The design of the trailer drawbar for vehicles and trucks and trains

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to vehicles and trains and structures tow their trailers containing trailer hitch, resting his knuckles on the front of the chassis with the possibility of rotation about vertical and horizontal axes, and means for turning the shaft. Means for turning the shaft comprises a control lever attached to the trailer drawbar with the possibility of rotation about the Central line of its vertical axis, and a support bracket attached at one end to the control lever on opposite sides of its vertical axis and the other end to the axis of its opposite sides. The technical result - the use of the trailer drawbar to control the rotation axles of the trailer or of the respective vehicles. 4 C. and 12 C.p. f-crystals, 13 ill.

The invention relates to the structures of the trailer drawbar, described in the preambles of claims 1, 3, 4, 5, and 11 for industrial vehicles, specifically trucks, trailers and tractors to them, commonly referred to as vehicles. The nodes of the axes in these vehicles are described, for example, in the patents Fins which contain nodes axes and/or nodes of the dual axis type described above.

Managed the hard axis are used in special heavy vehicles, which must be managed by one or more axes, if their number exceeds two and if the turning radius of the vehicle wheels without control is insufficient. The hard axis is used in connection with heavy load and to simplify the design. It is crucial that the load will be distributed evenly on all axes on rough terrain, as the direction of movement of the wheels always coincides with the direction of their rotation curves, and when the motion is straight forward.

Commonly used dual wheels with independent suspension, and the design satisfies the requirements for steering and balancing.

Axis, still supported by its axle on the chassis by means of the turntable can also be used. The requirements established for rotation, are satisfied, but not satisfied the requirements for load balancing if there are several axes as the axes are not connected together in the design of the turntable. Also not satisfied the requirement that the wheels were moving in the direction of their surface is learn the resistance to movement of the vehicle becomes large on the curves of rotation, the tension in the elements of its design increases, and, for example, tire wear and energy consumption increase by rotation curves compared to driving on a straight road.

In addition there are various solutions for load balancing by using multiple trailers. The disadvantage is that the trains are difficult to manage.

It is also known the use of wheels with independent suspension, each wheel has its own turntable, so that the wheel turns easily even 180 degrees. In this case, the wheel is often managed with the use of electronics and hydraulics. The solution is complex and expensive and demanding in terms of maintenance.

Solutions similar to those described in the preambles of claims 4, 5 and 11, with the exception of the trailer drawbar, known from patents Finland 84895 and 89570. In these solutions, the rotation axis is provided by the effect of the provisions of the longitudinal supports of the node axis and plates, leaf springs suspension, and they are very well meet the requirements to control the rotation axis, balancing on a different axis of movement of the wheels in the direction you are turning and merging posleduyuschem claims 4, 5 and 11, with the exception of the trailer drawbar, also known from patent application Finland 954662. In these solutions, balancing the action of lifting the chassis and the mechanical control of the bearing axis part of the vehicle is achieved when the axes are rotated. These characteristics give some positive effects during operation of the vehicle.

As mentioned above, the design of the trailer drawbar between a tractor and a trailer or between truck tractors and trailers was not described in the above publications. The use of the trailer drawbar to control the tractor and trailer or tractor and trailer must be structurally suitable and adaptable in use.

The aim of the present invention is to develop solutions for the trailer drawbar in the management of the axles of the trailer or the appropriate vehicle.

This is achieved by the designs of the trailer drawbar according to the invention, which are characterized by what is stated in the characterizing parts of claims 4, 5 and 11. The combination according to the invention are characterized by what is stated in the characterizing parts of claims.

In the present invention the control Khujand road, moreover, the angle formed by the curves of rotation between the trailer drawbar and chassis of the trailer. Although the force control is mechanically transmitted directly to all axes of the trailer, which must be rotated, it is also possible to use, for example, hydrothermalism. The turntable, commonly used in trailers, is replaced by, for example, suspension axis in accordance with the patent Finland 84895 and 89570.

