Water heating plant for heating and/or hot water

 

(57) Abstract:

Approved for use in the heat for heating and water supply systems of buildings and structures. The system includes a cooled gas generator of heat and flue, in which two heat exchanger and the condenser-collector with drain gutters. Diagram of the hydraulic circuit, in which the second heat exchanger operates in the mode of "backflow" at a temperature close to the temperature of the circulating fluid at the entrance to the installation, as well as structural differences execution of condensate gathering tanks and flame stabilizers allow to obtain high thermal efficiency, ecological safety, manufacturability and reliability of the installation. 5 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il.

The invention relates to a power system and can be used in installations of heating water for heating and/or hot water supply of buildings and structures in a decentralized manner.

Known water heating plant for heating and/or hot water (see RF patent N 2018771, CL F 24 D 3/08, 1994), taken as a prototype containing gas heat generator comprising a combustion chamber with flame plate, provided with holes, the stabilization of the value of the gaseous fuel with air, and communicated with a gas generator to heat the flue. In the flue posted by the heat exchanger system, including, for example, elementary, middle, and end heat exchangers, and installed the condensate. While the initial output and the input of the final heat exchanger downstream of the heated gas in their upper parts are used for connecting the heat load. The output end of the heat exchanger in its lower part is connected with the input of the secondary heat exchanger in its upper part, and the output of the secondary heat exchanger in the lower part is connected with the input of the primary heat exchanger in the lower part. In the path of the circulating fluid, such as between the middle and lower heat exchangers may include a cooling circuit elements of the gas generator of heat. The heat exchangers are made in the form of a pack of plates arranged along the flow of the heated gas with a gap between adjacent plates and provided with channels for the flow of fluid circulating in the heating circuit, the inputs and outputs of the channels combined with appropriate headers package. The condensate is made in the form located under the end plates of the heat exchanger corrugated spacers with peaks and troughs, directed along the plates, when Obama, or in the form of a V - shaped profiles, communicated with drain gutters. The drain trough is placed across the plates.

The disadvantage of this setup is that in the case of sequential placement of her in the course of heated gas primary heat exchanger, the circulating movement of the liquid in which generally coincides with the movement of heated gas (parallel), secondary heat exchanger, the movement of the circulating fluid which is generally opposite to the movement of heated gas (counter-current), the condensate and the end of the heat exchanger, the movement of the circulating fluid which is generally opposite to the movement of heated gas (counter-current), the possible modes of operation, when the average temperature of the plates of the heat exchanger is lower than the temperature of the "dew point". When this will happen condensation of water vapor on the plates of the middle heat exchanger.

The use of condensate in the form of corrugated spacers with holes in flutes or V-shaped profiles is not possible to cover all the cross-section of the duct and consequently does not provide full recovery of condensate formed above the condensate. The condensate, which is not captured in Kongens the tor of heat from operating burners, reducing the combustion process, and evaporated in this part of the condensate will increase the flow of heated gas and as a consequence increase the resistance of the flue. The use of condensate in the form of corrugated spacers or V-shaped profile disposed between the heat exchangers, clutter flue and increases the resistance of the flue, which is undesirable due to the limitations of your own rod installation.

In this setting each plate package channels for the flow of circulating fluid, the inputs and outputs of which are combined with appropriate headers made parallel to each other in the plate as a whole and in separate zones that form the configuration of a flowing part of the inside plate. In any case, the extreme zones of the input and output parts of the plates are made parallel horizontal channels, which does not allow to fully realize the benefits of the schemes of heat transfer "parallel-counterflow".

Combining inputs and outputs of the respective plates collectors package requires time-consuming process operations associated with the soldering or welding of each plate package with collectors package.

Article as they are located in the zone of high temperature, it is possible destruction. Because of the uneven heat flux to the walls of the possible thermal deformation, which in turn can lead to the partial overlapping of the sections of the individual combustion chambers formed by the partitions, exerting a negative influence on the combustion process in them.

The basis of the invention is tasked to develop a water heating plant for heating and/or hot water with such elements (condensate gathering tanks, heat exchangers, stabilizers, flame, partitions), structural embodiment which is a definite choice in the hydraulic circuit will provide a high thermal efficiency (>0,92), environmental cleanliness, for example, the class "blue angel", manufacturability and reliability of the installation.

