(57) Abstract:The invention is intended for use in floating and fixed the hydroelectric power plants for year-round production of electricity from the free flow of rivers without construction of hydraulic structures. Turbine is Kovshova turbine, the axis of which rotates in bearings secured in the racks. The turbine buckets are deaf external form and the bottom, which is made in the form of a curved blade, drawn from a separate shutter, the symmetry axis which does not coincide with the longitudinal axis of their symmetry, and stops limiting the rotation of the shutters at an angle not exceeding 90o. When exposed to water flow curtain fall on each other and form a dense bottom of the bucket. The top of the turbine is closed to half casing having front and rear sockets. The angles of divergence from the center to the periphery, respectively: front flare - 60o, rear - 20o. Spread and laying blinds on stops may be executed by a worker thread. Turbine with floating base stations are connected actuator and pantograph. The design of the turbine allows to ensure its work in half-submerged and fully submerged. 2 Il. The dynamic pressure of the free flow of the river is characterized by variability within the river itself, and in time. In addition to its power, even in rough rapids of the rivers are small, and the design of turbines, whose job is the transfer free energy of a river in the mechanical movement of the rotor, should take into account both the variability of the energy source in time and space of the river and its limitations, i.e., the turbine must have a high hydraulic efficiency.From theory of jet turbines are aware that their hydraulic efficiency may not be more than 0.5, while active under certain conditions, it can reach the unit.Of active turbines closest to the technical essence of the present invention is "Hydropower installation, and. St. N 28168 F 03 B 13/00, CL 88.B.4/ author: M. O. Filatov.Water systems according to this invention consists of a series of paired water wheels /turbines/, installed in pairs across the river. Each subsequent pair of wheels, for better use of the energy flows is in the water. Their rotation in a single-vector space of river flow is achieved by the pressure difference of the flow on the upper and lower part of the turbine wheel, and this, in turn, is achieved by the fact that each blade wheels are made in the form of a bucket with deaf machines connected to the framework, on which hinged shutters, in one position by the flow of the river is pressed to its limits and forming at this moment deaf the bottom of the ladle, perceiving themselves pressure of the flow of the river, and at the moment of transition frames from the work blank in the opening movement the bottom for free passage through it of the flow of the river.Hydraulic efficiency of the turbine along.St. 28168 certainly higher than any jet turbines installed in the same flow of the river, however, the scope of the bucket are the brakes, when driving against the flow of the river, and installing a second set of wheels directly behind the first line will not give the desired effect. In closing the bottom of each bucket placed in the frame of the shutter is at an angle to the flow, and he's hitting her reactive force occurring on the surface of the roller blind is discarded in the area of idle movement of the blinds, creating in this area vortices and ripple, dramatically reducing the velocity head, designed the second is the ditch of the first row of wheels, i.e. the second row of wheels on and.with. 28168 must be removed from the first row of 8 diameters of the wheels, making installation bulky.The purpose of the invention is the increase of hydraulic characteristics of active turbines operating in the free flow of the river.This objective is achieved in that the turbine according to the invention, includes impeller, closed the top cover, made in the form attached in a row on the same shaft buckets with deaf external form, mounted on a spreading beam, the bottom of which is drawn from the blinds, opening or closing the bottom by the flow of the river, characterized in that each flap hinged to the outer form of the bucket, and turn around its axis is limited on one side by stops mounted on the external form of the bucket, on the other hand - as near curtains, the working surface of each roller blind affected by river flow, made convex or concave in cross-section, being rectilinear in the longitudinal, the cover closing the top of the impeller, closes it up to half of the wheel and together with the underlying beam and side walls, representing the stationary continuation rotating the Noah wheel flares, the first in the course of the stream is made divergent from the wheel to the periphery with a total divergence angle of its form, not to exceed 60oand the second is the 20ounderlying beam is made in the form of a frame, in which the short form fixed rack with bearings of the impeller of the turbine and an aperture which in the working area of the wheel is closed near the floats, one end hinged to the inner longitudinal generatrix of the frame, and the second pressed, for example, the force of hydrostatic pressure, stops secured to the underlying beam, and the upper forming floats made under the configuration of the sockets.Thus, the claimed solution differs from the prototype, therefore, it meets the criterion of "novelty."In Fig. 1 shows the proposed turbine in three projections. In Fig. 2 shows a cross-section of the turbine cross section "a-a".The turbine of Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 consists of axis-1, the bearings of which is fixed a rack-4. On an axis fixed deaf external form of bucket 2. Rack-4, in turn, fixed