The design according to the invention allows, when the drawbar of the trailer is preferably used as a tool, rotation of one or more nodes of the axes in the trailer, whereby you meet the following essential requirements: load balancing between the axes, the movement of the wheels in the direction of their rotation curves, trailer repeat track track movement of the tractor on the curves of rotation, low energy consumption, and, for example, tire wear on rotation curves and less common strains in structural elements.

The control method according to the invention also allows for multiple sequential trailers were connected and operated as described above, the power control and geometry control is transferred to each trailer from the trailer drawbar and the previous trailer. It is also possible to connect together nasalcease and not fitted with engines, arbitrarily, as will be described below.

There may be one or more axes managed by the trailer drawbar, and even unguided axis can be included in the vehicle. At least are obvious alternatives:

- one driven axle and one or more stationary axes,

two controlled axes and one or more stationary axes,

three controlled axes and one or more stationary axes,

four controlled axes and one or more stationary axes,

two controlled axes,

three controlled axes,

four controlled axes.

Of course, other combinations may be made in the construction of the trailer drawbar according to the invention.

Hereinafter the invention will be described in more detail by means of examples of some designs with reference to the attached drawings, in which:

Fig. 1 depicts a side view of a trailer equipped with one driven rigid axle and the trailer drawbar in accordance with the invention,

Fig. 2 is a top view of the trailer of Fig. 1,

Fig. 3 is a top view of the trailer of Fig. 1, in which the trailer drawbar is rotated, resulting regards the receiving,

Fig. 5 is a top view of the trailer of Fig. 4,

Fig. 6 is a top view of the trailer of Fig. 4, in which the trailer drawbar is rotated, resulting in the rotation of axes in the entire trailer

Fig. 7 is a top view of the position in which the tractor is equipped with a rotating rigid axles, pulls the trailer according to Fig. 4 - 6 on the curve of the rotation,

Fig. 8 - version control through the trailer drawbar in the previous figures,

Fig. 9 is a side view of a combination according to the invention, formed by two vehicles connected together by means of a drawbar trailer

Fig. 10 is a top view of the trailer of Fig. 9,

Fig. 11 is a top view of the trailer of Fig. 9 on the curve of the rotation,

Fig. 12 is a separate side view of the drawbar of the trailer shown in Fig. 9 - 11, and

Fig. 13 is a top view of the drawbar of the trailer of Fig. 12.

The trailer, shown in Fig. 1 - 3 contains the chassis 1' with one hard-driven axle 2', the ends of which are attached to the wheels 3' and 4', which can be doubled if needed.

Axis 2' attached to the chassis 1' by means of triangular or U-shaped supports 5', pivotally connected in the same location as the middle of the axis 2' of the ball joint 11' and based their pivots in two places on the opposite side of the chassis 1' poro rotation and control of horizontal rotation axis 2', but prevents you from moving sideways axis 2' in the same terms.

Suspension parts S', for example, rigid levers or springs, for example, support or parabolic springs attached concentric or eccentric to the axis 2', placed between the axle 2' and the chassis of the trailer 1' at both ends of the axis 2.

In order to enable the rotation axis 2, suspension parts S1' placed on both ends of the details of the support S', which is attached to the chassis 1' through these suspension parts. Details of the support S' and suspension parts S1' shown only in Fig. 1 as if to show them in Fig. 2 and 3, they will only complicate the understanding of the present invention. These items were previously known in the art, and a more detailed description can be found, for example, in the above patents Finland 84895 and 89570.

As for the trailer, it also contains the trailer drawbar 10', which in this case is located so as to be rotated together with a vertical axis 9' attached to the chassis 1' in front, or relative to the center line of the vertical axis 9'. The vertical axis 9' rests his pin on the chassis 1'. Trailer hitch 10' is attached to the vertical axis 9' by means of the transverse control arm 8' on which the trailer drawbar 1 18 and 19 at both ends of the vertical axis 9'. The balloon 20' denotes the towing eyelet the trailer drawbar 10'.

