The way to create an ice load-carrying platform
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of hladotehnika and can be used to create an ice load-carrying platform. The invention is directed to increasing the carrying capacity of the ice platform. The technical result is achieved due to the formation beneath the ice closed around the perimeter of the areas in which the gas is fed. Gas has a low heat conductivity, which leads to equalization of temperature of the ice cover thickness and a corresponding increase in the strength of the ice. 1 Il. The invention relates to the field of hladotehnika and can be used to create ice platforms increased load-carrying ability.The prior art of the claimed invention known way to create a load-carrying platform high load-carrying capacity due to laying on the ice cover of wooden flooring, i.e. education ribs that allows safe movement of vehicles and warehousing (1. I. S. Peschansky. "Lagoudera and hladotehnika". - L.: Gidrometeoizdat, 1967. - 461 S.).The disadvantage of this method is incomplete utilization of the strength properties of ice.The technical result obtained by carrying out the invention, is to increase the carrying capacity of the ice platform.The essential features characterizing the invention.Restrictive: ice load-carrying platform is generated by the formation of ribs on the ice.Distinctive: the ribs are formed by forming in the ice cover of the grooves in the longitudinal and transverse directions by a depth less than the thickness of the ice formed in the cells of the ice cover to form through holes, at least more than one, through which under the lower edge of the ice pumped gas, the hole is closed, after which the ice cover is exposed to low temperature (t < 0oC) within the time required to equalize the temperature on the upper and lower edges of ice cover.It is known (2. Century Century Bogorodsky, V. P. Gavrilo. "The ice. The physical properties. Modern methods of glaciology. - L.: Gidrometeoizdat. 1980. - 383 C.) that the thickness of the ice cover, the ice temperature is changed from t=0oC (lower surface) to the ambient temperature. In accordance with this pattern changed and the physical is. With decreasing temperature is the increase of the strength properties of ice . Such anisotropy of physical-mechanical properties of ice thickness even under natural conditions is the cause of the reduced strength of the ice in the composition of the ice cover compared with samples of ice whose thickness temperature is constant and equal to the ambient temperature. Laying on the ice for more wooden flooring leads to the appearance on the top surface of the ice cover insulating layer that increases the temperature of the ice and accordingly reduces its strength.To increase the strength of the ice by placing insulating layer under the bottom surface of the ice cover. This will reduce the temperature gradient across the thickness and to decrease the average temperature of the ice, which, in turn, will increase the tensile strength of ice on the bend.The method is as follows.In ice drill holes, through which under the bottom surface of the ice inject a substance, such as air, having low compared to water conductivity, sufficient for the formation of ice-cover insulating layer. Then open the t increase ribs in the longitudinal, and transverse directions.The invention is illustrated graphically, where the drawing shows the scheme of education under ice cover insulating layer.In ice cover 1 using laboratroy machine at an equal distance from each other choose the grooves in the longitudinal 2 and 3 in the transverse directions. The depth of the grooves h1must be less than the ice thickness h2. Due to reduced ice thickness in places of sampling and, consequently, increase thermal conductivity of ice under the ice cover due to low ambient temperature start to numerate ribs 4. Thus, under the ice formed a closed perimeter region 5. Then in ice drill holes 6, through which the ice 1 is injected substance 7 (e.g., air) with low heat conductivity. After filling regions 5 hole 6 is closed, and thus prepared carrier platform is exposed to low temperature (t < 0oC) within the time required for equalizing the temperature across the thickness of the ice. A method of creating ice bearing platform, which consists in the formation of ribs on the ice cover, characterized in that the ribs about what else ice thickness, formed in the cells of the ice cover to form through holes, at least more than one, through which under the lower edge of the ice pumped gas, the hole is closed, after which the ice cover is exposed to low temperature (t<0C) within the time required to equalize the temperature on the upper and lower edges of ice cover.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in designing ramp and propulsion and steering gear and their hydraulic systems. Novelty in proposed water craft is that it is furnished with streamlined carrying frame for fastening devices of propulsion and steering complex installed in hull aft part and formed by two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams hinge secured by inner ends of aft sheet of hull in zone located under loading side coupled by flexible cross beams in each pair and support bar between pairs. Hydraulic heads of propulsors are hinge-mounted on outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams, being secured on said beams to form additional cross tie between beams. Carrying frame is furnished with power hydraulic cylinders connected with hydraulic system and installed to control position of heads and loading side by turning carrying frame in aft sheet hinge joints. Body of each is provided with upper roller support, being rolling support for each hinged loading side at its opening, and lower platform being rigid base interacting with ground at resting of hinged loading side on head body in loading position of loading side. Novelty in hydraulic system of watercraft is that it is furnished, in additional to propulsor control hydraulic cylinders, with hydraulic cylinders for setting ramps, changing thrust vector, fixing loading side and locking carrying frame. Each hydraulic cylinder, including propulsor position control hydraulic cylinders, are supplied through parallel hydraulic lines connected with main line, with electric control in each line. Invention contains description of design peculiarities of each line providing required modes of operation of watercraft.
EFFECT: improved performance of watercraft and creating of hydraulic system providing required mode of operation of watercraft.
9 cl, 11 dwg