section "a-a".

The turbine of Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 consists of axis-1, the bearings of which is fixed a rack-4. On an axis fixed deaf external form of bucket 2. Rack-4, in turn, fixed to the underlying beam /frame/-3. Rack-4, pantograph-5, is connected with the floating base station, and the axis of the turbine-1 reduct brackets 6 and the bearing beams-7 turbine is suspended on the bridge floating bases and when the work station is lowered into the river stream.

On deaf forming buckets-2 hinged shutters-8, which when exposed to river flow rotates in its axis and form the bottom of the turbine bucket, made according to the configuration of the blades of the impeller. The rotation of the shutter at a certain angle is limited by stoppers-17. Stops-17 limit the rotation of the shutters is not more than 90opreventing tilting of the blinds when entering them into the working area in which they started to influence river flow.

The top of the turbine is closed tight casing-10, having a front valance, guide river flow into the working area of the wheel. The casing-10, in turn, consists of a front guide part 12 and the rear casing-16. If the front part of the casing, together with the stationary parts of the outer form of the turbine and the underlying beams-3, form a funnel, whose task is to direct and intensify the river flow in the working area of the wheel, then the rear part of the casing, together with the stationary parts of the outer form of bucket 2 and the underlying beam-3, form the rear socket, the divergence angle of the forming of the wheel to the periphery is selected so that the power flow transmitted to the turbine, the added power from the press atmosphe shield-13, opening or fully closing the river flow in the working area of the turbine.

Real river flow can be solid objects that flow can get to the turbine. To protect the turbine wheel from foreign solid objects front cowl turbine has a lattice-19, made in the form of thin plates deployed edge of the stream. To protect the rear part of the turbine in the rear socket set edge 15. So the past through the bars of solid objects jammed impeller, the underlying beam is made in the form of a frame on the inner rear part of which is hinged a number of floats-14. The Archimedes force of each of the float determines the strength with which he pressed to his stops when lowering the turbine in the river flow. When hitting a hard object between the turbine blade and float they droop and miss solid object behind the turbine. The upper part of floats made on the configuration of the front and rear sockets. This allows the floats, in addition to the protective role, the role of the sockets. So was the ability to vary the output of the turbine at a constant rate of flow of the river, the impeller is made of several sections-18. Additional section 18 the law floating base station. Raising or lowering the shield, it is possible to vary the power turbine within the boundaries of the energy capacity of the river and the turbine.

Turbine works as follows.

Impeller-1 on the pantograph-5 with a floating base station falls in river flow. Front cowl, consisting of kokua-10, the front rail 12 and the underlying beams-3, directs the flow blinds-8 buckets of the impeller. Under the influence of flow curtain fall on each other, forming a blade of the turbine that, in turn, under the action of the flow of the river, through the chain drive rotates the shaft of the gearbox and through it the shaft of the generator, placed on the floating base stations.

Leaving the working area of the turbine, the blind-8 under the action of gravity and flow turn in their journals and become the edge of the stream, thereby reducing the energy to the resistance of the blades of the impeller in the flow. When the blinds in the working area of the thread stacks them on the bottom of the bucket and the cycle repeats.

Active turbine comprising an impeller, closed the top cover, made in the form attached in a row on the same shaft buckets with deaf external form, mounted on a spreading beam, the bottom of which is selected sakralen on the external form of the bucket and turn around its axis is limited on the one hand supports attached to the outer form of the bucket, on the other hand - as near curtains, the working surface of each shutter affected by river flow, made convex or concave in cross-section, being rectilinear in the longitudinal, the cover closing the top of the impeller, closes it up to half of the wheel and together with the underlying beam and side walls, representing the stationary continuation rotating the extreme form of the total number of buckets one impeller, form the working area and the working area of the wheel sockets, the first in the course of a stream socket is made divergent from the wheel to the periphery with a total divergence angle of its form, not to exceed 60oand the second is the 20ounderlying beam is made in the form of a frame, in which the short form fixed rack with bearings of the impeller of the turbine and an aperture which in the working area of the wheel is closed near the floats, one end hinged to the inner longitudinal generatrix of the frame, and the second pressed, for example, the force of hydrostatic pressure to the lugs fixed to the underlying beam, and the upper forming floats made under the configuration of the sockets.

 

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