In order to be able to rotate the axle 2' by turning the trailer drawbar 10' and attached to the control lever 8', supporting brackets 6' and 7' are placed between the control lever 8' and the axle 2', and brackets attached at one end to the control lever 8' from opposite sides from the specified vertical axis 9' by means of ball joints 15' and 17', and the other end under the axis 2' by means of ball joints 14' and 16' on opposite sides of the seat swivel 11', located in a triangular support 5'. The support brackets 6' and 7' are also a support for axis 2', and support reactions from the axis 2' in the direction along the trailer is transmitted to the chassis 1 via the supporting arms 6' and 7' and then through the vertical axis 9', since the reaction force bearing axis is not transmitted to the chassis 1' through triangular support 5'.

The site shown in Fig. 1 to 3, is suitable as a control node axes in the trailers when you need an inexpensive and simple design. This site is provided preferably in a two-axle and three-axle trailers.

The trailer is equipped with two four-wheel bogies, shown in Fig. 4 - 6. All axles, wheels and bonacini the same number of items, but without the apostrophe. Details of the support S and suspension parts S1 also like the details of the support S' and suspension components S1' shown in Fig. 1 to 3. Suspension suspension parts S1 on the chassis 1 are similar to those described above except for the middle of the axles of each truck, where suspension parts S1 rely on balancing levers (not shown in the drawings) placed in the chassis 1. These nodes are also known from the prior art and described, for example, in the above patents Finland 84895 and 89570. It is a known placement of the part support and arm shown only in Fig. 4 for clarity, and even there only in connection with the first axis.

The device drawbar trailer deviates somewhat from the solutions shown in Fig. 1 to 3, so that the vertical axis 9 of the drawbar of the trailer 10 is attached to the chassis 1 and also can be rotated around a horizontal axis 21, and the node horizontal bearing 18, 19 connecting the drawbar of the trailer 10 with the control lever 8 is in a special point between the line formed by the hinge connections 15 and 17 of the specified horizontal axis 21 and the supporting brackets 6 and 7. The distance of the node horizontal bearing 18, 19 from the horizontal axis 21 is marked with the letter A, and the distance of the horizontal axis 21 from the line, obrazki, as shown in Fig. 1 - 3.

Now the vertical axis 9 is not a support for axis 2, but distributes the traction force, which is transmitted from the trailer drawbar 10 on the chassis 1 and axis 2 in the desired ratio. If you want half of the trailer drawbar 10 was based on the chassis 1 and the other half on the axis 2, the value of B = 2A, i.e., as shown in Fig. 4.

Based on the quality of the terrain and roads, it is possible and preferable to design the distribution relationship of the traction force, for example, such that a large traction force relied on the chassis 1 than on axis 2. This applies to the case where the ascent is steep, and at the same time, the resistance to movement on the way low due to surface quality.

Similarly, it is preferable to give the opportunity for greater traction force to rely on axis 2 than on the chassis 1 on flat ground, if at the same time, the quality of the road surface creates a very high resistance to movement.

The node in Fig. 4 to 6 further comprises a second control levers 22 and 24, which are based on their pivots between the axes 2 of the first truck on the chassis 1 at its opposite sides and extending down from the chassis, which are attached to the specified axis 2 through the corresponding food is the first axis indicated by the positions 42 and 44, and swivel control levers at the ends of the control levers 22 and 24, indicated by the positions 43 and 45. Swivel with the longitudinal axis of the supports 29 and 30 from the second axis indicated by the positions 47 and 49, and swivel control levers located between the pivot connections 38 and 39 of the control levers 22 and 24 and the pivot connections 43 and 45, indicated by the positions 46 and 48.

On the Central line of the chassis 1, behind the second axis 2 of the first truck, additionally is symmetric lever 26, to which the opposite sides of the mounting location of the bearing 37 is attached connecting rods 31 and 32 through connections 51 and 53, and the rods are connected together with the second control levers 22 and 24 at one end to the third control levers 23 and 25, located in the same node of the bearing 38, 39, through connections 50 and 52, so that the second and third control levers are fixed relative to one another and are located on the same side of the line bearings, i.e. under it.

