Device for increasing the efficiency of a heat engine

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of engine development, namely the heat-engines /piston internal combustion engines, as well as to the gas turbine and a pulsed jet-propulsion engines, with a wide range of capacities and the ability to work on all known types of hydrocarbons. The purpose of the invention is the increased efficiency of heat engines, as well as enabling operation of piston and gas turbine engines for oil and heavy grades of fuel. The device comprises a diffuser, fuel injectors and injector ignition, a combustion chamber with a nozzle and a generator of electrical pulses with a spark gap. New in the invention is installed in the diffuser protivodetonatsionnuyu lattice with holes throughout the area, in which evenly spaced around the circumference of the set screws with blades and nozzles equipped with a camera of a dielectric material within which is located the fuel nozzle and the annular cavity, soamsawali with a pipe for supplying the concentrated aqueous solution of a strong electrolyte. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill.

The invention relates to the construction and operation of heat engines: gasturb is you on all known types of liquid hydrocarbon fuel.

Known turbojet engines - single or dual circuit with afterburner chambers or without them. Because of the low efficiency and difficulties with further increase of temperature, turbine, to further increase the feasibility of the indicators is difficult.

Known pulsating jet-propulsion engines, with low efficiency and low traction. Because of the low technical and economic indices of these engines are currently not used.

Known piston internal combustion engines with external and internal mixture formation.

The high cost of synthetic fuels, mainly gasoline and diesel, and relatively low efficiency, to further increase the technical and economic indicators on these fuels is almost impossible.

The aim of the invention is to increase thermal efficiency of heat engines: turbojet, pulsating WFD, reciprocating internal combustion engines, regardless of the method of mixing, and the ability of all of these types of engines on oil and heavy grades of fuel, having several times lower cost as compared with artificial vidard a heat engine, containing the diffuser, fuel injectors and injector ignition, a combustion chamber with a nozzle, a generator of electrical pulses with a discharger, provided by the fact that the diffuser is mounted protivodetonatsionnuyu grille with holes along their entire surface area, which evenly around the circumference of the set screws with blades and nozzles plugs fitted with an active annular chamber of a dielectric material within which is located a fuel injector communicating with a nozzle for supplying the concentrated aqueous solution of a strong electrolyte, while the nozzle with one hand piped to the valve and the pump, and on the other hand is an electrode placed in it by the screw. Nozzles made isolated from the walls of the cooling jacket and the combustion chamber layers of insulation.

Of scientific and technical literature and practice operation of heat engines is not known about identical to the proposed technical solutions, which indicates the presence of its novelty.

Put in the invention the objective is implemented through the use specified in the claims the essential features. All specified in the claims the essential supports the implementation of the goals, delivered invention. Thus, between the purpose of the invention and the set of essential features of the proposed technical solution there is a causal link that allows you to judge the compliance of the claimed technical solution the criterion of "inventive step".

Delivered in the purpose of the invention is realized by carrying out the invention repeatedly. In this case, the implementation provides the specific positive effect is significant (25-30%) increase efficiency of heat engines and a significant reduction in the cost of operation of heat engines in the oil and heavy grades of fuel. From this we can conclude that under the proposed technical solution the criterion of "industrial applicability".

Summary of the invention illustrated in the drawing, where

in Fig. 1 shows a portion of the turbojet forced engine in longitudinal section;

in Fig. 2 shows a pulsing jet engine in longitudinal section;

in Fig. 3 shows the injector for injection of fuel vapor and the same device serves as a generator of shock waves with small changes/ food what are two streams, moving at an angle to each other and touch at a point;

in Fig. 6 shows two streams, moving parallel to each other with a point of contact in their place of education for their "hats".

In Fig. 1 shows a portion of the turbojet forced engine in which the combustion in the afterburner runs either in continuous combustion of the fuel, as is known in THP, and periodically with a high repetition rate. And is detonation combustion of fuel injected into the chamber due to the rapid compression of the combustible mixture of shock waves.

In this case, achieving a considerably higher temperature of the combustion products and a higher gas pressure than is available in existing engines.

This increases the effective and full efficiency of TEA or turbofans, and together with it and thrust of the engine, increase the flight speed of the aircraft.

