The tank for cleaning and conditioning of drinking water

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the production of drinking water. The technical result is the improvement of existing devices. In the tank for cleaning and conditioning of drinking water, including coaxial vertical tower, inside which there is a filter material, the tower divided by the horizontal bearing diaphragm stiffness in two parts: the intake pit for purified water in which you installed submersible pumps or intake funnel with tubing and receiving Department, where the conduit is the source treated water. In the upper part of the admissions Department on a horizontal carrier perforated diaphragm are one or more layers of filter backfill for treatment and conditioning of raw water, the labour movement which through the filter provided by filling from the bottom up. There are two groups of overflow Windows - one window group for the overflow of treated water from the admissions Department in the tank is evenly distributed around the walls of the tower, at the same elevation above the upper layer of backfill, and the second group of Windows, designed to overflow clean water from a water tank in the group relates to the production of drinking water and can be used for treatment and conditioning of water and natural waters.

The problem of obtaining high-quality drinking water is now more than ever more urgent not only in Russia but all over the world. Tap water in large and small cities, though, and corresponds to GOST 284-82, is harmful to human health, because the technology of water treatment, municipal water treatment plants was calculated on the once pure lake, river and groundwater (borehole) water, which over the last 30 to 40 years have been polluted by industrial waste.

In urban water supply stations used chlorination (disinfection) and processing of aluminum sulfate (for coagulation). Chlorine reacts with organic substances in water of water, forms a highly toxic organochlorine substances, and aluminium salts neurotoxic. Poor quality water pipes bringing water into the house, corrode under the action of chlorine added to drinking water iron salts, far above the maximum allowable concentration.

The situation is no better with drinking water in peri-urban and suburban towns. For example, according to the Committee of 12 borehole intakes Karelian isthmus 10 do not meet sanitary standards, as contained in the I technology of water purification and natural treatment of surface water to drinking standards near the place of its consumption.

There are a large variety of devices designed for water purification. For example, a device (2), wherein a water-filled tank closed top pyramidal casing of glass or transparent synthetic resin. With the Central part of the tank is connected to a cylinder filled with a filler for treatment of water containing mineral components, mainly silica and alumina. Through the open top and bottom of the cylinder, the height of which approximately 2/3 the height of the casing, passes the pipe to supply water from the top and side outlets. With the tank are connected by pipelines with pumps for feed and output of water.

Another known device (3) is more simplified design (without drivers), and is intended for removal of iron from drinking water. This device contains a water tower with the barrel and tank roof, pipelines feeding raw and selection of clean water, oratory clarifier and filtration granular load. The pipe feeding the raw water flowing inside the water tank, put through its roof and has a perforated wall.

The device (4) for water treatment includes a vertical housing, separated by a perforated partition is a measure for source water feed pipe and located in the upper part of the body, extending up the camera for collecting purified water. For water purification from heavy metals it has placed in the chamber for the source water separator (in the form of pipes with nozzles), made in the shape of the petals of a Tulip".

A device - pin tank (5), hydraulically connected with the mixing chamber of the reactants and the aeration column, equipped with a suspension, with the possibility of vertical movement of the aerator for the formation of water-to-air solution in the amount of raw water and its associated flexible hose-air duct for compressed air. Normal device operation is ensured by passing in a gravity mode total volume of treated water and the distribution of part of the untreated water, saturated with air, providing flotation effect.

A known method of water treatment (6), wherein the water is first subjected to sedimentation, then filtered through a sand filter and processing oxygen and ion exchange mixture containing 40 to 70% clinoptilolite, 30 and 15% anionoobmennoi material and 30 to 15% katieholmesnake material (the last two are the type of cellulose).

Famous is the material - fossilized shells (7) containing the components R of the ikat. They are grinded to a state of coarse sand, dried with hot air at 120 - 150oC in a rotary kiln and cooled in the refrigerator. Then the material is ground to a powder in a ball mill, and thus there is a cyclone in the form of particles with a size of 0.10 - 50,0 mm. Under this treatment receive material that is optimal for improving water quality.