Truck-trailer is symmetric with respect to the front of the truck or, in fact, its mirroring, except that she had no connection to the article is obtained positions 59, 61 and 58, 60. Swivel with their axes indicated by the positions 64, 68 and 62, 66, and swivel control levers 35 and 36 are indicated by positions 65, 69 and 63, 67. The front longitudinal supports 59 and 61 of the truck-trailer are connected by a hinge with the control levers 35 and 36 at the same distance from the place of installation of the bearings 70 and 71 which are rear longitudinal supports 29 and 30 from the bearings 38 and 39 of the control levers 22 and 24, and the rear longitudinal supports 58 and 60 truck-trailer is similar to the front longitudinal support 27 and 28 of the front truck, if the truck-trailer must follow the first truck on the curves of rotation. If the truck must have different radii of curvature, the difference in the relationship of the levers is selected between the first truck and truck-trailer.

The fourth control levers 40 and 41 extending upward from the nodes of the bearings 70 and 71 fixedly mounted relative to the control levers 35 and 36 to the nodes of the bearings 70 and 71 of the control levers 35 and 36 truck-trailer (in this case, these control levers 35 and 36 can be called the fifth control levers). These fourth control levers 40 and 41 are connected by the connecting rods 33 and 34 with the specified symmetric lever 26 connection is In some cases it is possible and advantageous for reasons of size split connecting rods 31 and 32 from the front of the truck in two parts, the connection relies on its pivots on the chassis by means of a separate support bracket.

The node axis design of the drawbar of the trailer of Fig. 8 corresponds essentially to the design of the front axle, as shown in Fig. 4 - 6. The front end of the whole structure of the trailer drawbar partially corresponds to the design shown in Fig. 1 to 3. The difference is that the control force and the movement is directed from the top to the middle of the double axes by means of the control lever 8"', attached to the upper end of the vertical axis 9'. Driving motion from the trailer drawbar 10' is transmitted to the control lever 8a"' by means of horizontal nodes bearings 18' and 19', next on the vertical axis 9' and then through the control lever 8"' and through the support brackets 6"' 7"' support brackets 23a and 25A of the control levers 23 and 25 and thus controls the system control levers of the trailer.

Structurally, the same result will be achieved, for example, by connecting the control lever 8"' and symmetrical lever 26 swivel arm can support. Has not been shown and it is obvious that there are other ways to resolve the issue. The other control lever 8"' may also remain in the hinge connections, details of the support and suspension axes, and means for connecting and controlling the axles in the combination of Fig. 9 to 11 is similar to the used in the apparatus shown in Fig. 4 - 6. These details, however, are not numbered, except for those that are in the immediate vicinity of the construction of the trailer drawbar.

Cab and controls each vehicle are located at the extreme ends formed by train, so the train can be driven from either end in accordance with the requirements and to work practically so that the vehicle selected as the drive is used as a Prime mover or driving the vehicle, and the other as the trailer. In the situation described, the left vehicle described as a hauling vehicle, i.e. a tractor and the right vehicle as a vehicle that pull, that is the trailer.

An additional characteristic of the number of items associated with the construction of the trailer drawbar, is a double apostrophe ("), although the associated part is essentially the same as shown in Fig. 4 - 6.

Trailer hitch 10" connecting the rear ends of the vehicle, attached to the rear ends transphobic shown in Fig. 4 to 6 and is therefore not described in more detail here. The control lever 8, associated with the drawbar of the trailer and its bracket (6", 7") with axis 2, is essentially similar to that shown in Fig. 4-6.