When this detonation combustion of fuel is carried out and the ramjet engine with periodic nature of the workflow shown in Fig. 2.

The main device that provides detonation combustion in these engines is ora generating shock waves in the gas mixture.

Actually the nozzle 1 includes a chamber 2 made of a dielectric material inside the fuel nozzle 3 nozzle 4 and the annular cavity 5, soamsawali with the pipe 6 for supplying the concentrated aqueous solution of a strong electrolyte.

The pipe 6 on the one hand is connected by a pipeline with a valve 7 and the pump 8, and on the other side electrode 9 is placed on it by a screw 10.

In turn, the annular cavity 5 has a channel-nozzle 11, spaced evenly around the circumference at a given distance from each other, communicating with the explosion chamber 12.

Explosion chamber 12 has a nozzle 13, also spaced evenly around the circumference, and the bottom 14, and the nozzle 1 is isolated from the walls of the cooling jacket and the combustion chamber layers of insulation 15 and 16. The jet of electrolyte 17.

The nozzle 1 is connected to the casing and the electrode 9 to the generator of electrical pulses containing the constant current source 18, the key 19, a capacitor 20 /battery capacitors and spark gap 21.

In Fig. 4 shows a node touch jets 17 of the electrolyte with the wall of the explosion chamber 12. As you know when you touch jets with the wall they spread in the drive POS.22. /see, And. sunka 1/ as follows, - when you open the valve 7 by the pump 8 through the pipe 6 and the spiral channels formed by the blades of the auger 10 is filed under specified pressure concentrated aqueous solution of a strong electrolyte and through the nozzle 3 a liquid hydrocarbon fuel in an explosion chamber 12. Moreover, the electrolyte solution flows through the nozzle 11 in the form of jets 17, which, when touched with the chamber walls flow into the discs 22, forming a tight electrical contact.

At the same time, the key 19 of the generator of electric pulses /GI/ is turned on and the capacitor 20 is charged. When the formation of a dense contacts jets with the wall of the explosion chamber 22 includes a spark gap 21. As a result, in circuit capacitor and walls of the chamber 12 through the jet 17 is the discharge current, the energy of the capacitor in a very short time, discharges into streams, thereby heating and vaporizing them with the desired temperature of the plasma discharge.

Formed of a pair of electrically conductive liquids with a high temperature, for example, with T = 2000-2200oC, contact with jets of liquid fuel in the chamber 12, is injected by the injector 3, instantly vaporize them with the formation of a mixture of vapors, liquids, and overheated.

Thus, combustion engines /all - aviation operations is s/, and jet vapor of the fuel in a mixture with pairs of an aqueous solution of electrolyte. The result is the following:

- dramatically reduced the preparation time of the working mixture in the combustion chambers of the engine; which leads to the rapid combustion and intensive growth in the cells of gas pressure, providing increased temperature and thermal efficiency of a heat engine;

the result is more complete combustion of the working mixture in connection with quality vapor mixing fuel with the compressed air or the mixture of combustion products. These components are located in the same state of aggregation /all are gases/. The achieved result is a significant reduction of the air excess factor and as a consequence - increase engine efficiency.

As noted above, the nozzle 1 can also serve as a trigger for generating shock waves in the gas mixture /mixture/.

In this case, the second device differs from the first only in that explosion chamber 12 is performed without bottom 14, and the nozzle 3 or disconnects, or is replaced by a solid rod /tube/ simultaneously GI - POS. 18, 19, 20 is replaced by the more powerful. In other words change the device settings without fundamental MEAs - the ri open valve 7 by the pump 8 through the pipe 6 and the spiral channels formed by the blades of the auger 10 is filed under specified pressure concentrated aqueous solution of a strong electrolyte in the explosion chamber 12 in the form of jets 17.

Upon reaching tight contact /POS.22/ jets 17 with the walls of the chamber 12 includes a spark gap 21. As a result, in circuit capacitor and walls of the chamber 12 through the jet 17 is the discharge current. The energy of the capacitor in a very short time, discharges into streams 17 and the discharge current heats, vaporizes and overheat the material streams, with the temperature of the electric explosion of liquid conductors may vary within wide limits and to reach T = 20103- 40103oC and above /see B. A. Artamonov, "Dimensional electrical treatment of metals", M. "Higher school", 1976, pp. 213-231, so 1 and so 2, 1983 , pp. 71-103/.