This objective is achieved in that the water heating plant for heating and/or hot water containing a cooled gas generator of heat, the walls of which are formed by the walls of the combustion chamber and flame plate with holes and which includes stabilizers, flame and walls in the combustion chamber and on the opposite side of the bottom - nozzle for feeding and mixing Gator dansatoare with drain gutters. The first and the second along the heated gas to the heat exchangers in the form of package inserts placed along the flow of the heated gas with a certain step and provided with channels for the flow of circulating fluid. The output of the first heat exchanger and the inlet of the second heat exchanger in their upper parts are used for connecting the heat load. The output of the second heat exchanger in the lower part communicated with the inlet of the cooling circuit elements of the gas generator of heat, and the cooling circuit elements of the gas generator of heat communicated with the inlet of the first heat exchanger in the lower part. Condensate gathering tanks made in the bottom plate of the second heat exchanger in the form embedded in the plate grooves, facing up, with the plane of the groove in its upper part is made with an angle of inclination to the plane of the plate is less than 45o. On the sides of the plates made of the tides, the agreed value of the distance between the plates in the package. At the bottom of the plates at the tides made grooves or channels for draining condensate from the grooves in the gutter.

Channels in the plates formed by tubes connected to the collectors of the plates, the plates in the package is hermetically coupled through the collector, with plates at a distance of not more than 0.5 L1where k is thermal conductivity of the material of the plates in W/m/K, h1- the plate thickness in meters, L1- the distance in meters.

Cooling channels in the walls of the combustion chamber is formed by a tube provided with input/output cooling circuit elements of the gas generator of heat, while the tubes are located relative to each other at a distance of not more than L2= 0,1(k h2)0,5and from the edges of the walls of the combustion chamber is at a distance of not more than 0.5 L2where h2- wall thickness in meters, L2- the distance in meters.

Cooling channels fire face is formed by a tube provided with input/output cooling circuit elements of the gas generator of heat, while the tubes are located relative to each other at a distance of not more than L3= 0,15(kh3)0,5and from the edges of the fire face is at a distance of not more than 0.5 L3where h3the thickness of the bottom in meters, L3- the distance in meters.

Stabilizers flame executed cooled, for example in the form of a tube provided with input/output cooling circuit elements gas heat generator and is placed parallel to the bottom above the nozzles, while sauveteur one with fiery bottom.

The proposed scheme perform hydraulic setting circuit provides a second heat exchanger in the "counter" at a temperature close to the temperature of the circulating fluid at the entrance to the installation. When the surface temperature of the wafer temperature below the "dew point" on them will be to condense the water vapor, passing the circulating fluid latent heat of condensation. The proposed implementation of the condensate provides complete recovery of the condensate does not cover the cross section of the duct, i.e. does not introduce additional resistance to the flow of heated gas and eliminates the negative evaporation of droplets of condensate in the hot gas stream, and the elements of the condensate. The execution of the angle of inclination of the grooves in its upper part is selected from a condition of steady airflow flowing into the groove drops formed on the surface of the plate.

The numerical values of the coefficients in the correlations for distances between the tube plates, the walls of the combustion chamber and fire the bottom are selected from the conditions that:

the temperature of the plate between the tubes of the second heat exchanger does not exceed the temperature of the walls of the cooling tubes more than 5oin its lower mine in the second heat exchanger;

the temperature of the plate between the tubes of the first heat exchanger does not exceed the temperature of the walls of the cooling tubes by more than 25oin its lower part and more than 4oin the upper part, which also will have virtually no effect on the heat exchange in the first heat exchanger, as temperature gas - wall is approximately 1000o;

- the temperature of the walls of the combustion chamber and the fire face between the pipes does not exceed the temperature of the walls of the cooling tubes by more than 50othat will not lead to significant heat loss from the combustion chamber.

Total specified temperature difference will lead, according to the calculations, the efficiency decrease in the amount of less than 0.5%. Thus, the proposed solution allows you to fully realize the benefits of the schemes of heat transfer "parallel-counterflow and to obtain high efficiency of the installation.

The use of tubes for forming channels in accordance with the level of heat flows from the hot gas to implement various channel density in different zones of the plate. The material of the plates, the walls of the combustion chamber and the fire face to ensure optimum heat transfer and dimensions definition the solution simplifies the process of manufacturing heat exchangers and increases the reliability of their operation, for example, by selecting corrosion-resistant tubing material.

The use of cooled combustion chamber, cooled stabilizers flame and passively cooled partitions that make up a single whole with a cooled bottom of the combustion chamber, due to the reliability of operation of the installation as a whole.

Give an example of calculating the maximum distance between the tubes L1, L2, L3for plates, the walls of the combustion chamber and the firing of the bottom respectively.

For example, when using alloy AL (k = 130 W/m/K), when the thickness of the plate h1= 0,006 m get L1= 0,044 m, the thickness of the walls of the combustion chamber h2= 0.01 m get L2= 0,114 m, when the thickness of the fire face of h3= 0.01 m get L3= 0,171 m

In Fig. 1 shows a diagram of the installation of Fig. 2-3 - schema execution of the condensate, the second plates (Fig. 2) and the first (Fig. 3) heat exchangers, cooling fins of the heat exchangers and the method of forming the package of plates (Fig. 3), in Fig. 4 - schematic of cooling the combustion chamber walls, fire face and stabilizers flame, Fig. 5 is a schematic perform stabilizers flame.