Trailer hitch 10 also is provided with an additional swivel and associated locking and unlocking parts, which will be described below. For the implementation of this horizontal plate 74", 75" and 76", 77" attached to the horizontal bearings 18 'and 19", respectively. Between these plates is fixed axle, equipped with ball joints 78", 80", by means of connecting pins 79 and 81, which pass through these horizontal plate and ball joints. Moving in the axial direction of the locking parts 71", 72" base with his knuckles on the drawbar of the trailer 10', and at one time may be locked one axle locking parts, so that essentially prevents its horizontal rotation, i.e., also rotates the control lever 8" on this side, and at the same time released the other axle, so that it can rotate freely essentially in a horizontal plane without being with her this way was turning the control lever. This swivel, however,locking and unlocking both ends of the locking parts 71", 72" contain locking protective wedges 83", 84", 85", 86", which can be locked in the locking grooves 87", 88", 89", 90" (see Fig. 11 and 12) formed in the plates 74", 75" and 76", 77", respectively. The locking parts 71", 72" moved by means of the pin 82 in the actuator 73". The actuator 73" rigidly fixed to the middle of the trailer drawbar 10". The pin 82 may be moved hydraulically, pneumatically, electrically or mechanically. In the shown situation the locking part 72 are locked in the locking grooves 89", 90" in the plates 76", 77", and the locking piece 71" released from the locking grooves 87 and 88 in the plates 74", 75". The pin 82 has only two positions, i.e., it locks the axle on that side of the vehicle, which is a trailer and simultaneously unlocks the axle from the vehicle, which is the Prime mover. The selection may be performed automatically, or it can be done, when the driver begins to prepare the rig.

The locking parts 71", 72" enable pivoting movement relative to one another and pivoting movement of the drawbar of the trailer 10 around its axis, and the inclination in the longitudinal direction between vehicles is allowed freely. Free turning parts, all specifications is because the axis of the tractor can be rotated from one extreme position to another, even when the train is not moving.

If the rotation axes of the vehicle, which is a trailer, is carried out, for example, a hydraulic actuator, the driving force resulting from differences in the angles between the tractor drawbar of the trailer and the vehicle that is towed in a horizontal plane.

Device power management is always available on towing tractors, but is not mandatory in the trailers.

Trains transported in both directions, as for example, described here, is necessary in places where the space required for rotation of the combination becomes very expensive. These typical places include, for example, the field opened galleries.

The design of the trailer drawbar and trailer on the image above only by few examples of the preferred designs, but it is obvious that the invention can be modified without leaving the range defined in the attached claims, and applied to many different sites axes and trucks. This means that, for example, the combination may contain more than two vehicles, for example, the towing vehicle. The combination can result in the movement of only one engine, and it can be located in any of the vehicles. The combination may also contain vehicles and/or trailers in any order. The trailer drawbar according to the invention, connecting the vehicle can also be selected in accordance with a specific need. Of course, they can be single axis or dual-axis in accordance with necessity, and their number can also be changed in accordance with necessity. The driver of the train can also be replaced by automatic control and control mechanisms, which remain the same as described above.

1. The design of the trailer drawbar is equipped with a dual axis, and design contains: at least two hard axis (2), wheels (3, 4) attached to the ends of each axis (2), the details of the supports (S) or springs located on both ends of each axis between the axis (2) and the chassis (1) of the vehicle, and in order to enable the rotation axis of at least two rigid axles (2) provides: suspension parts (S1), located at both ends of the two parts of the tower (S) or spring axis (2), and suspension parts are attached on the military, or not directly; triangular support (5), pivotally connected at one place with the middle axis (2) and based their pivots in two places on the opposite side of the chassis (1) of the vehicle; trailer hitch (10), resting his knuckles on the front of the chassis (1) with the possibility of rotation about vertical and horizontal axes, and means for turning the shaft (2), characterized in that the means for turning the shaft (2) comprises a control lever (8) attached to the drawbar of the trailer (10) with the possibility of rotation about the center line of the vertical axis (9) and support brackets (6, 7) attached at one end to the control lever on opposite sides from the specified vertical axis (9) and the other end to the first axis (2) from opposite sides of the seat swivel (11) located in a triangular support; further comprises means attached to the first axis to perform a rotary movement of at least one axis, opposite the first axis, and second control levers (22, 24) rely on their pivots on the chassis (1) on its opposite sides between the first and second axis, and these axes are connected with the levers through the longitudinal supports (27, 29; the ow behind the second axis on the chassis at its Central line, and connecting rods (31, 32) are attached to opposite sides from the place of installation of the bearing (37) to the balanced lever, and a rod attached at one end to the second control levers (22, 24).