Electric explosion of liquid conductors, which are jets 17, provides the formation of a sufficiently powerful shock wave on the cut of the barrel chamber 12 /in the place of the bottom 14/. Ignition of the combustible /working/ mixture in the combustion chamber of the heat engine by means of an electric blasting detonator of Fig. 3 due to its heating during compression of the shock wave. Ronnie coatings in engineering", L. 1982, pp. 25-26/.

This temperature is sufficient to ignite the combustible mixture, even at a low temperature, and the energy of the shock waves generated in the device according to Fig. 3, is controlled by changing the power generator of electric pulses 18, 19, 20, 21.

Turbojet engine.

Contains known structural elements of the combustion chamber 23, the turbine 24, the cone 25, the area afterburners, consisting of extending parts 26 and 27 cylindrical. Jet nozzle 28. Inside the chamber 17 is installed "protivodetonatsionnuyu the bars 28, which are uniformly around the circumference of the completed cylindrical pass-through channels with installed screw shockproof "gates" 30, which represents an auger blades, which are reflected shock waves, excited by detonation of the combustible mixture in the afterburner 31. Nozzles 1 are arranged on the ring behind bars 30, and these nozzles are installed in the combustion chambers 23.

The engine works in the following way:

the combustion products with a large excess of air = 3-4 and high temperature exceeding 700oC, pass through screw closures 30 and in the form of vortices enter the combustion chamber 31 afterburner kursirovanija engine includes a nozzle 1, of which in the afterburning chamber /combustion chamber 31/ "fired" fuel vapors are mixed with pairs of electrolyte solution, heated to a high temperature.

Moreover, the flow of the jets of fuel vapor in the chamber accompanied by the spread of shock waves generated in the explosive chambers 12 nozzles 1 electrical blasts jets 17 electrically conductive fluid. As fuel for afterburners in this case serves as gasoline, have a tendency to detonation combustion under conditions of high temperature products of combustion and pressure in the afterburner, and the propagation of shock waves from nozzles 1, operating at a given frequency "injection" fuel vapour.

As a result, the bars 29 are periodically following a given frequency, detonation explosions with a simultaneous increase in temperature and pressure of the combustion products of gasoline, resulting in a sharp increase in engine thrust in afterburner mode of its operation and speed of the aircraft. To prevent the propagation of shock waves from the detonation of the explosion of fuel in the direction of the turbine 24 is grating 29 with a screw shockproof gates 30.

In order to enable detonation combustion Erah 31 more powerful shock wave /power electric explosion of liquid conductors - jets 17 electrically conductive liquid, in particular concentrated aqueous solutions of strong electrolytes, depends on the power source current generator of electric pulses 18, 19, 20, 21/. Moreover, stream 17 can be directed as shown in Fig. 4, 5, 6, i.e. not only at a certain angle to the wall of the chamber 12, but also at an angle to each other or even in parallel with each other /POS. 34 - POS. 35 shows a convex surface of a moving stream/.

Ramjet engine with periodic nature of the workflow shown in Fig. 2, includes the same structural elements, and the afterburner turbofans.

It consists of a diffuser 36, "protivodetonatsionnuyu grid" 29 of the valve 30, the combustion chamber 37, injectors 1 and detonators 32 /injector 1 without bottoms 14/.

The engine works in the following way:

in the combustion chamber 37 of the injector 1 injected steam jet fuel, for example gasoline, mixed with pairs of electrolyte solution and mixed with air. Following are enabled devices 32 - detonators with electrical blasts jets 17, which create intense shock waves in the gas mixture in the combustion chamber 37, which provides high temperature the products of combustion are reflected by the inclined blades of the auger paddles 30 and flow through the nozzle 38 into the atmosphere with the formation of reactive efforts. Physical processes of expansion of gases in the chamber 37 and the nozzle 38 with the subsequent decrease in pressure, suction - receipt of a fresh portion of the air through the diffuser 36 and the valves 30 and an additional entrance of atmospheric air through a jet nozzle 38 into the combustion chamber 37, practically does not differ from the processes in the pulsing air-breathing engines.

