The device for air purification from toxic substances

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of adsorption technique and can be used for air purification protective structures of civil defense. The task of the device is increased efficiency through more efficient use of the adsorbent. The device comprises two parallel installed with predupreditelnii breakthrough of the filter-absorber, connected to the feed duct and a fan outlet. Also has a system of four Ermolaev installed one on the inlet and outlet of each filter-absorbers. The supply air duct to Ermolaev consistently set the detector and ejector, Luggage low pressure which is connected to the suction side of the fan using the introduced the by-pass duct via the additionally placed and connected in series heat exchanger and pressure relief chamber with a heating element, is further provided with input and output girolamini. Thus the output of each filter-absorber is directly connected to the other input of each of the filter-absorber additional sections of duct with girolamini. In addition, the input eugeneoregon at the outlet of the safety cameras installed valve for air supply of protective structures. 1 Il.

The invention relates to the field of adsorption technique and can be used for air purification protective structures of civil defense from toxic substances in the period of Feltrinelli.

The famous design of the adsorption apparatus of periodic action with a fixed bed of adsorbent concluded between the perforated devices for input and output gas (USSR Author's certificate N 803954 B 01 D 53/26 for 1978; Calcev N. M. Fundamentals of adsorption technique. - M.: Chemistry, 1976, S. 253).

The disadvantage of these devices is that in the process of sorption is the blur zone of the sorbate on the layer of the charge, resulting in the appearance at the outlet of the adsorption apparatus of the maximum allowable concentration of sorbitol is required to stop with subsequent replacement with a new or regeneration of the sorbent, while the portion of the sorbent is not yet fully worked out. This entails reducing the efficiency of the adsorbent.

The closest in technical essence of the present invention is a device comprising two parallel installed with predupreditelnii breakthrough of the filter-absorber, connected to the feed duct and the of each of the filters absorbers (Kammer Yu Yu and other Protective civil defense structures: design and operation. - M.: "Energoizdat", 1985, 232 S.).

In this device, when the possibility of occurrence in the outside air Toxics included ventilation and atmospheric air is supplied in a protective structure through one of the filters installed in parallel absorbers to trip predupredila breakthrough, indicating the presence of the output from the filter vapors of toxic substances. After that included in the second filter-absorber, while the previous one is replaced with a new one. In terms of the frequency of occurrence of toxic substances, to the input of the leachate absorbers for some time can do not only polluted the air, but the air not containing vapors of toxic substances. However, in this case, atmospheric air contains different sorbing contaminants (water vapor, organic trace amounts of artificial and natural origin), which are not as dangerous to humans, however, are absorbed by the adsorbent filter-absorber, reducing the capacity of the charge filter to the target component (pairs of toxic substances). Moreover, if the filter is contained previously with whom to desorption, leading to the displacement zone of the sorbate on the layer charge and the premature appearance of vapors of toxic substances at the outlet of the filter, at a time when the sorption capacity of the charge of the adsorbent used only partially. Moreover, in the process of sorption is the blurring of the sorption front due to a number of kinetic and diffusion factors (the slowness of the processes of mass transfer, longitudinal, vertical, dynamic, and other types of diffuse), leading to the emergence of the so-called working layer (mass transfer zone), which also reduces the sorption capacity of the charge.

All this reduces the efficiency of the use of expensive adsorbent and, as a consequence, the efficiency of the device as a whole.

The problem to be solved by the proposed device is to increase the efficiency of the device due to the efficiency of the adsorbent.

The problem is solved due to the fact that the device contains two parallel installed with predupreditelnii breakthrough of the filter-absorber, connected to the feed duct and a fan outlet, as well as a system of four Ermolaev installed one on the inlet and outlet of each filter-political is in, and Luggage low pressure ejector is connected to the suction side of the fan using the newly introduced by-pass duct via the additionally placed and connected in series heat exchanger and pressure relief chamber with a heating element, is further provided with input and output girolamini. Thus the output of each filter-absorber is directly connected to the other input of each of the filter-absorber additional sections of duct with girolamini. In addition, the input of the ejector in the supply duct through thermoclean connected directly with the entrance to the chamber of low pressure ejector, and directly at the outlet of the safety cameras installed valve for air supply of protective structures. Moreover, in the supply air duct before the detector is installed flow sensor gas flow, connected to an automatic control system, containing in its composition the frequency Converter supply with adjustable current and voltage.