2. The design of the trailer drawbar under item 1, characterized in that the front longitudinal supports (27, 28) is attached to the second control levers (22, 24) at a different distance from the place of installation of bearings (38, 39) than the rear longitudinal support (29, 30), in order to trace the track of the movement of wheels of different axes on the curves turn was agreed upon.

3. The design of the trailer drawbar under item 2, characterized in that the connecting rods (31, 32) are attached together with the second control levers (22, 24) to the third control levers (23, 25) mounted in the same node of the bearing (38, 39) so that the second and third control levers are relative to one another and are located on the same side of the line bearings.

4. The design of the trailer drawbar under item 1, characterized in that the vertical axis (9) of the drawbar of the trailer (10) is supported by its axle at the upper end to the chassis (1) with the possibility of rotation about a transverse horizontal axis, and that the holder (18) the horizontal axis of the drawbar of the trailer (10) is 17) support brackets (6, 7) placed on the vertical axis (9) to force the tiller were distributed between the chassis and the node axis, as required.

5. The design of the trailer drawbar, equipped with a dual axis, and design contains: two trolleys, each of which has two hard axis (2), wheels (3, 4) attached to the ends of each axis (2), the details of the supports (S) or springs located on both ends of each axis between the axis (2) and the chassis (1) of the vehicle, suspension parts (S1) located on both ends of the two parts of the tower (S) or spring axis (2), and suspension parts are attached at one end to the details of the support (S) or the leaf springs and the other end to the chassis (1) of the vehicle, either directly or not directly, triangular support (5), connected to each axis and pivotally connected at one place with the middle axis (2) and based their pivots in two places on the opposite side of the chassis (1) of the vehicle, the drawbar of the trailer (10), resting his knuckles on the front of the chassis (1) with the possibility of rotation about vertical and horizontal axes, and means for turning the shaft (2), characterized in that the means for turning the shaft (2) includes: a control lever (8) attached to the drawbar PR one end to the control lever on opposite sides of the center line of the vertical axis (9) and the other end to the first axis (2) of the first truck from the opposite sides of the seat swivel (11), located in a triangular pillar, the second control levers (22, 24), resting his knuckles on the chassis (1) on its opposite sides between the axes of the first truck, and these axes are connected with the levers through the longitudinal supports (27, 29; 28, 30) on opposite sides of the chassis, respectively, the symmetric lever (26), supported by its axle behind the second axle of the first truck on the chassis in place of its Central line, and connecting rods (31, 32) are attached to opposite sides from the place of installation of the bearing (37) to the balanced lever, and a rod attached at one end to the second control levers (22, 24), connecting rods (33, 34) attached at one end to opposite sides of a symmetrical lever (26), and the other end between the axes of the second truck to the fourth control levers (40, 41), resting his knuckles on the opposite side of the chassis; and longitudinal supports the rear of the truck(58, 59; 60, 61), pivotally connected between the rear axles of the truck and fifth control levers (35, 36), fixedly mounted to the fourth control levers (40, 41).

6. The design of the trailer drawbar on p. 5, characterized in that the reaction of longitudinally spaced bearings front and rear otkluchayut deceleration, the forces of acceleration and the force of resistance to the movement of trucks in the lever mechanism.

7. The design of the trailer drawbar on p. 5, characterized in that the vertical axis (9) of the drawbar of the trailer (10) is supported by its axle at the upper end to the chassis (1) with the possibility of rotation about a transverse horizontal axis, and the bearing (18) the horizontal axis of the trailer drawbar (10) to the vertical axis (9) is located at a predetermined height between the horizontal axis (21) and swivel (15, 17) support brackets (6, 7) placed on the vertical axis (9), to power from the trailer drawbar were distributed between the chassis and the node axis as required.