to the underlying beam /frame/-3. Rack-4, pantograph-5, is connected with the floating base station, and the axis of the turbine-1 reduct brackets 6 and the bearing beams-7 turbine is suspended on the bridge floating bases and when the work station is lowered into the river stream.On deaf forming buckets-2 hinged shutters-8, which when exposed to river flow rotates in its axis and form the bottom of the turbine bucket, made according to the configuration of the blades of the impeller. The rotation of the shutter at a certain angle is limited by stoppers-17. Stops-17 limit the rotation of the shutters is not more than 90opreventing tilting of the blinds when entering them into the working area in which they started to influence river flow.The top of the turbine is closed tight casing-10, having a front valance, guide river flow into the working area of the wheel. The casing-10, in turn, consists of a front guide part 12 and the rear casing-16. If the front part of the casing, together with the stationary parts of the outer form of the turbine and the underlying beams-3, form a funnel, whose task is to direct and intensify the river flow in the working area of the wheel, then the rear part of the casing, together with the stationary parts of the outer form of bucket 2 and the underlying beam-3, form the rear socket, the divergence angle of the forming of the wheel to the periphery is selected so that the power flow transmitted to the turbine, the added power from the press atmosphe shield-13, opening or fully closing the river flow in the working area of the turbine.Real river flow can be solid objects that flow can get to the turbine. To protect the turbine wheel from foreign solid objects front cowl turbine has a lattice-19, made in the form of thin plates deployed edge of the stream. To protect the rear part of the turbine in the rear socket set edge 15. So the past through the bars of solid objects jammed impeller, the underlying beam is made in the form of a frame on the inner rear part of which is hinged a number of floats-14. The Archimedes force of each of the float determines the strength with which he pressed to his stops when lowering the turbine in the river flow. When hitting a hard object between the turbine blade and float they droop and miss solid object behind the turbine. The upper part of floats made on the configuration of the front and rear sockets. This allows the floats, in addition to the protective role, the role of the sockets. So was the ability to vary the output of the turbine at a constant rate of flow of the river, the impeller is made of several sections-18. Additional section 18 the law floating base station. Raising or lowering the shield, it is possible to vary the power turbine within the boundaries of the energy capacity of the river and the turbine.Turbine works as follows.Impeller-1 on the pantograph-5 with a floating base station falls in river flow. Front cowl, consisting of kokua-10, the front rail 12 and the underlying beams-3, directs the flow blinds-8 buckets of the impeller. Under the influence of flow curtain fall on each other, forming a blade of the turbine that, in turn, under the action of the flow of the river, through the chain drive rotates the shaft of the gearbox and through it the shaft of the generator, placed on the floating base stations.Leaving the working area of the turbine, the blind-8 under the action of gravity and flow turn in their journals and become the edge of the stream, thereby reducing the energy to the resistance of the blades of the impeller in the flow. When the blinds in the working area of the thread stacks them on the bottom of the bucket and the cycle repeats. Active turbine comprising an impeller, closed the top cover, made in the form attached in a row on the same shaft buckets with deaf external form, mounted on a spreading beam, the bottom of which is selected sakralen on the external form of the bucket and turn around its axis is limited on the one hand supports attached to the outer form of the bucket, on the other hand - as near curtains, the working surface of each shutter affected by river flow, made convex or concave in cross-section, being rectilinear in the longitudinal, the cover closing the top of the impeller, closes it up to half of the wheel and together with the underlying beam and side walls, representing the stationary continuation rotating the extreme form of the total number of buckets one impeller, form the working area and the working area of the wheel sockets, the first in the course of a stream socket is made divergent from the wheel to the periphery with a total divergence angle of its form, not to exceed 60oand the second is the 20ounderlying beam is made in the form of a frame, in which the short form fixed rack with bearings of the impeller of the turbine and an aperture which in the working area of the wheel is closed near the floats, one end hinged to the inner longitudinal generatrix of the frame, and the second pressed, for example, the force of hydrostatic pressure to the lugs fixed to the underlying beam, and the upper forming floats made under the configuration of the sockets.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to non-conventional power sources, and it can be used in plants using energy of wind, river, deep sea and other currents. Proposed plant contains one or several vertical shafts and horizontal rods with blades. Said hollow rods are installed on shafts for limited turning relative to their axes. Opposite blades of each rod are rigidly secured on rod square to each other and eccentrically relative to axis of rod. Shafts adjacent in horizontal direction are made for rotation in opposite directions.