New features of the proposed device are the detector and ejector sequentially installed in the supply air duct to Ermolaev, the by-pass duct, soura, two thermoclean installed on the inlet and outlet of the fuse box, additional sections of duct with girolamini connecting the output of each filter-absorber directly to the input of each of the other filter-absorber, thermoclean connecting the inlet of the ejector in the supply air duct to the entrance into the chamber of reduced pressure specified ejector valve for air supply of the protective structure mounted directly on the outlet of the pressure relief chamber, the flow sensor gas flow installed in the supply air duct, automatic control system, connected to the flow sensor gas flow, frequency Converter power supply with adjustable current and voltage, part of the automatic control system.

Although the above symptoms are known individually, but their set, due to the above links, allows you to get sverhsummarny effect that you wouldn't get from a simple introduction of these signs. Thus, the claimed solution meets the criterion of "inventive step".

The proposed technical solution, the air that does not contain toxic vapors m structural elements, entering the atmosphere of protective structures.

When the manifestation of the input device vapors of toxic substances (as evidenced installed in the supply air duct detector) polluted air is fed to one of the filters absorbers are used for regeneration worked before the fuse box to remove vapors of toxic substances trapped in the inertia of the detector, and then its subsequent cooling to the initial temperature. The total cycle time of regeneration and cooling of the fuse box is small compared to the operating time of the filter-absorber and depends largely on the response time of the detector, the characteristics of the adsorbent in the pressure relief chamber and the temperature of the regeneration is determined by the type of adsorbent.

The above avoids blowing through the filter sinks of atmospheric air, nestorgames vapors of toxic substances, eliminating the possibility of occurrence of desorption processes in the charge and driving the filter-absorber of adsorbed toxic impurities contained in the atmospheric air.

When the output of the filter is Uchenie second filter-absorber to the output of the first and for some time they work together. Collaborative filtering-absorbers can approximately be calculated by the formula

< / BR>
wherec- time collaboration filters-absorbers;

l0- the length of the working layer (the length of the mass transfer zone), m;

U - velocity of the sorption front, m/s;

C.d- time of protective action;

lW- the length of the burden layer, m;

During collaboration is the full development of the charge of the first filter-absorber.

Thus, the use of the proposed solution provides, in comparison with the prototype, adopted for the base object, the higher the efficiency of the sorbent by eliminating the possibility of blowing through the filter sinks of atmospheric air, nestorgames vapors of toxic substances, but containing other impurities (non-toxic adsorbed), and also due to the effects of blur front of the sorbate in the sorption process, which improves the efficiency of the device as a whole. Higher efficiency of the sorbent reduces the stock filters, absorbers, which further entails savings of usable area in the defenses.

On Cerejeiras-absorbers 1 and 2, filled with a mixture of fine coal-catalyst with predupreditelnii breakthrough 3. Filters-absorbers 1 and 2 are connected with the feed duct 4, a fan 5 mounted on the output from the device, and provided with girolamini 6, 7, 8, 9. The supply air duct consistently set the detector 10 (for example, thermionic detector with increased sensitivity to phosphorus-, nitrogen -, and halogen-containing compounds), and the ejector 11, the chamber of reduced pressure which is connected to the fan 5 through the newly introduced by-pass duct 12 connected in series through the heat exchanger 13, a relief chamber 14 filled with a mixture of mesoporous adsorbent (for example, coal brand AR-3), provided with a heating element 15 and girolamini 16, 17, while the output of each filter-absorber is connected to the other input of each of the specified filter system of ducts with girolamini 18, 19. In addition, the input of the ejector 11 of the flow duct 4 through thermoclean 20 is connected by a duct to the entrance into the chamber of reduced pressure specified ejector 11, and the output from the pressure relief chamber 14 has a valve 21 for supplying air defenses.

The device operates in two modes. In all mode, the detector 10 and the fan 5 are constantly working.