And screw closures 30, which represents an auger with inclined blades, provides not only a reflection of shock waves during detonation explosion, but also additional hydraulic resistance to combustion products and promotes them after in the direction of the nozzle 38.

After the first cycle and fill the combustion chamber again the fresh air, work processes are repeated with the periodic injection of fuel vapors, such as gasoline, and detonators 32, which ultimately provides the traction engine.

The transition in thermal engines to fuel injection in the form of steam jets, instead of the jets of liquids, provides better organization of working process in the combustion chamber as the piston and gas turbine units, which are turbine, gas turbine, and beslija in the form of steam jets helpful in the steam generator - at TPP, TPP, quarterly, etc. boiler.

This is because fuel vapors together with pairs of electrolyte solution with air in the same state of aggregation /all gases are/ that allows you to significantly reduce all processes of combustion air excess factor , and consequently, to reduce the cost of energy to heat the excess air and increase the efficiency of any heat engine. For example, in the turbine shown in Fig. 1, installation of the injector 1 in the combustion chamber 23 will reduce to t with the 1.6-1.65 to values close to theoretical, i.e., to1= 1,05-1,1. However, the same compressor capacity turbofans reduction factor will lead to an increase in engine power 1.3-1.4 times.

The same process will happen in the afterburner turbofans, which will become even more powerful when the normal slow combustion without detonation combustion/.

In piston engines, diesel injection vapor will create conditions not only for a significant increase in efficiency due to the small values of the coefficient of excess air /instead of 1.7-2.2-1,05-1,1/, but this greatly increases the service life of the engine /approximately 40%/, as its principle p what condition is the temperature of the electric explosion of the jet 17.

If the temperature of explosion products is maintained at T = 2000-2200oC, then, first, in an explosion chamber 12 of the nozzle 1 can evaporate any liquid fuels, regardless of their evaporation temperature /fuel oil, crude oil, motor fuel, etc./. Secondly, they /pair/ become overheated, resulting in their complete mixing with the charge of air in the combustion chambers, as well as high chemical activity, providing a rapid combustion of the combustible /working/ mixture in any engine or steam generators TPP.

At a higher temperature of explosion products, for example 5000-10000oC, the conditions for full thermal decomposition /dissociation/ aqueous electrolyte jets 17 in the blast chamber 12 of the nozzles and the formation of a mixture of explosive gas /hydrogen and oxygen/ with the evaporated fuel is injected into the chamber 12 from the nozzle 3.

As a result, combustion engines will be "fired" at a given frequency the mixture of explosive gas and decomposition products of the electrolyte and the products of decomposition of the fuel, which will lead to the rapid combustion of the mixture, and at a higher temperature than is achievable under the existing conditions of combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. is Ecevit, the temperature of combustion of the combustible mixture is 10-15% higher than the usual burning /slow/ as well as the instantaneous pressure increase and speed the expiration of the combustion products. So for the engine according to Fig. 2 instantaneous increase in pressure reaches 14-15 kg/cm2and speeds of up to 1200-1300 m/s at normal atmospheric pressure in the combustion chamber 37 /see the book by A. I. Zverev, "Detonation spray coatings", Sudostroenie, Leningrad, 1979, page 18-42, 178/.

The result is a higher thermal efficiency than with slow combustion, increased engine thrust and performance during high speed flight of the aircraft, as the speed of detonation, in particular, gasoline exceeds 2000 m/s

In addition to the direct purpose motors according to Fig. 2 can be used as hydraulic motors for knapsack helicopters, airplanes, as well as the braking systems on the same aircraft, parachutes, etc. in Addition, they can serve as a drilling tool.

1. Device for increasing the efficiency of heat engine, containing the diffuser, fuel injectors and injector ignition, a combustion chamber with a nozzle, a generator of electrical pulses with a spark gap, characterized in that the diffuser is mounted protivodetonatsionnuyu re injector plugs fitted with an active annular chamber of a dielectric material, inside the fuel injector, soamsawali with a pipe for supplying the concentrated aqueous solution of a strong electrolyte, while the nozzle with one hand piped to the valve and the pump, and on the other hand is an electrode placed in it by a screw.

2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the nozzles are made isolated from the walls of the cooling jacket and the combustion chamber layers of insulation.

 

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