EFFECT: provision of simple ecologically safe device operating at any direction of current in liquid and gaseous medium and at medium interface.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device is designed for converting kinetic energy of small and medium rivers into elastic energy. Proposed hydraulic unit contains hydraulic turbine installed on frame with bearings on its shaft, generator mechanically coupled with hydraulic turbine, stream shaper and device in form of plates to protect hydraulic unit from floating debris. Hydraulic unit has intermediate vertically and horizontally installed shafts with bearings interconnected by conical gears. Vertical shaft is arranged in well built near bank and communicating with river by channel made under level of maximum possible thickness of ice cover. Part of horizontal shaft connected with hydraulic turbine is arranged in said channel. Upper end of vertical shaft is connected with generator through ground horizontal shaft and step-up reduction unit. Stream shaper is made in form of flaps installed on shaft for turning to direct water stream of river to its central part between which turnable gate is installed for contacting with one of flaps to direct water stream to right-hand or left-hand side of hydraulic turbine.
EFFECT: provision of reliable operation all year round.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydraulic turbine generators are designed for creating stationary and portable hydraulic plants of modular type. Generators have rotor with central shaft non-rotating around horizontal axis or vertical axis (as version) on which chain drive gears are rigidly fitted, each being coupled through independent chain drive with planet pinion members arranged radially and uniformly around central shaft. Each member has blade reduction gear consisting of gear of chain drive and of large and small cylindrical gears, the latter being coaxial and rigidly coupled with gear of chain drive of blade reduction gear, and large cylindrical gear is rigidly secured on axle of blade installed horizontally for generator (or vertically, as version). Each blade rests by ends of its axle for rotation on brackets secured on hubs by bases. Hubs are installed on both ends of shaft for rotation and tops of brackets at both ends of central shaft are connected by ring rims being drive wheels connected with energy converters by flexible drive.
EFFECT: provision of effective and reliable operation.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: conversion of river stream energy into electric power.
SUBSTANCE: proposed plant has base in the form of catamaran that mounts current generators and their drive, current parameters stabilizing system, turbine capable of running in fully submerged condition, and its hoist. Turbine is made in the form of belt conveyer installed on edge at certain angle to river stream. Blades made of flexible material are secured throughout entire width and length of belt. Each blade is made in the form of bucket capable of folding and resting on belt during transfer from working to idle side of conveyer, and it has pocket on external surface for automatic raising of blade by river stream during transfer from idle to working position. Turbine hoist has rocker arm for turbine suspension hinged on one end to catamaran and on other end, to turbine frame that mounts generator-drive bevel gear so that longitudinal axes of hoist rocker-arm hinges and longitudinal axis of bevel-gear driven pinion are disposed on same line. In addition, hydroelectric power plant is equipped with device enabling variation of turbine angle of installation to water flow.
EFFECT: enhanced power capacity.