In the first mode to the inlet vapor toxic substances measured by the detector 10) the valve 21 and thermoclean 6, 7, 8, 9, 18, 19 - closed, and thermoclean 16, 17, 20 are open. The heat exchanger 13 and the heating element 15 of the fuse box 14 is turned off. Atmospheric air by a blower 5 is fed from the feed duct 4 in the space defenses through the pipeline with thermoclean 20, the by-pass duct 12 and installed in the heat exchanger 13, a relief chamber 14 with girolamini 16, 17.

In the second mode (after appearing on the inlet vapor toxic substances measured by the detector 10) the device operates in two sub-modes.

In the first sub-view (to trip predupredila breakthrough 3) polluted air by a blower 5 is served in a fortification through one of two filters-absorbers (narodnyy, and thermoclean 6, 8, 17, 18, 19, 20 - closed. Turns on the heating element 15 and the heat exchanger 13. Due to the vacuum generated by the ejector 11 in the by-pass duct 12, a part of the air defenses through the valve 21 gets in a heated pressure relief chamber 14, where the desorption of vapors of toxic substances introduced into it due to the inertia of the detector 10. Then containing desorptive the air is cooled in the heat exchanger 13 and is mixed with the main stream of contaminated air entering the filter-absorber 1 from the feed duct 4. After venting desorptive from the pressure relief chamber 14 turns off the heating element 15 and the camera continues for some time to be purged with air from the protective structure being cooled to the initial temperature to the temperature of the air inside buildings). Then the valve 21 and thermoclean 16 are closed.

In the second sub-view (after actuation of the indicator breakthrough 3 filter-absorber 1) thermoclean 7, 8, 19 - open and 6, 9, 17, 18, 20 - closed. The valve 21 and thermoclean 16 can be closed and opened, depending on, completed the cycle of regeneration and cooling relief camerah filter-absorber 1 and 2.

At the end of timewithsince the actuation of the indicator breakthrough of the filter-absorber 1 are closed thermoclean 7, 19 and opens thermoclean 6, providing a supply of air pollution in a protective structure only through the filter of the absorber 2. During operation of the filter-absorber 2 replacement filter-absorber 1 with a new one. Filter-absorber 2 is similar to the filter-absorber 1 in all modes and sub-modes of operation of the device.

During the whole time of the operation input device is maintained at a constant flow rate of gas flow through sensor 22 connected to the automatic control system 23, containing in its composition the frequency Converter AC / DC 24 to control current and voltage.

The above allows us to conclude about the relevance of the proposed invention, the criterion of "industrial applicability".

The device for air purification from toxic substances, containing two parallel installed with predupreditelnii breakthrough of the filter-absorber, connected to the feed duct and a fan outlet, as well as a system of four Ermolaev, what about the detector and ejector, successively installed in the supply air duct to Ermolaev, and before the detector is installed flow sensor gas flow, connected to an automatic control system, containing in its composition the frequency Converter supply with adjustable current and voltage, and the camera low pressure ejector is connected to the suction side of the fan using the introduced the by-pass duct via the additionally placed and connected in series heat exchanger and pressure relief chamber with a heating element, is further provided with input and output girolamini, while the output of each filter-absorber is directly connected to the other input of each of the filter-absorber additional sections of duct with girolamini, in addition, the entrance of the ejector in the supply duct through thermoclean connected directly with the entrance to the chamber of low pressure ejector, and directly at the outlet of the safety cameras installed valve for air supply of protective structures.

 

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SUBSTANCE: invention relates to adsorption separation of gases and provides carbon dioxide absorbent, which is prepared by impregnating porous alumina with potassium carbonate, alumina having been preliminarily treated with alkali solution, in particular solution of alkali metal hydroxides and/or carbonates. Alkali treatment is carried out at temperature above 40оС. Method of removing carbon dioxide from gas mixture, including adsorption separation of carbon dioxide from atmospheric air in cyclic processes under thermal regeneration or short-cycle heating-free adsorption conditions, is characterized by that process is conducted at 20 to 200оС with above indicated absorber.

EFFECT: increased dynamic capacity of absorber and increased carbon dioxide absorption velocity.

5 cl, 2 dwg, 9 ex

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