Water heating plant for heating is through the walls of the combustion chamber 2 and fire plate with 3 holes 4 and which includes stabilizers flame 5 and the partition 6 in the combustion chamber, and on the opposite side of the bottom - nozzle 7 for supplying and mixing gaseous fuel with air, communicated with a gas generator to heat the flue gas duct, which comprises two heat exchanger 8, 9, and the condensate 10 with drain troughs 11. The first 8 and second 9 exchangers installed in series along the heated gas, in the form of plate pack of 12, are installed along the flow of the heated gas with a certain step and provided with channels 13 for the flow of circulating fluid. On the sides of the plates 12 made tides 14, the agreed value of the distance between the plates in the package. The output of the first heat exchanger and the inlet of the second heat exchanger in their upper parts are used for connecting the heat load. The output of the second heat exchanger in the lower part communicated with the inlet of the cooling circuit elements of the gas generator of heat, and the cooling circuit elements of the gas generator of heat communicated with the inlet of the first heat exchanger in the lower part. Condensate gathering tanks (Fig. 2) made in the bottom plate 12 of the second heat exchanger in the form embedded in the plate grooves 15, facing up, with the plane of the groove in its upper part is made with an angle of inclination to the plane is received in the recess 16 or channels 17.

Cooling channels 13 on the inside of the plates (Fig. 2-3) is formed by a tube 18 connected to the reservoir 19 plates, plates in the package is hermetically coupled through the collector, and the tubes are located relative to each other at a distance of not more than L1and from the edges of the plates at a distance of not more than 0.5 L1.

Cooling channels in the walls of the combustion chamber and fire the bottom (Fig. 4) is formed by a pipe 18 provided with inlet 20 and/or output 21 of the cooling circuit elements of the gas generator of heat, while the tubes in the walls of the combustion chamber are located relative to each other at a distance of not more than L2and from the edges of the walls of the combustion chamber is at a distance of not more than 0.5 L2and firing the bottom at distances not more than L3and not more than 0.5 L3respectively.

Stabilizers flame 5 (Fig. 1, 4, 5) are made to be cooled, for example, in the form of a tube 22 (Fig. 4) provided with an inlet 20 and/or output 21 of the cooling circuit elements gas heat generator and is placed parallel to the bottom above the nozzles, with the corresponding axes of the tubes and nozzles are in one plane. It is possible to perform flame stabilizers in combination, a tube 22 with a conical element 23.

Perehara/or hot water, containing a cooled gas generator of heat, the walls of which are formed by the walls of the combustion chamber and flame plate with holes and which includes stabilizers, flame and walls in the combustion chamber and on the opposite side of the bottom nozzle for feeding and mixing gaseous fuel with air, communicated with a gas generator to heat the flue gas duct, which comprises two heat exchanger and the condensate from the drain troughs, while the first and second (in the direction of the heated gas) heat exchangers made in the form of a pack of plates arranged along the flow of the heated gas with a certain step and provided with channels for the flow of circulating fluid, the output of the first heat exchanger and the inlet of the second heat exchanger in their upper parts are used for connecting the heat load, characterized in that the outlet of the second heat exchanger in the lower part communicated with the inlet of the cooling circuit elements of the gas generator of heat, and the cooling circuit elements of the gas generator of heat communicated with the inlet of the first heat exchanger in the lower part, condensate gathering tanks made in the bottom plate of the second heat exchanger in the form embedded in the plate grooves, facing up, when Cam plates made tides, the agreed value of the distance between the plates in the package in the lower part of the plates in the tides made grooves or channels for draining condensate from the grooves in the gutter.

2. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the channels in the plates formed by tubes connected to the collectors of the plates, the plates in the package is hermetically coupled through the collector, and the tubes are located relative to each other at a distance of not more than L1= 0,05 (k h1)0,5and from the edges of the plates at a distance of not more than 0.5 L1where k is thermal conductivity, h1- the thickness of the plate.

3. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the cooling channels in the walls of the combustion chamber is formed by a tube provided with input/output cooling circuit elements of the gas generator of heat, while the tubes are located relative to each other at a distance of not more than L2= 0,1 (k h2)0,5and from the edges of the walls of the combustion chamber is at a distance of not more than 0.5 L2where h2the wall thickness of the combustion chamber.

4. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the cooling channels of the fire face is formed by a tube provided with input/output cooling circuit elements of the gas generat0,5and from the edges of the fire face at a distance of not more than 0.5 L3where h3the wall thickness of the fire face.

5. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the flame stabilizers are made to be cooled, for example, in the form of a tube provided with input/output cooling circuit elements gas heat generator and is placed parallel to the bottom above the nozzles, with the corresponding axes of the tubes and nozzles are in one plane.

6. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the partitions are integral with the firing head.

 

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