In recent years, the sale of a variety vodoochischayuschih devices designed for purification of water and natural water. These devices use a variety of technologies: sorption on activated carbon, ion exchange resins; ion-exchange membranes; electrodialysis; osmosis, etc.

For a deep cleaning and conditioning of drinking water there are a number of special installations, but especially interesting for its novelty and originality of the setting, based on the simulation of natural processes of self-purification. This device, partially resolving the problem of water purification from organic, mineral and bacterial contamination (8), in which for the treatment and conditioning of water load is placed in the vessel successive layers. Layer load to the primary handle is made of shungite with the sum of the static components is not more than 0.1% by weight, including: sulfur 1.5 - 2 per cent, of nitrogen, 0.3 - 0.6% of the mass of organic matter. You can run the device with a layer of the boot for further processing water. The device can be made in a submersible version. The capacity of such a device consists of two detachable parts for primary and post-processing of water, and at least part of the surface of each is made from a material with a pore size of 1 to 100 μm. The disadvantages of this device is the inability effective water purification from heavy metals, organic and bacterial contamination, as well as simultaneous conditioning of its trace elements.

The closest to this invention is a device for cleaning and conditioning of water (9) containing a capacitor, which is equipped with a tube for supplying water to be purified. In the tank are layers of backfill for two-stage water treatment, the first layer along the water to be treated is made of shungite, and the second layer of carbonate-bearing rocks. The device can be configured to supply the cleaning water from the top down and bottom up. In the vessel wall posted by outlet for removal of the treated water to the consumer. Water may be previously on the om.

This device is the closest to this invention a specific counterpart in the practice of domestic and international water and taken as a prototype.

The disadvantages of the above devices should include the fact that the majority of purifiers although in varying degrees of delay present in the water toxicants, but at the same time remove from the water of useful components are the salts of magnesium and calcium, and, most importantly, the set of elements which are inherent to the natural water. This deprives the water of biological activity, and the consumer has at and clean, but "artificial" water.

Practical application of a device similar to (10) to create a reservoir of large capacity for treatment and conditioning of drinking water becomes impossible for several reasons. First, when the water supply taking into account the proposed scheme for water flow (tube 2) at the bottom of the tank 5 (at the junction of the walls to the bottom) and remote from the valve 4 in the tank 3 will inevitably be formed stagnant areas of water, which will deteriorate the quality of the treated water. Secondly, the supply of treated water source is directly in the material of the filter backfill under napora and in the treated water.

The objective of the invention is to create a device that would have the following advantages over other devices for water treatment:

a) would give the opportunity to not only effectively clean the water from a variety of harmful substances, but also to adjust its composition macro (magnesium and calcium) and trace elements;

b) would allow the use of cheaper materials for backfill - natural minerals and rocks, from which simulated the natural processes of water self-purification;

C) the proposed device would be effective for use in large capacity reservoirs included in the system of economic-drinking water supply;

g) it would be permissible replacement filter backfill for new or regeneration (without disassembly);

d) were allowed it would be possible to use the invention for purification of water in the networks is not only cold, but hot water and for wastewater treatment of various productions;

(e) excluding the possibility of education inside the tank and inside the filter backfill stagnant areas of water, negatively affecting microbiological and organoleptic characteristics of water quality.

Ukazaniya tower, equipped with Windows for overflow of treated water in the tank and the horizontal bearing a perforated diaphragm with on her filter layer backfill for treatment and conditioning of the source water being treated, the labour movement through which is provided from the bottom up, characterized in that the tower is divided additional horizontal load-carrying diaphragm stiffness in two parts: the intake pit for purified water in which you installed submersible pumps or intake funnel with tubing, and the receiving office where the pipeline is fed purified water source, and in the upper part of which is placed the specified perforated aperture with one or more layers of specified backfill, open for overflow of treated water from the admissions Department in the tank are a group of evenly around the perimeter walls of the receiving branch of the towers at the same elevation above the upper layer of backfill, and the second group of Windows, designed to overflow of treated water from the tank to the intake pit, located within the walls of the tower directly under the bottom of the tank.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig.1 presents ve the th water upwards through the filter filling; in Fig. 2 is a horizontal section of the tank (a-a) of Fig. 3 - same (b-b) of Fig.4 is the same (in-C) of Fig. 5-the same (g-g); Fig.6 is the same (d-d) of Fig.7 is the same (e-e).