1 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: turbine is designed to convert energy of water or air streams inflowing from side. Proposed turbine has shaft hinge-mounted in post around which blades are installed for turning in radial directions between supports rigidly and normally connected to shaft. Turning of blades is limited by stops. Blades are made flat, with rounded off long edges, and are arranged around shaft minimum in two directions with spaces between edges. Turning of blades is limited by two stops, and tire in turbine, thus formed, repeats in length of shaft with uniform angular turn. Supports can be made in form of radial cantilevers with aerodynamic profiling of cross section. Stops are made retractable into support body if pressure force of blade exceeds calibrated force of spring holding the stop in working position.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of using energy of fluid medium flow, simplified design.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for creating stationary and transportable modular hydraulic plants and setting up unit hydraulic power stations. Proposed water-wheel generator has body, shaft with central bevel gear, planet pinion members, each containing blade and shaft with bevel gears on ends, one end of shaft being coupled with central gear. Central bevel gear is rigidly secured on one of ends of central shaft non-rotating around its axis and arranged vertically. Planet pinion members are arranged around central radially and uniformly. Shaft of each planet pinion member with bevel gears on its ends is made single-section, and bevel gear belonging to said shaft and pointed to side of blade of said planet pinion member engages with bevel secured rigidly and coaxially to smaller spur gear of blade reduction gear. Larger spur gear engages with smaller one, and it is secured on axle of blade installed vertically. Each blade rests by ends of its axle for rotation of brackets mounted by bases on cylindrical housing installed for rotation coaxially relative to central shaft, and tops of brackets at both ends of central shaft are connected by ring rims. Upper rim, being drive wheel, is coupled with energy converters. Central shaft rests by both ends with locking on framework provided with pontoon devices. Invention makes it possible to use river current energy with maximum efficiency at no adverse effect on environment caused by submersion of river flood lands caused by building of dams, energy of ocean currents, energy of tides and ebbs owing to use of blades with two points of support. Versions of design of water-wheel generators are provided in description.
EFFECT: simple design, high adaptability to manufacture and servicing of water-wheel generator.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: generation of electric energy by conversion of water flow.
SUBSTANCE: electric energy is generated with the aid of vane-type machine having at least one rotor, rotor-driven generator and float for vane-type machine; vane-type machine is anchored stationary and rotor is oriented in direction of water flow. Vane-type machine is held in suspended state below water surface. Float may be inflated with compressed air and may be filled with water when required. Rotor is mounted on axle oriented in way of water flow. Rotor blades may be turned with the aid of mechanism in direction of water flow or in opposite direction. Rotor axle is just hollow axle forming the float. Vane-type machine is invisible during operation of plant.
EFFECT: simplified construction; reduction of time required for mounting.
22 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: wind and hydraulic power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to wind and hydraulic motors with vertical shaft of rotation. Proposed vertical shaft turbine has shaft hinge-mounted on post with rigidly and normally attached supports, and blades arranged between supports and installed on axle for turning being limited by two locks. Supports are installed in two directions to form row. Blades are made of closed elastic material tightly enclosing thickened axle to prevent axial displacement and vertical rigid edge spring-loaded relative to axle. Moreover, each blade is provided with stops fixing elastic material relative to thickened axle. Turbine can be furnished with additional rows of supports with blades installed higher and/or lower than first row. Turbine can reliable operate irrespective of velocity and gusts of wind, region and place of mounting, including movable objects, with provision of efficiency 10-16% higher than that of similar constructions.
EFFECT: simple design, effective operation.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: the micro hydro-electric power station is designed for converting energy of flowing medium into electrical energy. The device contains of ground unit, consisting of electricity distributing device, control system and controlled ballast load, a fixed water tank, generator located lower than the level of water in the hermetic tank and connected to the ground unit using water resistant cable. The water turbine with a horizontal axis of rotation, is mounted at the run-out and connected to the shaft of the generator through a gear transmission, in the form a multiplier located in a gondola. A cone is placed on the inlet of the run-out in front of the water turbine. The generator is located in the direction of flow behind the multiplier in the same gondola, which is supplied with a device for pumping water from its bottom part. The cone is made of flat elements; part of which is made in such a way that turning about longitudinal axes is possible. A driving gear is provided for this purpose.
EFFECT: increased operation reliability; power regulation.
6 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of renewable energy sources, namely, wind energy conversion into electric energy. Converter contains frame and first and second blades that are kinematically connected with cord (chain), first and second drums (starts) that are motionlessly installed in the shafts of the first and second gears, which interact with the first and second gears via corresponding overrunning clutches, third gear and conical pair of gears with step-up gear and generator, fourth and fifth gears that interact with the third gear and third and fourth blades that are kinematically joined with cord (chain) and third and fourth drums (stars), which interact with fourth and fifth gears via corresponding overrunning clutches. Converter is made of two parts that are symmetrical in respect to outlet shaft of fifth gear, in which drive gear of conical pair is motionlessly installed. The second option of energy converter consists of two parallel adjacent pipes, in the middle of which leak-tight chamber is installed, and blades are installed inside pipes.
EFFECT: increase of efficiency factor and reduction of fluid medium energy conversion net cost.
9 cl, 8 dwg