8. The combination formed by two vehicles connected through the trailer drawbar (10"), both vehicles have the node axis, comprising: at least two nodes axis, each of which has at least one axle (2), wheels (3, 4) attached to the ends of each axis (2), the details of the supports (S) or springs located on both ends of each axis between the axis (2) and the chassis (1) of the vehicle, suspension parts (S1), located at both ends of the two parts of the tower (S) or spring axis (2), and suspension parts are attached at one end to the details of the support (S) the triangular support (5), connected with each axle and pivotally connected at one place with the middle axis (2) and based their pivots in two places opposite side of the chassis (1) of the vehicle, means located between the axes (2) to transmit rotary motion from one axis to the other axis, which must be rotated, characterized in that cab and controls each vehicle are located at the extreme ends formed of a combination, and the combination can be set in motion at either end in accordance with necessity, and in order to achieve this: trailer hitch (10") based his knuckles on the back of each vehicle can be rotated relative to the vertical and horizontal nodes bearings(9", 18", 19", 21"), the control lever (8") attached to both ends of the trailer drawbar (10") can be rotated relative to the center line of the vertical axis (9) and support brackets (6", 7") are connected with the control levers and attached one end to the control lever on the opposite side from the said vertical axis (9") and the other end to the rear axle (2) of the vehicle from opposite sides from the place ., that both ends of the trailer drawbar (10") contain additional swivel(78", 79"; 80", 81") and means(71", 74", 75"; 72", 76", 77") in order to lock and unlock additional connections at one end only for one time, and the end of the trailer drawbar (10"), which is exempt and is always on the side of the vehicle, which acts as the Prime mover has the opportunity to turn in a plane parallel to the road surface, not acting on the control lever (8") on this side.

10. Combination in p. 8, characterized in that the additional swivel(78", 79"; 80", 81") formed by coupling pins (79", 81") attached between the horizontal plates(74", 75"; 76", 77"), attached to the horizontal nodes bearings (18", 19"), and pins threaded through ball joints (78", 80") at the ends of the trailer drawbar (10"), placed between the said plates, and means for locking and unlocking additional hinge joints formed locking parts (71", 72"), which glide through the actuator (73) and pin (82") from the middle of the trailer drawbar (10) and the locking parts may be locked in protipozarnich details, placed in a horizontal layer is a motor and are practically so, the vehicle selected as a presenter, works as a tractor, and the other as the trailer.

12. Combination in p. 8, characterized in that only one of the vehicles equipped engine.

13. The combination formed by at least three vehicles connected together by more than one trailer drawbar, and each vehicle has a node axis, comprising: at least two nodes axis, each of which contains at least one axle (2), wheels (3, 4) attached to the ends of each axis (2), the details of the supports (S) or springs located on both ends of each axis between the axis (2) and the chassis (1) of the vehicle, suspension parts (S1), located at both ends of the two parts of the tower (S) or spring axis (2), and suspension parts are attached at one end to the details of the support (S) or the leaf springs and the other end to the chassis (1) of the vehicle, either directly or not directly, triangular support (5), connected to each axis, pivotally connected in one place with the middle axis (2) and based their pivots in two places on the opposite side of the chassis (1) of the vehicle, means located between the axes (2) to transfer the different topics at least the vehicle on the extreme ends of the trains contain the cockpit and controls, located on the extreme ends of the train, and the train can move from any end in accordance with necessity, and in order to achieve this: both ends of more than one trailer drawbar rely on their journals, with the possibility of rotation about the vertical and horizontal nodes bearings at the ends of the vehicles in question, the control levers are attached to both ends of more than one trailer drawbar can be rotated relative to the centerline of their vertical axes, the support brackets are connected with the control levers and attached one end to the control levers on opposite sides of the mentioned vertical axis and the other end to a specific axis (2) of the vehicle, which is nearest to the drawbar of the trailer, with the opposite sides of the seat swivel (11) triangular support with the axis.

14. Combination in p. 13, characterized in that at least the vehicle on the extreme ends of the vehicles are equipped with engines, and are used almost so, h is>15. Combination in p. 13, characterized in that only one of the vehicles equipped engine.

16. Combination according to any one of paragraphs.8 to 15, characterized in that it is equipped with automatic control.

 

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