Position in the drawings denote:

1 - water reservoir; 2 - coaxial vertical circulation tower; 3 - horizontal bearing aperture; 4 - receiving section; 5 - water pit; 6 - supply line of the source water to be purified; 7 - horizontal load-bearing perforated diaphragm; 8 - the bottom layer of backfill (crushed carbon shungite rock containing aluminosilicates, quartz, and amorphous carbon); 9 - the middle layer of backfill (carbonate-bearing rock is crushed and subjected to activation sedimentary rock - fossil organic remains of ancient organisms, chemical and biochemical composition close to that of modern corals); 10 is the upper layer of backfill (clean coarse sand); 11 - horizontal porous pad 12 is open to the overflow of water from the admission office tower in the fresh water tank; 13 - window for the overflow of water from the fresh water tank in the intake pit; 14 - intake funnel; 15 pipe water from the tank; 16 - horizontal bracing between the CTE is in filling in the receiving section; 19 is a filter to clean the air entering the tank.

The tank for cleaning and conditioning of drinking water (see Fig. 1) consists of a reservoir for drinking water 1 ground, buried or underground performance, made of metal, reinforced concrete or other known materials, mainly cylindrical shape in plan, is located within the coaxial vertical circulation tower 2, divided by the horizontal bearing aperture 3 on the receiving compartment 4 (see Fig.2, 3 and 4) and the intake pit 5 (see Fig.5), which can be performed on the same mark with the bottom of the tank or buried in it. Through the outer wall of the tank and the wall of the tower in the receiving Department summed up the pipe feeding the treated water source 6. In the upper part of the receiving compartment provided with horizontal supporting the perforated diaphragm 7, which are sequentially laid one or more layers of filling, used for treatment of water in its working movement in the direction upwards. Backfilling may, for example, consist of three layers 8, 9 and 10: the bottom layer of crushed shungite rocks 8; middle layer of carbonate-bearing rocks 9; the upper layer of pure Alou porous gasket 11. Along the walls of the tower, above the level of the upper backfill layer, at the same elevation of the completed window 12 for the overflow of water from the admission office tower in the basin with clean water after passing through all layers of the backfill). A similar window 13 is located within the walls of the intake pit. They are designed to overflow clean water from the reservoir to the intake funnel 14, where the water in the pipe 15 through the intake funnel, or by using a submersible pump is pumped to the consumer. In addition, in the structure provided by horizontal bracing 16 set evenly around the perimeter of the tank, between its outer walls and tower. The pipeline 17 emergency overflow water will prevent the tank from destruction in case of overflow. The tank is also equipped with a hatch 18 to download the backfilling materials in the reception area (in addition to the usual hatches), the filters 19 to clean the air entering the tank during emptying.

The device operates as follows: in the fresh water tank 1, and more precisely in the receiving section 4 of the Central tower 2 to line 6 is supplied treated water source. In the horizontal bearing aperture 3, which flows like water, before the necessity of repair or cleaning of the tank). In the closed position of the valve the water, filling the receiving compartment 4, crosses the horizontal bearing perforated diaphragm 7 and a horizontal porous gasket 11, and then penetrates into the lower layer of backfill 8 consisting, for example, from the crushed carbon shungite rocks. (For guaranteed passing the entire volume of water through the filling provides water flow from the bottom up). In the interaction of the source water with this layer of backfill is the number of physico-chemical processes, including oxidation and sorption of water contained in the impurities, water acidification and dissolution of some part of the siliceous component of shungite and get in the water molecules polysilicon acid capable of complexing with polyvalent metals and organic compounds of complex structure. Then the water containing trace amounts of polysilicon acids, passes through a horizontal porous wall 11 and the second layer of backfill 9 (for example, consisting of carbonate-bearing rocks - fossilized organic remains of ancient organisms, chemical and biochemical composition close to that of modern corals). Then cleaned and mineralized bodieve captured from previous layers filling the fine particles. Filling out the top receiving section of the tower, and clean drinking mineralized water through the overflow box 12 located at the same elevation (above the upper layer of backfill) in the walls of the tower by gravity poured into pure water reservoir 1. Through a similar overflow box 13 located directly above the tank floor in the walls of the tower 2, the pure water flows into the intake of the sump 5. The diversion of water to the consumer from the sump 5 is carried out by pumping through the intake funnel 14 and the pipe 15 with the appropriate equipment. The pipe 15 is designed for complete emptying of the tank 1 (for example, if necessary, repair or cleaning of the tank).

Unlike the prototype of the proposed invention eliminates the above disadvantages because:

1) allows large volumes to effectively treat water from various harmful substances, and to adjust its composition of macro - and microelements, choosing the appropriate composition of the filtration filling (depending on the specific requirements for the water); water acquires biological activity, natural spring water;

2) allows the use of I natural processes of self-purification of water (there is a possibility the thickness of the individual layers of the backfill to pick up about the same what occurs in natural conditions);

3) the proposed scheme for water flow and the presence of circulating tower inside the tank eliminates the possibility of ponding water inside the building;

Economic indicators recommended for use in tank filter according to the invention backfill: the main ingredient is crushed shungite rock (shungite III) is extracted in Karelia JSC "carbon-shungite" the selling price is US $ 250 per tonne. For comparison, the price of 1 ton of activated carbon is the cheapest and most widely used material for water purification - $ 3,000 per ton.

Explored reserves of shungite rocks, suitable for water treatment are of the order of 300 million tons. And the cost of the other components of the load - glauconitic limestone and granite aggregates compared with shungite 5 times lower. Their reserves on the territory of the Russian Federation in the hundreds of millions of tons.

Bibliography:

1. The environment of the North-Western and Northern regions of Russia. SPb.: "Science", 1995, S. 135.

2. The application for invention N 53-63566 from 26.05.78,, MKI C 02 F 1/68, 1/00, Japan, "water treatment plant". atent RF N 2052391, MCI C 02 F 1/62, "wastewater treatment Method and device for its implementation".

5. The application for invention N 93019832/26 from 14.04.93,, MKI C 02 F 1/24, Contact tank

6. PCT (WO) C 02 F 1/42, UDC 628.33, the international application N 84.03881, "Method of purification of water", bull. N 24 from 10.11.84,

7. The application for invention N 2-265685, MKI 5 C 02 F 1/28, B 01 D 21/01, C 02 F 1/42, "Method of improving the processing of water and material for such processing.

8. RF patent N 2049070, MCI C 02 F 1/18, "Device for treatment and conditioning of water."

9. RF patent N 2056358, MCI C 02 F 1/18, "Device for treatment and conditioning of water."

10. RF patent N 2027828, MCI E 03 B 11/02, "System day tanks of drinking water.

The tank for cleaning and conditioning of drinking water, including coaxial vertical tower provided with Windows for the overflow of treated water in the tank and the horizontal bearing a perforated diaphragm with on her filter layer backfill for treatment and conditioning of the source water being treated, the labour movement through which is provided from the bottom up, characterized in that the tower is divided additional horizontal load-carrying diaphragm stiffness on two CNCA with tubing and receiving Department, where the conduit is the source treated water, and in the upper part of which is placed the specified perforated aperture with one or more layers of specified backfill, open for overflow of treated water from the admissions Department in the tank are a group of evenly around the perimeter walls of the receiving branch of the towers at the same elevation above the upper layer of backfill, and the second group of Windows, designed to overflow of treated water from the tank to the intake pit, located within the walls of the tower directly above the tank floor.

 

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